You are on page 1of 72

TH E OP I U M TR A D E

*
.

S C A R C E L " a nythi ng wa s k now n respe cti ng Chi na ti ll t he pre s


e nt ce nt ury a nd mos t of t he k now le d ge whi c h w e now p ossess
h a s bee n obta i ne d withi n t he la st fte e n y e a rs
A s fore ign in
te rcourse cont i nue s to g row more fre q ue nt a nd unre s t ricte d wit h
thi s E mpi re the w orld wil l und oubte dly be come be tte r a nd be t
te r a cq ua i nt e d with its hi st ory a nd t he ch a ra cte r of its i nh a bita nt s
T he re ce nt se ttl e me nt s a nd gre a t i ncre a se of t ra d e on our Pa ci c
s h ore s will ope n a more di re ct c ommunica ti on with Chi na a nd
re nde r wh a t e v e r conce rns th a t p e opl e fa r more i nte re s ti ng a nd
i mp orta nt to our ow n count ry T he a ntiq uity of th a t na ti on
t ra ci ng its hi s tory by a di re ct a nd conne cte d se ri es of e ve nts ba ck
a l mos t to t he c rea ti on of the w orld it s v a s t e xte nt of t e rrit ory
a nd res ource s its lite ra t ure a nd its a rt s its gov e rnme nt a nd its
i mme nse pop ula tion esti ma te d a t
constit ute obj e cts
of e xcee di ngl y gre a t i nte re st
But pa ssi ng by a l l th e se topics
w e p ropose to e x a mi ne a s ubj e ct which vita lly a ffe ct s the i nte re s ts
the opium tra d e
of thi s grea t na ti on viz
T he a mount of
ca pita l i nveste d in thi s t ra f c its p rese nt a nd prospe ctive e ffe cts
on h uma n h a ppi ne ss i nv ol vi ng t he we l fa re of nea rl y one h a l f of
t he ra ce as we ll a s t he re l a ti ons e xi s ti ng be tw ee n t he t wo grea te s t
e mpi res in t he w orld re nd e r t he s ubj e ct v as tl y i mport a nt to t he
Chi na e xpe nd s
s ta te s ma n the phi la nth ropi s t a nd t he Ch ri s ti a n
for t he s i ngl e a rticle of O pi um a nnua ll y more mone y tha n t he
,

" When this E ssa y was

mmenced , it was intended for th e pages of some


i
r
t
r
a
e
n
a
a fte r its compl etion, it was found tool on
e
t
o
e
p
p
g
co

R eview or M aga zine, b ut ,


in a ny periodica l , and th e writer h as been ind uced by the ad ice of friends , to pre
sent it to the publ ic inpamphl et form

4
whol e

mount

of the

of the U ni ted S ta tes, from

ue
reve n

al l

wh a te ver and a la rger sum tha n a ny one na tion on t he


o
e
s
n
o
t
o
a
e
r
f
o
r
a
s
n
e
w
l
b
p
a
y
th
i
gl
t
i
l
with
r
a
m
a
x
e
r
t
e
ce
h
a
e
g
p
tion of wh a t G rea t Brita i n pa ys to this count ry for cotton T he
tra ic is ye t compa ra tive l y ne w
has grown w it h unpa ra ll e l e d
ra pidity
a nd is al mos t unk now n e x ce pt to those pe rsona ll y
conce rne d in it
Opi um is a prod uction of the pla nt P apaver S ommf erum
in E ngli s h P oppy
a nd commonl y ca l le d
T he pe culia r pro
pe rtica of thi s vege ta ble we re di scove re d a t a ve ry ea rly age
Th ough it is not spe ci ca lly me ntione d by na me in t he Old T e s
ta me nt ye t th e re are good ground s to be li eve th a t t he p rod uct or
j uice of t he P oppy constit ute d a n i mporta nt e le me nt of wh a t is

ca l le d in Script ure mixed wine


T he a rt of dis til la tion not
be i ng the n k now n it was customary to mix ce rta i n d rugs a nd
a roma tic gums with th e i r wi nes in ord e r to i mp rov e th e i r a v or
Homer a nd oth e r
a nd giv e th e m more sti mul a ti ng q ua liti e s
G ree k w rite rs w ho live d in the sa me ce nt ury a s Da vid a nd S ol o
mon ma k e fre que nt me nti on of t he pe culi ar i ntoxica ti ng p rope r
I t wa s a l so we l l k now n a mong t he Roma ns
ti e s of the P oppy
Vi rgil Livy P l i ny Ovid a nd oth e r a uth ors d es cribe it a s be i ng
use d for v a ri ous p urpose s
T he P oppy was origi na lly a na tiv e of Pe rs ia b ut it ma y now b e
found growi ng a s a n orna me nta l pl a nt in ga rd e ns th rough out th e
civil ize d world I t is c ultiva te d some wh a t e xte ns ive ly inT urk e y
a nd most of t he opi um use d for me dica l p urpose s in E urope a nd
A me rica is p rod uce d in tha t country But I ndia afford s a fa r
more e xte ns iv e e ld for its cultiva ti on I t is e s ti ma ted tha t more
th a n
a c res of t he rich pl a i ns of ce nt ra l I ndi a a s w e ll as
t he a ll uvi a l va ll e y of t he G a nge s are now occ upied for t his pur
pose F orme rl y th ese sa me g rounds were use d for t he p rod uc
ti on of suga r i ndigo corn a nd oth e r gra i n but t h e se use ful crops
It
ha ve yi e lde d to t he more p ro ta bl e c ulture of t he Popp y
a ppe a rs th a t a mild cli ma te rich soil ple nti ful i rriga tion a nd
dilige nt h usba nd ry are a bsol ute l y necessa ry for its s uccess ful cul
T he c rop is al so ve ry much de pe nd e nt on t he season
tiva tion
be i ng easil y i nj ure d by storms a nd wi nd s a s we ll as se ri ousl y
a ected by the amount of moist ure distil l ed in the form of d e w
source s

'

'

James P eggs an E nglish M i ssionary h aving res ide d


ma ny years a t C ut ta ck p rovi nce of O rissa I ndia give s t he fol l ow
ing account of t he c ultiva ti on of t he P oppy a nd t he ma nufa c ture
of its j uice for ma rk e t :
I n I ndia ma ny th ousa nd s of me n
wome n a nd chi ld re n a re e mploye d in poppy cultiva tion which
is th rough out a s i mpl e p rocess
T he ground in t he rst p la ce
re ui re s to be ne ly pl ough e d a nd c ompl e te ly cl e a re d of al l
q
w ee d s T he e ld s a re the n fe nce d in a nd divide d off i nto ma ny
sq ua re s by me a ns of s ma ll dik es a nd th us t he re qui s ite a mount
of wa te r is conv e ye d to e v e ry pa rt of t he pl a nta ti on
T he pla nt
re q ui re s to b e w e ll w ee d e d a nd i rriga te d e v e n until it come s t o
ma t urity a s t he cultiva tion is e nti re ly ca rrie d on d uring the d ry
s e a s on
T he se e d is sow n in Nove mbe r ; a nd d uri ng a pe riod
of a bout s ix wee k s in Fe b rua ry a nd Ma rch t he j ui ce is coll e cte d
T he fa lli ng of the owe rs from the pla nt is t he signa l for
ma ki ng i ncis ions whic h is done by the c ultiva tors in the cool of
the e ve ni ng wit h h ook e d k ni ves ma de for t he p urpose in a
ci rc ula r ma nne r a round the ca psul es F rom t he se i nci si ons a white
milky j uice e x ude s which is concre te d i nto a d ark b row n ma ss
by t he h ea t of t he ne xt d a y s sun ; a nd this be i ng scra pe d off
e v e ry e v e ni ng as th e pl a nt c onti nues to e x ud e
it constitutes
Opi um in its c rude s ta te
T he grea t obj e ct of th ose in I nd ia w ho pre pa re Opi um for
t he Chi na ma rk e t is so to i nspi ssa te t he crude j uice as to le a ve
a v e ry hot d ra w n wa t e ry e xt ra ct whi c h will be i ng d ri ed pos se ss
t he gre a te st a mount of p urity a nd st re ngth of a v or wh e n s mok e d
th rough a pipe T he Chi ne se the mse lve s es ti ma te its va l ue in
di re ct p roporti on to t he a mount of t h es e q ua liti es T he p rocess
of i nspi ssa ti on is ca rrie d on in t he cool s h a d e a nd ca re is ob
se rv e d in s e c uri ng a p rope r j e l l y lik e consi s te ncy with out grit or
e s s both of w hic h a re rea dily d e te cte d by t he Chi nese
sourn
W h e n re a dy for ma rk e t it ha s a sme ll pe c ulia r to it se l f h ea vy
a nd not unpl e asa nt a nd p osse sse s a n a dh e s ive ne ss which k ee ps it
from d roppi ng from t he ha nd for some se cond s though t he ha nd
T he Chi ne se ca rry it th rough
be in a n i nv e rte d pos ition
I n smoki ng th e y
a noth e r p roce ss of boili ng be fore t h e y use it
a lwa y s l ie d ow n a nd t he ordina ry ki nd of toba cco pip e is ne v e r
used for O pium
T he R ev

Be nga l Opi um is ma d e i nto ba ll s about t he s ize of the


tw o sts a nd c ov e re d ov e r with a h a rd s ki n ma d e of t he pe ta l s
of t he poppy ea ch ba ll h a vi ng a se pa ra te a pa rt me nt in the ch e s t
w h e n se nt off t o ma rk e t
T he ch e st is ma d e of ma ngo w ood
a nd cons i s ts of t w o s tori es ea ch s t ory c onta i ni ng twe nty ba ll s
I n oth e r re gi ons of I ndi a it is ma de into ca k e s a bout t he s ize of
a s i ngl e s t a nd pa ck e d up in d ri e d poppy l ea v e s h a vi ng no
se pa ra te a pa rt me nt s in t he ch e s t
For t he sa ke of se curi ng
th e ir conte nts t he ch ests a re a lwa y s cov e re d ove r with hid es or
coarse cl oth I ndi a prod uces about f orty th ous and ches ts of
Opi um a nnually the ch es ts va ryi ng in w e ight from 1 2 5 to 1 40
pound s : t he p rices in Chi na d uri ng t he la st th re e or four y e a rs

uctua ti ng from 5 0 0 to 90 0 d olla rs pe r ch e st


Ma lwa Be na res a nd Be h a r (or Pa t na ) a re the p ri ncipa l l oca li
tie s in Be nga l for its cultiva ti on a nd e ve ry ch est of the d rug
e xp orte d from I ndi a be a rs one of th e i r names a ccordi ng to t he
pa rt of the count ry w h ere it wa s prod uce d T he cultiva ti on of
t he P oppy a s w e ll a s t he ma nufa ct ure a nd the t ra ic in Opi um
in the tw o l a s t na me d p rovi nce s be i ng both s ubj e ct to t he E as t
I ndia Compa ny is a s t rict monop oly of the gove rnme nt For
s upe ri nte ndi ng a nd ma nag i ng t he b us i ne ss th e re is a n e xte ns iv e
L a rge s ums of
a nd compli ca t e d sy st e m of gov e rnme nt a ge ncy
mone y a re a dva nce d to the Ry ots or na tive c ultiva tors to me e t
in pa rt t he e xpe nse of cul tiv a ti ng t he P oppy a nd wh e n t he crop
is come t o ma t urity a nd t he j uice is coll e cte d it mus t a l l be d e
liv e re d to gove rnme nt age nts a t a x e d p rice A s a l l e ngage d in
its c ul tiva ti on a nd ma nufa ct ure a re pa id for th e i r se rvice s t he
Opium wh e n p re pa re d be comes t he p rope rty of gove rnme nt
I n Be na re s a nd Be h a r t he cul tiva ti on of this d rug is not a lto
th
m
a t te r of ch oice or i nte re st on t he pa rt of t he na tiv e
e
r
a
e
g
i nh a bita nt s b ut s uch a combi na ti on of ci rcums ta nce s a nd inu
e nce s a re b rought to be a r up on t h e m a s to a mount a l mos t to
comp ul si on I n the Chi nese Re pos itory for Feb 1 8 3 7 ma y b e
found a n a bl e a rticl e on thi s subj e ct with re fe re nce s to v a rious
w ork s a s a uth oriti es ; from thi s a rticl e we ma ke t he foll owi ng
T he l a nd s und er c ultiva ti on a re mea s ure d e ve ry
quota ti on
y ea r a nd th e i r boundarie s xed in orde r to p re ve nt col l i sion
h
e gov e rnme nt a n
th
wh
th
y
o
s
e
t
o
o
m
e
ss igne d
T
a
r
e
a
a mon
g
T he

i nto a n e ngage me nt with the cultiva tors th rough


a n i nte rme dia te age ncy c onstit ute d in the foll owi ng ma nne r :
th ere is l st a coll e ctor w ho is a n E uropea n ; 2 d th e re are
o
s
t
h
s
r
r
a
ss
f
n
e
m
a
a
s
u
p
i
o
cl
o
m
n
a
tiv
b
o
th
i
d
c
ti
e
a
e
n
e
u
a
o
n
g
)
(
a nd
ca s te 3 d sudde r ma ttirs a respe cta bl e cla ss of l a nd
h old e rs 4 th v illage ma ttirs the p ri ncipa l village rs a littl e
s upe ri or to t he ry ots ; 5 t h t he ry ots t he chi e f l a bore rs in t he
cultiva ti on of the poppies
T he
e nga ge me nt
e nte re d i nt o
with gove rnme nt is this : wh e n the poppy is ripe a nd imme d i
a t e ly b e fore e xt ra cti n t he j uice t he
o
m
s
t
a
h
bli
h
a
n
s
s
a
d
hi
e
s
t
a
g
g
me nt ma k e a ci rcuit of t he country a nd form by gues s a
p roba bl e e s ti ma te of the p rod uce of e a ch eld H e th e n ma k es
t he ry ot e nte r into a n e nga ge me nt with him to d e l ive r t he qua n
tity th e re e s ti ma te d a nd a s muc h more as t he e ld will yi e ld a t
t he p rice p re vi ous l y x e d ; if he fa il s to d e l ive r t he e s ti ma te d
qua ntity a nd the c oll e ctor has rea s on to s uppose he ha s e m
be zzl e d t he d e cie ncy h e is e mpowe re d by l a w to prose cute t he
A nd s h ould a nind ivid ua l un
ry ot inthe civil court for d a mage s
d e rta k e the c ultiv a ti on with out h a vi ng e nte re d i nt o e nga ge me nts
with t he gove rnme nt to d e liv e r t he p rod uce a t t he x e d ra te his
p rope rty would b e i mme dia te l y a tta ch e d a nd the ry ot compe ll e d
e ith e r to d e s troy his p oppi e s or giv e s e c urity for t he fa ith ful d e

live ry of th e p rod uct


Th us w e see a mos t oppre ssive sy s te m
of e s pi onage a t t he sa me ti me e s ta bli s h e d ov e r t he na tiv e s to
p re ve nt t he c ultiva tion of t he p oppy for p riva te use s or sa l e
It is t rue t he e nga ge me nt is ma de only for one yea r wh e n the
b ut th e n in ca se he d oe s he
ry ot ma y a ba nd on its c ultiva ti on
mus t re move a t cons id era bl e sa cri ce from the ground s a nd pe r
h a ps from th e vil lage with no reasona bl e p ros pe ct of i mp rovi ng
h is s itua tion Be sid e s th e se c ultiva tors a nd s uch na tive s as a re
l a ndh olde rs a re from policy k e pt consta ntl y in d e bt to the
gov e rnme nt age nts a nd th us be come so d e pe nd e nt upon th e m
I t is found th a t
a s a b sol ute ly to b e obli ge d to d o th e i r biddi ng
e a ch ch e s t of Opi um obta i ne d in thi s wa y c os ts the gov e rnme nt

A s ma ll p orti on of it is sold in t he i nte ri or


a bout 3 00 R up e e s
p rovi nces of I ndi a for na tive use b ut the grea te r pa rt is tra ns
nua l l y

e n e rs

T he

val ue of a R upee

inour currency, is 45 1 2
-

cen
ts

d ow n the river Ga nges to Cal cutta where it is publicl y


s old on se t ma rk e t d a y s by a ucti on to me rch a nts w ho purchas e
I na smuc h as th e price of Opi um va rie s
a nd e xport it to Chi na
w ith t he se ason a nd d e ma nd th e se sa l es fre que ntly a ord occa
s i on for grea t s pe cul a ti on wit h me rch a nts th e sa me as s tock s
e tc in thi s count ry
T he p rice a t which it is sold v a ries some
w h a t with t he qua ntity in th e ma rk e t a nd the d e ma nd for it b ut
ri ngs from 1 2 0 0 to 1 3 0 0 Rupe e s or on a n a ve ra ge
n
e
e
r
a
lly
b
g
more th a n four ti me s a s much a s the rst cost
T he gov e rnme nt
th us re ce ive s a nnua lly a n i mme nse re ve nue from this source I n
ch e sts ma ki ng a cl e a r p ro t
1 8 46 th e re w e re th us sold
I n 1 8 47 it is
t o t he gov e rnme nt of ov e r
s te rli ng
s ta t e d on good a uth ority th a t a bout
ch e sts more w e re
sold a t C a lc utta
tha t is ove r
whi c h w ould
c h e s ts
inc rease t he re v e nue t o
A nd thi s i nc l ud e s a pa rt
of the Opi um ra i se d in I ndi a a nd
pe rh a ps t w o thi rd s
only
of course not a l l t he gov e rnme nt re v e nue from thi s source
I n Ma lwa a p rovi nce lyi ng in the w e s te rn pa rt of I ndia th e
cultiva ti on of t he Poppy a nd the ma nufa ct ure of Opi um are
ca rrie d on unde r v e ry di ffe re nt ma na ge me nt Thi s provi nce is
s ubj e ct in it s gov e rnme nt to na tiv e P ri nce s a nd t he c ultiva ti on
of t he soil is th ere fore e nti re ly be y ond the E a s t I ndia C ompa ny s
H ere the P oppy is cultiva te d a nd Opi um is ma nnfa c
c ont rol
ture d a s free ly a s rice a nd wh ea t a re c ultiv a t e d with out a ny re
T he
s t ra i nt or i nte rfe re nce on t he pa rt of gov e rnme nt a ge nts
que stion with t he fa rmers th ere fore is si mpl y one of p ro t
whe th e r th e y will ra ise a crop of t he P oppy or of rice or wh ea t
H e re Opi um is bought a nd sold in all the ma rke t pl a ce s j us t as
d
o
e r p rod ucti ons a re ; a nd it is e s ti ma te d t h a t
n
i
n
a
th
r
a
g
ch e sts are a nnua lly consume d in Ma lw a a nd the a dj a
or
But th e i r p ri ncipa l ma rk e t is the city of B omba y
ce nt p rovi nce s
some 4 0 0 to 50 0 mil e s di s ta nt from M a lwa
A nd in orde r to
rea ch thi s mark e t a l l the i r Opi um mus t b e t ra ns porte d in ca r
ri a ge s ov e r l a nd thi s di s ta nce a nd pa ss th roug h w rta in te rritori e s
of t he E a s t I ndi a C ompa ny
For t he me re p rivil e ge of pa ss i ng

th rough th e se la nd s the Compa ny le vy a T a x or tra nsit d uty


s o ca ll e d of 4 0 0 R upe e s on e v e ry ch e s t of Opi um
Forme rly
thi s tax was only R 2 0 0 ; it was th en rai sed to R 30 0 a nd in
r
t
d
o
e
p

'

'

i n to R 400 A nd in a ll proba bility withi na


fe w y e a rs wh e n t he E as t I ndi a C ompa ny s h a ll nd it for its
i nte re sts a s till l a rge r t ra ns it d uty or ta x wil l be e x a cte d T he
l a w on t hi s poi nt is rigidl y e nforce d a s a l l Opi um found wi t hi n
t he bound s of gov ernme nt s p osse s si ons not cove re d by a pa s s
p ort is consca te d a t once a nd s ubj e cts its ow ne r to a h ea v y
pe na lty Th us a l a rge re v/ew e is a nnua lly colle cte d I n 1 8 46
a b out
ch e sts of Opi um w e re t ra ns porte d in t hi s wa y to
B omba y which would bri ng ove r
ne t i nc ome to t he
C ompa ny T he Opi um is h e re p urch a se d by me rch a nts a nd
e xp ort e d to Chi na
I f we h e re a d d t he Reve nue obta i ne d a t
Ca lc utta w e nd th a t the Eas t I ndia Compa ny re ce iv e d in 1 8 46
from thi s source
A nd in 1 8 47 i na s much a s th e re
w a s s ome
ch es ts of Opi um sold a t Ca lc utta more th a n
t he p re vious y ea r t he Re v e nue mus t h a v e cons ide ra bl y e xcee d e d
thi s a mount T he me rch a nts w ho h e rea fte r be come the p rinc i
l
rti e s in t he b us i ness ma k e from 1 5 to 2 5 pe r c e nt more
p
a
a
p
on a l l the Opi um e xporte d from Ca lcutta a nd B omba y to Chi na
But be fore d e sc ribi ng pa rti cul a rly t he t ra ns porta ti on a nd sa l e of
t he d rug a s w e ll a s its e ffe ct s on t he Chi nese l e t us e xa mi ne
b ri e y t he origi n hi s tory a nd e xte nt of t he t ra d e
T he p la n of se ndi ng Opi um from Be nga l to Chi na was rs t
s ugge s te d b y a M r W a ts on in t he y e a r 1 7 6 7 to a c ounc i l of
Re p re se nta tive s of the E a s t I ndia C ompa ny h e ld a t Ca lcutta
M r Wh ee l e r a t th a t ti me a n of ce r a nd a n i n ue ntia l me mbe r of
t he C ompa ny a dv oca te d t he pl a n a nd a fte r be i ng fa vora bl y e n
t e rta ine d it wa s a d opte d a s a h a ppy e xpe di e nt towa rd s ra i si ng a
P re vi ousl y to thi s time a
re ve nue for s upporti ng gov e rnme nt
sma ll t ra d e in Opi um ra re ly e xc ee di ng 2 00 ch es ts pe r y e a r ha d
be e n ca rri e d on with the Chi nese by some P ort ugue se me rch ants
w h o b rought th e i r Opi um from T urk e y
F rom 1 7 6 7 to 1 7 94 t he E as t I ndi a Compa ny ma d e se v e ra l
a dve nt ure s of Opi um to Chi na which for v a ri ous ca use s w e re
I n 1 7 9 4 t he E ngli s h s uccee de d in sta tion
not v e ry s ucce ss ful
ing one of th e i r s hips l a de n e xcl us iv e l y w ith Opi um a t Wha m
re s he l a y unmol e s te d for more th a n a y e a r se lli ng out
wh
e
a
o
p
he r ca rgo This city conti nue d a bout 2 5 y ea rs to be t he p ri nci
f
r the sa l e of the d ru
o
r
e
e
a
t
t
d
l
m
a
k
e
o
u
n
t
h
n
c
e
r
a
t
h
o
u
h
p
g
g
1 8 47 i nc rea se d

a ga

consid e ra ble d i f culty from pi ra tes i nfe sti ng th ose sea s


M a c a o a l so
a s w e ll a s opp os iti on on t he pa rt of t he Chi nese
furni s h e d some wh a t of a ma rk e t b ut in 1 8 2 1 the Opi um me r
ch a nts ou a ccount of t he d i f culti e s a tte ndi ng t he sa l e a t the se
pl a ce s withd re w e nti re ly from t he h a rbor of Wh a mpoa a nd
Ma ca o a nd sta tione d the i r v e sse l s und e r s h e lte r of L inti n Isla nd
in t he b a y a t t he e nt ra nce of Ca nton Riv e r
H e nce fort h thi s
pl a ce be ca me th e sea t of e xte nsive tra d e He re might be se e n
l arge a rme d v e sse l s re pos i ng th rough out t he y e a r a t a nch or
constit uti ng a oa ti ng d e pot of s tore h ouse s for re ce ivi ng t he
Opi um in la rge q ua ntitie s from the s hips b ri ngi ng it from I ndi a
a nd d e a li ng it out in c h e s ts a nd ca se s t o t he C h i ne s e j unk s t o b e
re ta il e d a t v a rious p oi nt s on s h ore
T he M e rope Ca pt P ark yns
in 1 8 2 1 w as t he rs t s hip th a t comme nce d t he sy ste m of d el iv
e ri ng Opi um a t d i e re nt citi e s a l ong t he coa s t of Chi na a nd
from t h a t ti me t he t ra d e i nc re a se d wit h wond e rful ra pidity
E l igibl e pl a ce s a l soon the e a st a nd north eas t coa s t of Chi na we re
s e l e c t e d t o s ta ti on re ce ivi ng v e s se l s t o which t he Chi nese migh t
Mr
e a sily h a v e a cce ss a nd be come p a rticipa t ors in t h e t ra d e

J a me s H ol ma n in his T ra v e l s in Chi na page 1 6 2 d escribes

t he t ra de in 1 8 3 0 a s foll ow s :
we
A t h a l f pa st one P M
a nc h ore d off t he S W s id e of t he I s l a nd of Li nti n wh e re t he
fore ig n v e sse l s e ngage d in t he Opi um t ra d e re ma i ns ta ti one d a nd
w e found t he foll owi ng s hips lyi ng a t a nch or : t he M e rope
P a rk yns S a ma ra nny G ra nt Ja mes C rock e t t Ja nnise na H e c
tor ; t he A me ri ca n s hip s Sca tte rgood Ta rta r Li nton M a rga re t
F orbe s a nd T e rri e r b riga nti ne t he P ort uguese s hip s D onMa nue l
th e Da ni s h b rig D a nsb org a nd t he F re nch s hip
a nd b rig L e titi a
A fte r b rea k fa s t Ca pt G ove i nvite d me toa ccompa ny
L a R os e
h im on a vi sit t o some of t he oa ti ng Opi um s tore s which se v
e ra l of th e v e ss e l s ma y j us tly b e consid e re d a s th e y re ma i ninChi na
a l l t he y e a r round t o facili ta t e th e i mp orta ti on of thi s a rticl e by
rece ivi ng it from th a t cl a ss of v es se l s ca ll e d Opi um runne rs
I
e x a mi ne d s pe ci me ns of t he d rug ma d e up i nto ba l l s a nd ca k e s
h owe v e r t he smuggle rs ge ne ra lly re mov e
a nd pa ck e d in ca se s
it from t he s hip in ba gs in which it is more e a sily conv e y e d t o
t h e j unk s outs id e t he p ort a nd a l so for subs e que nt t ra ns porta ti on
b y la nd Th e i r s muggli ng boa ts a re of a n a ma zi ng l e ngth a nd
te re d

'

11

ge ne ra ll y p ull from 40 to 5 0 oars Th e ir wea pons of de fe nce


a re us ua l l y one s ma ll ca rri a e
n
u
o
s
wiv
l
with
k
t
b
r
d
r
e
o
a
s
s
m
u
e
g g
ing s pik e s sw ord s a nd s tone s
Th e i r boa rdi ng ne tti ng is s imil a r
to a n ordi na ry s hi ng ne t be i ng i nte nd e d me re ly to g ua rd the m
a ga i ns t t he s t one s
Th e y h a ve a lso s hi eld s for t he sa me pur
N ot a ba ll of Opi um is d e l iv e re d by the re ce ivi ng
pose
v esse l until it ha s bee n p re vi ously pa id for in ca s h a nd th e
fe a r of th e i r ca nnon b a l l s e e ctua l l y p re v e nt s t he Chi nese
w a r j unk s from i nte rfe ri ng with th e m
T he wh ol e b us i ne s s of
t he t ra ns p ort of Opi um b e tw e e n Li nti n a nd Ca nton is s o a d
mi ra bly ma na ge d th a t t he b oa ts a re b ut seld om i nte rfe re d
with nor a re th e y lik e ly to be so l ong a s th e Free T ra d ers ca n
a ord to pa y th e M a nd a ri ns s o much b e tt e r for not ghti ng t ha n
t h e gove rnme nt will for d oi ng th e i r d uty
T he use of Opi um has be come s o univ e rsa l a mong t he pe o
l
o
f
e
n
a
a
t
s
Chi
th
t
l
w
which
d
it
p
l
e
r
e
n
r
e
h
a
e
n
a
d
t
l
a
n
h
o
e
r
a
c
p
p
ma ti ons whi c h se nd forth th e i r d a ily ful mi na tions a ga i ns t its
conti nua nce h a v e not the slighte s t e ffe ct in ch e cki ng the pre va
l e nce of so ge ne ra l a h a bit S mok i ng h ouse s a bound in Ca nton;
a nd t he i nh a bita nt s of e v e ry cl ass w h o ca n furni s h th e mse l v es
with the mea ns to ob ta i nthe pip e a re se ld om with out thi s a rticle
of ge ne ra l l uxury
I t is a p rope ns ity th a t has se ize d upon a l l

ra nk s a nd cl a sse s a nd is ge ne ra lly on t he i nc re ase


A w e ll i nforme d w rit er in t he Chi ne se R e pository for 1 8 3 8
s k e tch e s t he s ta te of t he t ra d e a t th a t ti me a s fol l ow s :
T he
Chi ne se coa s t from Ma ca o to Ch usa n is now the consta nt c rui s
ing ground of 2 0 opi um s hip s
T h e w a t e rs of Ca nt on a re con
ve rte d i nto one gra nd re nd ezv ous for more th a n 3 0 opi um boa ts
At Ma ca o bes id es se ve ra l h ouse s e ngage d in the sa l e of Opi um
on a l a rge sca l e fty or s ixty s ma l l e r d ea l e rs di s t rib ut e it by the
ca tty or ca k e ; a nd the p re pa ra ti on of the d rug for smoki ng
a nd its int rod ucti on i nto t he i nt e ri or und e r e v e ry i nge ni ous c ov e r
u
r of Chi ne se
n
m
e
s
m
e
a
iv
e
e
pl
y
t
ti
s
th
t
b
A
t
m
t
e
n
m
o
e
n
t
o
g
Ca nton the fore ig n re s ide nts with tw o or th ree uninue ntia l e x
a re a l l
id e nti e d with t he Opi um tra de T he l a te
ce pt ions
i nt rod uction of it in l a rge q ua ntiti e s to Wh amp oa h as ha d the
unh a ppy e e ct of i nc reas i ng va s tly t he numb e r of b uy ers ; so
tha t it is now rare to mee t ana tive w ho is not hi mse l f e ngage d
.

'

'

12

purchase or w hose opposition to it is not disarme d by the


k nowl e dge th a t it is t he d a ily b usi ne ss of his fri e nd s a nd re l

a tiv e s
R e v W M L ow rie a n A me rica n Mi ssi ona ry whil e sa ili ng
a l ong t he coa s t of Chi na in 1 8 43 ma k e s t he foll owi ng e nt ry in
his j ourna l of A ug 3 l s t :
D uri ng t he v oyage from H ong
Kong to A moy we passe d in s ight of th ree of t he grea t Opi um
d e pot s a l ong t he coa st Th e se th ree w e re T ong sa n H ow tow
sa n a nd N a moa
At th ese th re e pla ce s t he Opi um d ea l e rs in
Ca nton a nd Ma ca o h a ve s hips cons ta ntl y ta tione d to kee p s up
pl ies of Opi um a nd to th e m t he sma ll e r ve sse l s or O pi um clip
pe rs a s th e y a re ca lle d re sort for ca rgoe s which th e y ca rry to
d ie re nt pa rt s of t he coa s t a nd dis pose of a lwa y s for s ilv e r
T he numb e r of ve sse l s e mpl oy e d in thi s t ra ic is v e ry gre a t
A
s i ngl e me rca ntil e h ouse in C a nt on e mpl oy s a b out fty v e s se l s
s hips ba rk s sc h oon
thi rty
e rs a nd b rigs whil e a noth e r h ouse ha
or more
I t is a l most i mposs ibl e to nd a v esse l goi ng up the
coa s t which d oes not ca rry it Ni ne Opi um ships w e re a nc h ore d
cl ose a l ong side of A moy I was told on good a uth ori ty th a t
e v e ry ma n in A moy w ho c ould a ff ord to b u Opi um w a s in t he
y
h a bit of s moki ng it T he Chi ne se oice rs ma k e no e ffort wh a t
e v e r to p re v e nt its int rod uc tion a nd I sa w Opi um pipe s ope nl y
A fe w yea rs ago it w ould h a ve
e xp os e d for sa l e in t he s tre e t s
be e n a l mos t a s much as a Chi na ma n s li fe wa s w orth to ha ve
b e e n d e te cte d in the sa l e of a ny thi ng use d in consumi ng t he

p rohibite d a rticl e
R e v G e orge S mith vi site d t he i sl a nd of
Ch usa n in 1 8 4 5 a nd found sta tione d th e re th ree or four Opi um
re c e ivi ng v e sse l s b e s id e s a l a rge numb e r of na tiv e s muggli ng
b oa ts which c onvey e d t he d rug to nume rous citi e s on the ma i n
l a nd M ore th a n
c h e s ts w e re s old a t Ch usa n a nnua lly
v a l ue d a t a l mos t tw o milli ons of doll a rs
S ome id e a of the e xte nt of t he tra d e a t a much la te r da te as
w e ll a s of t he pa rties e nga ge d in it ma y be obt a i ne d from t he
foll owi ng s ta te me nt of M r M a rti n in his w ork on Chi na vol
pa ge 2 5 8 p ubli s h e d in 1 8 47
T h e re a re a numbe r of v e sse l s
Ja rdi ne a nd C ompa ny h a ve t he
enga ge d in t he Opi um t ra d e
foll owi ng Opi um v e sse l s sta ti one d a t A moy one N a moa 0 0 6 ;
C hi mmo Bay one ; W ha mpoa one ; a nd four or ve pl ying

in its

'

l3

wa y s b e tw ee n H ong Kong a nd Chi na A bout ve vessel s a re


e mpl oy e d conv e yi ng Opi um b e tw e e n I ndi a a nd Chi na a nd a
l a rge re ce ivi ng s hip of 7 0 0 tons is moore d a l l the y ea r round a t
H ong K ong D e nt a nd Compa ny ha ve ne a rly a s ma ny v e sse l s
a s J a rd i ne
b ut of a s ma ll e r cl as s
B urn M a civa r 62 Co
h a ve a bout four on t he coa st a nd t wo be twee n I ndi a a nd Chi na
Gil ma n a nd Compa ny h a v e t h re e on the c oa s t P yve r t wo on
th e c oa s t with I nd i a
A Pa rse e rm R us tomj e e a nd C ompa ny
t wo on t he coa s t
A n A me ri ca n rm R usse ll a nd C ompa ny "
ha ve four on t he coa s t a nd th re e b e tw e e n I ndi a a nd Chi na und e r

t he A me rica n a g
H e re w e h a v e a bout fty v e sse l s e nume
ra te d a s e n a e d e x cl us iv e ly ia t he Opi um t ra d e b e s id e s in a l l
g g
p roba bility ma ny oth e rs be l ongi ng to s ma lle r conce rns e mba rk e d
in thi s b us i ne ss a s w e ll a s a gre a te r or l ess numbe r of v e sse l s
which a re only pa rti a lly fre ighte d with the d rug
M r H e nry C ha rl e s S irr noti ce s in his w ork on Chi na vol I

p 1 76 the sta te of t he tra d e in 1 8 48 a t Foo c h ow :


I t is
s ta te d th a t t wo milli ons a nd a h a l f d oll a rs w orth of Opi um is a n
nua l ly i mporte d i nt o Foo c h ow from w h e nce it nd s its w a y i nt o
t he i nt e ri or
T he Chi ne se a sse rt th a t t he i nla nd t ra d e ha s
ma te ria l ly d e c re a se d owi ng to t he cons ta nt ca ll for syce e silve r
to pa y for t he d rug which is s muggl e d a l ong t h e c oa s t a s fa r a s
Chi n ce w one h und re d a nd s ixty mil e s south wh e re a la rge e e t
of smuggli ng Opi um clipp e rs li e s be l ongi ng w e re g re t to sa y to
I n t he city of
some of t he old es t a nd w e a l thi e st rms in Chi na
Foo ch ow a l one more th a n one h und re d h ouse s are d e v ote d to
t he s moki ng of t he d rug whil s t a s ma ny more re ta il t he a cc urse d
poi son in sma ll q ua nti ties Would it not be be tte r e v e n in a
comme rci a l poi nt of vi e w for our me rch a nts to mi ni ste r to t he
l a w ful wa nts of the pe opl e in Chi na th a n to pa nd e r to th e i r
vi ce s a s t ra d e mus t s tag na te wh e n e ne rgy a nd ind us t ry s ub s i d e
whic h i nva ria bly is the ca se wh e n ma n be come s a n Opi um

d e votee
T he R e v M r J oh nson a Mi ssi ona ry of t he A B C
al

'

fa r as w e ca n l ea rn, engaged in th e tra c :


This is th eE l ly A merican firm,
a nd w h a t is t h e a mount of ca pita l in es ted , or t h e e tent of th e tra d e carried on up:
T h e s a me censures
d er th e A merica n a g , w e h a e no mea ns a t h a nd of k nowing
I

'

wh ich

a re a pplied

inthis tra

to th e E nglish , sh oul d al so be

meted

out to all A merica ns engaged

14

vi it d Foo chow in 1 8 47 a nd sta tes in the Mi ss iona ry


H e ra ld of th a t y ea r p 3 5 7 th a t
he wa s i nforme d by inte l l i
n
n
u
l
e
s
a
t
a
n
t
ess
o
a
n
t
i
divid
h
t
l
th
one h a l f of th e ma l e pO pul a
g
ti on of th a t city w e re more or l ess e nsl a v e d to t he use of

Opi um
At Sh a ngh a i a se a port s till fa rthe r north M r Si rr
sa y s
We regre t to say t h a t t he cons umpti on of Opi um is v e ry

r
a
n
t
e
e
h
u
m
r
a
d
n
e
s
t
b
ki
g
h
o
f
m
o
n
o
u
se
s numerous
g
T h e Chi ne se j unk s th a t conv e y t he Opi um a l ong the coa s t a nd
up the riv e rs for t he p urpose of sa l e h a v e rece iv e d from th e i r

pe culia r ch a ra cte r the e pithe t of f a s t cra b s a nd s cra mb l ing

d ra g ons
e d b y d e s pe ra d oe s of t he w ors t a nd
a nd a re ma nn
l owe s t cl a ss All the i niquiti e s of b ribe ry fra ud pe rj ury a nd
vi ol e nce whi c h a re i nse pa ra bly conne ct e d with s muggli ng a re
p ra ctise d a nd occasiona lly bl oody colli si ons occur be twee n th e m
S ome ti me s with a pe rfe ct unde r
a nd t he na tive a uth oritie s
s ta ndi ng on both s id e s a s ha mgh t is got up be t w e e n t he s mug
rd e r to di s pl a y
i
o
m
n
e
t
vigil
n
c
n
r
e
a nd a rins
a
a
a
s
n
d
d
l
a
e
r
g
g
t
h
e
o
e
r
n
m
e
g
v
t
t
n
s
e
n
a
a c tivity th e re b y d e ce ivi n
g
g
T he s hips use d for t ra ns porti ng t he Opi um from t he p orts of
I ndi a to Chi na a re b uilt a nd tte d up e xp ressl y for thi s b usi ne ss
a nd a re sa id tob e a mong t he ne s t v e s se l s a nywh e re to be found
M os t of th e m a re const ructe d in the form of sch oone rs or b rig
a nt ine s with l ow b ull s a nd be i ng a d a pte d to cut t he w a v e s wit h

Mr
a re ca ll e d
clippe rs
runne rs
or
re ma rka bl e s pe e d
age 2 5 9 notice s
M a rti n in h is re ce nt w ork on Chi na vol
A lt oge th e r
t wo of th e se v esse l s in the fol l owi ng ma nne r

th e re a re a bout fty ve sse l s or clippe rs of v a ri ous si zes ge n


e ra ll y w e ll ma nne d a nd a rme d a nd fa s t sa il e rs e nga ge d in t he
Opi um traic T he M a zeppa a s ch oone r of 1 3 0 tons con
ve ye d on one occa si on h a l f a milli on of d oll a rs from t he north
a to H ong K ong t he p rocee d s of Opi um sold
ea s t c oa s t of Chi n
T he v esse l s conv e y i ng the d rug from I ndi a to
on t h e coas t
Chi na a re p roba bl y the ne st boa ts in the w orld T he L a nrick
be longi ng
of 2 8 3 tons re gi st e r b uilt a t Liv e rpool cos t
t o Ja rdi ne dc C o is s up e ri or in sa ili ng on a wi nd to a ny ma n of
I ma d e a v oyage in he r d ow n t he Chi na se a s to Ja va in
wa r
1 8 4 5 in t he tee th of the monsoon wh e n s he wa s und e r t he
comma nd of one of t he mos t skil ful a nd da ri ng sea me n t h a t e v er
F

l 5

ile d F req uently w e we re running e ight a nd ni ne k not s cl os e


ha ul ed a nd ca rrying roy a l s wh e na friga te w ould h a ve re e fe d top
s a il s a nd c ours es
I n one of he r voy a ges the L a nrick ca rrie d 1 2 5 0
T he L a nrick
ch e sts of Be nga l Opi um va l ue d a t
l ik e oth e r v e sse l s of he r cl ass w as fully a rmed with l ong ni ne
pound e rs musk e t ry e tc Th ese vesse l s giv e a good id ea of t he
b ucca ne e rs which fre que nte d t he Spa ni s h ma in Th e i r com
ma nd e rs a re ge ne ra lly e d uca te d me n of ge ntl e ma nly ma nne rs
v e ry h os pita bl e of ge ne rous di s pos iti ons w e ll skill e d in sea ma n

s hip a nd of a c oura ge a nd b old ne s s uns urpa sse d


T h e foll owi ng s ta ti s tics d e rive d from the mos t a ut h e ntic
s ourc e s will giv e s ome id ea of the ra pid p rogre s s a nd p re s e nt
F rom 1 7 9 4 to 1 8 2 0 the a mount of Opi um
e xt e nt of t he t ra d e
e xp orte d to Chi na v a ri e d from
ch e sts e a ch y ea r
to
I n 1 8 2 4 it i ncre ase d to
ch e sts a nd in 1 8 34 to
I n 1 8 3 7 it a mounte d to be tw e e n
ch e sts v a l ue d a t
I n 1 8 38
ch e sts v a l ue d a t
a nd
a nd 9 t he t ra d e was s e ri ous ly i nt e rrupt e d by th e more d e c id e d
a nd e f ci e nt me a s ure s of t he Chi ne s e to b re a k up a nd s upp re ss
A fte r a se rie s of a lte rca
e nti re ly t he s muggli ng in of Opi um
ti ons be tw ee n the pa rtie s re p rese nti ng ea c h gove rnme nt a s w e ll
a s some more vi ol e nt e xhibiti ons of h os tility t he Chi ne s e force d
t he me rch a nts to s urre nd e r wh a t Opi um th e y ha d on h a nd a nd
d e stroye d t he wh ol e a mounti ng to more th a n
c h e sts
Thi s s te p l e d to a wa r be twe e n t he two na tions a nd t he negotia
ti ons for se ttle me nt we re not e nti re ly b rought to a cl ose till A ug
D uri ng th ese yea rs a much s ma lle r q ua ntity of Opi um
1 8 42
wa s b rought i nto t he ma rk e t a nd t he d e ma nd be i ng so much
sold for a l mos t d oubl e its forme r p ri ce
u
r
n
t
h
e
s
r
t
th
pply
it
ea
e
a
g
b ri ngi ng from $ 1 00 0 to e ve n $ 1 6 0 0 pe r ch e s t M r Ti ffa ny
s t a te s th a t t he me mb e rs of one E ngl i s h h ouse ma d e in t hi s wa
y
a t t he cl ose of t he wa r from four to e ight h und re d th ousa nd
p ound s st e rli ng a pie ce
B ut no s ooner w a s pea ce d e cl a re d be twee n the t w o na ti ons
th a n aga i n comme nce d b ri sk ope ra ti ons in t he Opi um t ra d e

F rom t he C omme rci a l M e mora nd um i ss ue d by the G ove rn


me nt Opi um Age nt s ta ti one d a t Bomba y a nd th e re fore corre ct
w e l ea rn th a t t he numbe r of ch e sts e xport e d from th a t cit y to

sa

16

Chi na

"

1 8 43
43

has

bee n as foll ow s :
ch e sts 1 8 4 4
5
1 8 45 6
1 8 46 7
1 8 47
8
a nd up t o J une
1 8 4 9 th e re ha d be e n
c h e s ts
e xp orte d whic h w ould und oubt e dl y a mount to
by O c t
1 1 8 49
F rom a n oicia l Re port of the chie f a rticle s of t ra d e
e xp orte d from B omba y
w e nd th a t t he a ve ra ge a mount of
Opi um for ve yea rs e ndi ng wi t h D e c 3 1 1 8 48 is put d ow n
at
ch e sts Thi s qua ntity sold a t $ 6 5 0 pe r ch e st
whi c h pe rh a ps is a n a ve rage p rice
a mounts to ov e r
00 0 a nnua lly
T he ca pita l i nv e s te d in thi s t ra d e a t Bomba y
a l one is g re a te r th a n in a n oth e r a rticl e
n
I
1
8
4
t
h
Opi
u
0
e
m
y
t ra ic forme d more th a n t wo thi rd s of the tota l e xports of Bom
ba y a nd B e nga l
I n 1 8 46 t he v a l ue of the Opi um e xporte d
from thi s c ity to Chi na w a s more th a n th re e ti me s t he a mount
of t he e xp ort s to E ngl a nd a nd more th a n t he e nti re t ra d e e x
p orts a nd i mport s be tw ee n Bomba y a nd a l l E urope Accordi ng
t o t he C ust om H ouse re t urns t he a mount e xp orte d t h i s ye a r e x
ce e d e d in v a l ue
L e t us now t urn to C a l c utta a nd e x a mi ne wh a t ha s b ee n t he
s ta te of t he t ra d e in th a t c ity
F rom t he G ov e rnme nt G a ze tt e
a nd oth e r oicia l R e p ort s w e nd t he a mount of e xports of
Opi um from Ca l cutta to Chi na put d ow n a s follows :
1 8 43

1
e
s
44
5
s
8
1
8
45
6
ch t
1 8 46
4

7
A nd from Oct 1 1 8 48 to
7
8
18 4
A ug 1 1 8 49 a t t he te n month l y sa l e s of Opi um th a t h a d th e n
ta k e n pl ace t he a ve ra ge sa l e ha d be e n 3 0 0 0 ch e sts ea ch month
which for t he la s t y e a r a ccordi ng to this ra te w ould a mount to
It is sold a t p ubli c a ucti on in Ca lc utta on emp res s
c h e s ts
cond ition th a t it s h a ll b e i mme di a te ly e xp ort e d from th a t c ity
M os t of t he me rca ntil e h ouse s h e re a re more or l e ss conce rne d
T he qua lity of t he Opi um (B e na re s a nd Pa t na )
in t he t ra d e
s old in C a lc ut ta is not s o good a s t he M a lwa a t B omba y
a nd
d oe s not b ri ng so hig h a p rice T he a ve ra ge ra te for which the
as nea r a s w e ca n
a rticl e ha s b ee n sold for se v e ra l y e ars pa s t

s
m
r
t
h
e
e
a
e
f
r
k
ti
o
p
ic
c
u
e
n
t
s
will not v a ry much
t
m
e
r
r
a
e
m
,

'

T he

ensuing

seas on for th e
r
ea
,
y

Opium

t ra de commences

incl uding inthe twel ve

months

O ct 1 s t, and ends
rs
a
r
t
f
t
w
e
a
o
o
p
y
.

Sept

3o
th , th e

17

from

Th us
ch e s ts of Opi um sold a t
thi s ra te w ould b ri ng a l most
Thi s s um a dd e d to
t he a mount pa id out a t B omba y a nd w e h a v e ov e r
e xpe nd e d for thi s s i ngl e a rti c l e of t ra d e a nd e xp orte d from th e se
t w o citi e s a l one
Th e n the Chi ne se pa y a n a dva nce on thi s sum
of s e v e ra l milli ons more whi c h goe s i nto t he h a nd s of the me r
ch a nts a s the fruit of th e i r i nve s t me nt a nd la bors in t he t ra d e
It s h ould more ov e r b e borne in mi nd th a t unlik e a ll oth e r a rti
c l e s of me rch a ndi se
no ba rte r or e xch a nge of c ommoditie s
wh a te ve r is tol e ra te d in thi s t ra f c T he p a y me nt for Opi um
mus t a lwa y s be pa id in specie or Chines e s y cee whic h is the
p ure s t of s ilve r
T h e p ri nc ip a l use ma d e of Opi um by t he Chi ne se is in t he
form of s moki ng a nd one g rea t obj e c t in t he t ra d e is t o furni s h a n
a rti cl e a d a pt e d to th e i r p e c uli a r ta s te s
Thi s d e p e nd s some wh a t
up on t he c ul tiv a ti on of t he P oppy
t he q ua li ty of its s e e d
t he
t he ma nne r of coll e c ti ng a nd c onv e rti ng its
good ne ss of the soil
j ui ce i nto a d ry e xt ra ct or ba lls conve nie nt for t ra nsp orta ti on T he
Chi ne se v a l ue a ny sa mpl e of Opi um in di re c t p rop ortion to t he
q ua ntity of h ot d ra w n w a te ry e x tra c t ob ta i na bl e from it a nd to
t he p uri ty a nd s t re ngth of th a t e xt ra c t wh e n d ri e d a nd s mok e d
th rough a pipe S ome ti mes t he ry ots or na tiv e c ultiva tors in
ord e r to i nc re a se the w e ight of t he a rti cl e a nd conse q ue ntly th e i r
p ro ts in its sa l e h a ve re sorte d to a d ul te ra ti ng t he j uice of t he
Poppy by mixi ng wit h it s uga r ca te c h u mol a sse s cow d ung
a s w e ll a s t he j uic e of
s oft cl a y e y mud pound e d p oppy see d
va ri ous pl a nts b ut th e se a d ulte ra ti ons a re ge ne ra lly d e te cte d by
a nd t he Chi ne se th e mse lv e s h a vi n ofte n
t he gov e rnme nt a ge nts
g
be e n i mpose d upon in thi s wa y forme rly a re now ca re ful to te s t
T he R e v G e orge
t he p uri ty of the d rug be fore p urc h a s i ng
S mi t h of t he Ch urch Mi ss iona ry S oci e ty in a v oy age from H ong
Kong to Sh a ngh a i in 1 8 4 5 th us notice s thi s fe a t ure of t he
t ra d e a s he was e nte ri ng t he W oos ung Riv e r :
O ur ow n
v e sse l th ough not e ngag e d in t he Opi um t ra f c ca rri e d 7 5 0
c h e s t s of Opi um a s a pa rt of he r fre i g ht wh ic h w e re di sc h a rge d
on b oa rd of one of the re ce ivi ng s hi ps st a ti one d a t W oos ung
5
0
e
r
5
$
p

T h e price of
sell ing a t 1 000 R

Opium

both

B omba y

a nd

C a l cutta, is quite
a nd again brin
R
1
4
00
c
s
t
r
n
i
e
h
e
g
g
p
,

at

metimes

ariabl e , so

18

We w e nt

thi s s hip a nd sa w the p rocess of p re pa ri ng th e


ins pi ssa te d j ui ce of t h e Opi um for te st p re vi ous to p urc h a se
O n ope ni ng t he c h e s ts a nd cl e a ri ng a w a y a numb e r of d ry pop
t
u
o
n
e
e
w
r
s
a
l
a
v
e
s
bl
g
k
b
w
o
l
o
a
t
k
n
o
n
c
a
e
f
r
o
n
c
d
a
o
r
o
a
py
y
w e ig hi ng four or ve p ound s I n t he box e s ma d e up by t h e
E a s t I nd ia C ompa ny g rea te r ca re is ta k e n T he ba l l s a re more
round a nd a re pl a ce d in
rti t i ons e a c h b ox c onta i ni ng fort y
a
p
a nd b e ing more ov e r c a re fully ca se d in h id e s
T he b a rga i n is
r
s oon s t ruc k wi t h t he C h i ne s e b rok e r w ho i nc urs t he ri s k of
u
p
c h a s ing for t he
more op ul e nt Chi ne se Opi um me rch a nts a t
Sh a ngh a i a nd in t he ne ig hborh ood A piece of Opi um is ta k e n
a s a s a m l e from t h re e s e p a ra t e b a ll s a nd p re p a re d in th re e s e p
p
a ra te p ot s for s moki ng
t o t e s t its fre e d om from a d ulte ra ti on
T h i s p roce ss t ook ne a rly h a l f a n h our d uri ng which t he Opi um
w a s mixe d w it h w a t e r a nd a fte r s i mme ri ng a nd s t ra i ni ng w a s
k e pt b oili ng t ill by e v a pora t i on it wa s re d uce d t o a t h ick con
s i s te nc y l ik e t re a c l e
E a c h b ox is sold for ne a rly 2 0 0 ; a nd
w e s a w a b out 1 5 0 0 ta e l s of S y c s ilv e r in l a rge l ump s of t h e
s ha p e of a s hoe w e i h e d out a nd p a id i nt o t he iron c h e s t of t h e
g
s h ip
S h ropps Opi um d e a l e rs i nte rp re t e rs a nd na tiv e a ccount
a nt s w e re cl os e l y s ta ndi ng t oge t h e r on di ffe re nt pa rts of t h e d e c k

whi c h w ore a b us y a nd pa i nfully a ni ma te d a pp ea ra nce


A fte r t he a rriv a l of t he d rug in Chi na v a ri ous c h e mi ca l e xpe r
ime nt s h a v e b e e n t ri e d up on it in ord e r t o ma k e it more p a l a ta
bl e a nd i ncre a se its pl e a s ura bl e e ff ec ts on t he ne rv ous sy s te m
It ha s be e n found th a t by s ubj e cti ng it to a p roce s s of h e a ti ng
e v a p ora t ion l t e ri ng e tc it s s t re ngth is v e ry muc h i nc re a se d a s
w e l l a s its a v or g re a tly imp rov e d M r S W W il l ia ms in his
w ork on Ch ina vol II pa ge 3 8 8 giv e s t he fol l ow i ng mi nute a o
toge th e r with a d e scripti on of t he pip e
c ount of t hi s p roce ss
use d in s moki ng :
T h e ute ns il s use d in p re pa ri ng t he Opi um for s moki ng c on
s i s t c h i e y of t h re e h e mi s p he ri ca l b ra ss p a ns t w o b a mb oo l te rs
t w o porta bl e furna ce s e a rt he rn p ots l a d l e s s t ra i ni ng cl oth s a nd
s p ri nk l e rs
T he b a l l b e i ng c ut in t w o t he i nte ri or is ta k e n out
a nd t he O pium a d he ri ng t o or c onta i ne d in t he l e a fy c ov e ri ng is
p re vi ously s i mme re d th re e se v e ra l ti mes ea c h ti me us i ng a p int
of s p ri ng w a te r a nd s tra i ni ng it i nt o a n e a rt he rn pot ; some c old
on b oard

'

19

w a ter is poure d ove r the d re gs a fte r the thi rd boili ng a nd from h a l f


a ca k e
w
e ighi ng a t rs t a bout 2 8 p ound s a nd w ith w hi c h t h i s
(
p roce ss is s uppose d to be cond uc te d ) th e re will b e a b out ve
pi nts of liq uid T he i nte ri or of t he ca k e is th e n boil e d w it h thi s
liq uid for a bout a n h our until a l l is re d uce d to a p a s te whi c h is
s p re a d out w ith a s pa t ul a in t w o p a ns a nd e xp ose d to t h e re
for t w o or th re e mi nut e s a t a ti me till t he w a t e r is a ll d riv e noff
d uri ng thi s ope ra ti on it is ofte nb rok e n up a nd re s p re a d a nd a t t he
l a st d ryi ng c ut a c ross with a k ni fe I t is a l l t h e n s p re a d out a nd
cov e re d with s ix pi nts of w a te r a nd a l lowe d to re ma i n s e v e ra l
h ours or ov e r night for dige s ti on
W h e n s uf ci e ntly soa k e d a
ra g lte r is pl a ce d on t he e dge of t he
o
e of t he
n
n
d
t
e
wh
l
a
a
h
p
v a l ua ble pa rt d rip s sl owly th rough t he rag i nto a ba sk e t li ne d wit h
coa rse ba mboo pa pe r from whi c h it fa ll s i nto t he oth e r b ra ss pa n
a bout a s muc h liq uid goi ng th rough a s t h e re w a s w a te r p oure d
ov e r t he ca k e
T he d re gs a re a ga i n soa k e d a nd i mme dia t e ly
l te red till found t o b e ne a rly t a s te l e s s ; t hi s w e a k e r pa rt us ua lly
ma k e s a b out s ix pi nts of l iq uid
T he rs t s ix pi nt s a re th e n b ri s kly b oil e d b e i ng s pri nk l e d
w i t h cold w a te r to a ll a y t he h ea t s o a s not to b oil ove r a nd
A fte r
re movi ng t he s c um by a fe a th e r i nt o a se pa ra t e v e s s e l
boili ng tw e nty mi nute s ve pi nts of t he w e a k liq uid a re p oure d
in a nd boil e d with it until t he wh ol e is e v a pora te d t o a b out th re e
pi nts wh e n it is st ra i ne d th rough a pa pe r i nto a not h e r pa n a nd
th e re ma i ni ng pi nt th row n i nt o t he pa n j ust e mpti e d to w a s h
a w a y a ny p orti on th a t ma y re ma i n in it a nd a l s o boil e d a lit tl e
while wh e n it is a l so s tra i ne d i nto the th re e pi nts T he wh ol e
is th e n pl a ce d ov e r a s l ow re in t he s ma ll furna ce a nd b oil e d
d ow n to a p rope r cons i s te ncy for s moki ng ; whil e it is e va pora
ti ng a ri ng forms a round t he e dge a nd t he pa n is ta k e n off t he
re a t i nte rv a l s t o p rol ong t he p roce ss t he ma s s b e i ng t he w hil e
ra pi d ly s ti rre d with s ti c k s a nd fa nne d unt il it be come s l ik e thi c k
t re a cl e wh e n it is ta k e n out a nd put i nto s ma ll pots for s moki ng
T h e box e s in whi c h it is re ta il e d a re ma d e of b uffa l os h orn of
T he d re gs
s uch a s iz e a s e a s ily t o be ca rri e d a bout t he p e rs on
conta i ni ng t he v e ge ta bl e re s id uum toge t h e r wi t h t he sc um a nd
wa s hi ngs of the pa ns a re la s tl y st ra i ne d a nd boil e d with w a te r
prod uci ng a bout six pi nts of th in brow ni s h liquid which is
,

20

p rope r cons i ste nce for se lli ng to the poor T he


p roce s s of se e t hi ng t he crud e Opi um is e xce edi ngly unpl e a sa nt
to th ose una c c us tome d to it from t he ove rpow e ri ng na rcoti c
fume s w hi c h a ri se a nd thi s od or ma rk s e v e ry s h op wh e re it is
p re pa re d a nd e ve ry p e rson w ho s mok e s it T he l oss in w e ight b y
thi s mod e of p re pa ra ti on is a bout one h a l f T he M a l a y s p re pa re
it in muc h t he sa me ma nne r T he custom in Pe na ng is to re
d uce t he d ry ca k e ma d e on t he rs t e va pora ti on to a powd e r ;
e v a pora t e d
a nd w h e n it is d ige s te d a nd a ga i n s t ra i ne d a nd
re d uc ing it t o a cons i s te nc e re se mbli ng s h oe ma k e rs wa x
T he Opi um pipe c onsi s t s of a t ub e of h e a vy w ood furnis h e d
a t t he h e a d w ith a c up whi c h s e rv e s t o c ol l e c t t he re s id uum or
a s he s l e ft a fte r c omb us ti on
th is cup is usua lly a sma l l ca vi ty in
the e nd of t he pip e a nd s e rv e s to e l e va te t he b owl to a l e v e l w it h
t he l a mp
T he bow l of t he pipe is ma d e of e a rt he rnw a re of a n
e llips oid a nd se ts d ow n upon t he h ol e it se l f h a vi ng a ri mme d
ori ce on t he a t s id e
T he Opi um smok e r a l w a y s li e s d ow n
a nd t he s i ng ul a r pi c ture gi ve n by D a vi s of a
Ma nd a ri n s mok
ing a n O pi um pipe
d re sse d in h is of c ia l robe s a nd s itti ng up
a t a t a bl e w a s p rob a bly ma d e to ord e r by s ome a rti s t w ho h a d
ne v e r s ee n a ny body use it
Lyi ng a l ong t he couch he h old s
t h e pip e a p tly ca ll e d y en t s ia ng i e s moki ng pi s tol by t h e
Chi ne se so ne a r to t he l a mp th a t t he bowl ca n be brought up t o
it wi th out s ti rri ng h i mse l f A littl e Opi um of the s iz e of a pe a
be i ng ta k e n on t he e nd of a s p oon h e a d e d ne e d l e is put upon
t he h ol e of t he bow l a nd se t on re a t t he l a mp a nd i nh a l e d a t
one whi ff s o th a t none of t he s mok e s h a ll b e l os t
Old smok e rs
will re ta i n t he b re a t h a l ong ti me lli ng the l ungs a nd e xh a li ng
t he fume s th rough t h e nos e
T he t a s te of t he h a l f uid e xt ra c t
is s w e e ti s h a nd oily some wh a t lik e ri c h c re a m b ut t he s me ll of
t he b urni ng d rug is ra th e r s i ck e ni ng
W h e n t he pipe ha s
b urne d out t he s moke r lie s li s tle ss for a mome nt whil e t he fume s
a re di s s ip a ti ng a nd th e n re p ea t s t h e p roce ss until h e h a s s p e nt

a l l his p urch a se or t a k e n his p re s c rib e d d ose


I n ma ny of t he citi e s of Chi na ma y b e found nume rous s h op s
d e vote d e xcl usive ly to t he sa l e of t he d rug with a ccommoda ti ons
tt e d up e xp re ssly for s moki ng
T he p oore r cl a sses ge ne ra lly
b ut t he w e a lthi e r ord e rs d o t he i r s moki ng
re s ort to th e se s h op s
v pora te d

to a

e a

21

more

p riva tely in th e i r ow n dwe lli ngs Ma ny of th e se sh ops a re


re p re s e nt e d to b e t he mos t mi s e ra bl e a nd w re t c h e d pl a c e s i magi n
a bl e
T he y a re k e pt ope n d a y a nd night e a c h b e i ng furni s h e d
with a gre a te r or l e s s numbe r of be d stea d s cons t ructe d of ha m
boo s pa rs a nd cov e re d with di rty ma ts a nd ra tta ns
A na rrow
w ood e n stool is pl a ce d a t t he h ea d of t he b e d whi ch a ns we rs for
a pill ow or b ol s te r ; a nd in t he ce nt re of e a c h s h op th e re is a
s ma ll l a mp whi c h di ff use s a c h e e rl e ss light th rough thi s gl oomy
a bod e of vi ce a nd mi se ry
T he s h op k e e p e r a tt e nd s on his
c us tome rs se rvi ng th e m wi t h a pip e t he p re p a re d d rug a nd oth e r
i mpl e me nts use d in s moki ng T he R e v M r Squi re (of t he
Ch urc h Mi s s i ona ry S oci e ty ) w ho re sid e d se v e ra l ye a rs in Chi na
in s pe a ki ng of t he Opi um s h op s a t Ca nton sa y s :
Ne ve r
p e rh a p s wa s th e re a nea re r a pp roa c h to h e ll up on ea rth th an
withi n the pre ci ncts of th e se vile h ove l s w h e re ga mi ng is lik e
wi se ca rri e d on to a gre a t e xte nt H e re e ve ry gra d a ti on of

e x cite me nt a nd d e p re ss i on ma
e sse d
b
wit
n
h
e R ev M r
e
T
y
Pohl ma n a n A me ri ca n Mi ss iona ry w ho re sid e d se v e ra l y e a rs a t
A moy s ta t e s th a t t he re a re a s ma ny a s one th ousa nd Opi um
s h ops in th a t c ity a l one w h e re t he d rug ca n b e ob ta i ne d a nd
fa ciliti e s a re furni s h e d for s moki ng
W hil e t he ri c h h a ve p riva te
rooms tt e d u
f
rp ose with a ll t he c onv e ni e nce s w hi c h
thi
p
o
r
s
u
p
ca n a d mi ni st e r to th e i r comfort ta s t e or l ux ury
T he cl a ss a nd numbe r of p e rs ons a d di c t e d t o thi s p ra ctice
ma y b e i nfe rre d from t he foll owi ng fa cts : O ne of t he chi e f
of ce rs b e l ongi ng to t he Chi ne se C ourt in a me mori a l to t he E m

o
r
sa y s
At
rs t t he use of Opi um wa s con ne d t o t he
r
e
p
p a mpe re d sons of fort une with wh om it w as a n idl e l ux ury b ut
s t ill use d with mod e ra t i on a nd und e r t he p ow e r of re st ra i nt
Si nce th e n its use ha s e xt e nd e d upw a rd to t he of ce rs a nd be lte d
ge nt ry a nd d ow nwa rd s to the l a bore r a nd t ra d e s ma n to the
t ra ve ll e r a nd e ve nto w ome n monk s nuns a nd p ri e s ts I n e ve ry
pla ce its i nh a l e rs a re to be found A nd the i mpl e me nts re q ui re d

for s moki ng it a re now s old p ubl icly in t he fa ce of d a y


It
i ncl ud e s th e re fore a mong its v ota ri e s of ce rs of high ra nk a nd
dignity we a l thy me n me rch a nts a nd ba nke rs a s w e ll a s t he
But it ha s be e n t he ge ne ra l
common me ch a nics a nd l a b ore rs
opi ni on of w ri te rs on t hi s s ubj ec t th a t Opi um smoki ng w a s
.

'

22

high e r cl a sse s of t he Chi nese i nasmuch


a s t he h a bit is a v e ry e xp e ns iv e one a nd thi s cl a ss of p e rs ons a re
mos t e x pose d to t he te mp ta ti on A s to t he numbe r of pe rs ons
a ddi c te d to t he vi ce it mus t ra nge b e t w e e n four a nd ve mil
l i ons
F rom a ca re ful a nd some wh a t e xte nd e d i nqui ry ma de
by pe rsons h a vi ng t he b e s t me a ns of k nowi ng a s to t he e x a ct
a mount of Opi um d a ily use d by th ose in t he h a bit of smoki ng
it wa s a sce rta i ne d th a t on a n a ve rage e a ch p e rson cons ume d a
littl e up w a rd s of 1 7 gra i ns pe r d a y A ccordi ng to th e se d a ta
c h e s ts w ould s upp l y one milli on of p e rs ons a nd for t he
l a st s ix y ea rs th e re h a v e bee n ove r
c h e s ts of Opi um a n
nua l l y cons ume d in Chi na in thi s w a y
T h e q ua nti t y of Opi um d a ily cons ume d d e p e nd s v e ry much
on t h e h a bi ts of t he s mok e r a t rs t he ca nnot i nh a l e more th a n
from 3 to 6 g ra i ns a t a ti me b ut will go on g ra d ua lly i nc reas i ng
t he d os e till in a fe w y e a rs s ome c ons ume e v e n3 0 0 gra i ns d a ily
so g re a t th a t
T he e xpe nse s a t te ndi ng thi s h a bi t a re v e ry g re a t
in mos t i ns ta nce s it re g ul a t e s t he q ua ntity use d e a ch one con
s umin
a s muc h a s h e ca n p oss ibly c omma nd me a ns to ob
g
ta i n M r S mi t h wh il e vi s i ti ng t he Opi um smoki ng s h ops a t
A moy q ue stione d te npe rsons i ndi s cri mi na te ly a s he me t th e m
mos t of w h om w e re l a b ore rs
a s to t l
forma ti on e ffe c t a nd
i
e x e ns e of t he h a bit e tc
Fiv
e of th e se individ ua l s c ons ume d a
p
ma ce or s ixty gra ins d a ily a nd it cos t th e m on a n a v e ra ge tw o
thi rd s of th e i r d a ly e a rni ngs to p urc h a se t he a rticl e " Thi s fa ct
s h ow s h ow a ma zi ngly e xp e ns iv e is t h e h a bit a nd w h a t a fea rfully
i mp ov e ri s hi ng e ffe ct it mus t ha v e upon a l l th ose w ho for a ny
l e ngth of ti me giv e t he mse lv e s up to thi s vi ce B e s id e s it is
ca l c ul a te d by M r M a rti n a nd oth e r w rite rs w e ll a cq ua i nte d with
t he e vil a nd c omp e t e nt t o form a c orre ct j udg me nt in t he ma t te r a s
a ny ot he r i ndivid ua l s th a t ca n b e found t h a t t he vi c t i ms of thi s vi ce
d o not liv e on a n a ve ra ge more th a n ten y ea rs a fte r th e y h a v e
It b ri ngs on a t ra i n of d is
once fa i rl y gi ve n w a y to th e h a bit
e a se s w hi c h ma k e ra pid w ork of d e st ruc ti on on a ll t he vi ta l
B y mea ns of thi s vice th e n a ccord
orga ns of t he h uma n b ody
ing to the a bov e d a ta a nd e s ti ma ti ng t he numb e r of Opi um
mos t p re va l e nt

mong t he

S ee M artins Ch ina, vol

30 2

pag e 1 96 , a nd th e C hinese R epos itory ,

vol

VL , p

mok ers

th a n
h uma n b e i ngs in Chi na
nd a nnua lly a p re ma t ure g ra v e
Wh a t oth e r vice in t he wh ol e
hi story of t he w orld e v e r p rod uce d s uch a pp a lli ng ra v age s on
h uma n li fe
Opi um is one of the old est a nd mos t v a l ua bl e a rticl e s in the
M a teria M ed ica
It is use d in me di ci ne in its v a ri ous p re pa ra
ti ons und e r a g re a t e r va rie ty of ci rc umsta nce s a nd to a ccompli s h
more i mp orta nt re s ul ts th a n a ny oth e r s i ngl e a rti cl e
S trik e out
thi s d rug from the lis t of t h e ra pe uti ca l re me di e s a nd it w ould be
v e ry d ifficul t for t he wh ol e cl a ss of na rcot ic s or s e d a tive s or e v e n
both combi ne d to ma k e good its pl a ce T he i mmorta l Sy d e nh a m
once re ma rk e d t h a t if he c ould b e a ll ow e d only tw o w e a pons
with w hi c h to comba t di se a se in its mul ti fa ri ous forms Opi um
w ould b e h is rs t ch oi ce S o on t he oth e r h a nd t he e vil s g row
ing out of its a b use s urpa s s in ma gnit ud e p e rma ne ncy a nd
unl e s s it
e xt e nt th os e of a l l oth e r me di c i na l a ge nt s combi ne d
b e t h a t of a rd e nt s pi rits
By a s e ri e s of e xpe ri me nt s it h a s be e n found th a t Opi um giv e n
in l a rge d ose s op e ra te s on t he wh ol e a ni ma l ki ngd om a s a pow
conv ul s i ons s t up or a nd d e a t h ;
e rful poi son ca us i ng p a ra ly s i s
a nd t he g re a te r t he d e v e l op me nt of t he ne rv ous s y st e m t he more
S o in re fe re nce
ma rk e d a nd di ve rs i e d the e ffe cts of t he d rug
to t he di ffe re nt ra ce s a s w e ll a s i ndivid ua l s of e a c h ra ce its
O n t he I ndi a na nd N e g ro w ho h a v e
op e ra ti ons a re not uni form
a p re d omi na nce of t he sa ng ui ne l y mph a tic or musc ul a r te mpe r
b ut wh e re
a me nt its e ff e c t s p a rta k e more of a n a ni ma l na t ure
th e re is a gre a te r d e v e l op me nt a nd a c tivi ty of t h e b ra i n t oge th e r
with t he ne rv ous sy s te m it ope ra te s more di re ctly a nd e ffe cti ve l y
At the sa me ti me its d el e te ri ous e ffe cts on t h e
on t he mi nd
body a re by no mea ns d i mi ni s h e d
Aga i n T he e ffe c ts of t he Opi um on the h uma n s y ste m d e
p e nd v e ry much up on the q ua ntity a nd fre q ue nt use as w e l l a s
t he a ge t e mpe ra me nt h a bi ts idi osy nc ra cy e tc of t he i ndivi d ua l
I ts rs t a nd mos t common e ffe c t is to e x ci te t he i nt e ll e ct s t imu
la te t he i magi na ti on a nd e x a lt t he fe e li ngs i nto a s ta te of g rea t
a ctivity a nd b uoy a nc y p rod uci ng unus ua l viv a c ity a nd b ri l l ia ncy
inconv e rsa ti on a nd a t t he sa me ti me t he mos t p rofound s ta te of
p e rfect se l f compla ce ncy All id ea of la bor ca re a nd a nxi e ty
s

more

at

24
"

v a ni s h a t once from t he mi nd Th e n follow a success ion of


gorge ous d re a ms or a conti nue d s ta te of e cs ta sy a l most i nd e

M r Ti ffa ny in h is l a te w ork on t he
C a nt on
s c riba bl e

Chi ne se th us h a ppily a tte mpts to sk e tch thi s s ta te of the Opi um


T he vi cti m i nh a l e s h is a ll otte d qua ntity a nd h is
s mok e r :
s e nse s s wi m a round him he fee l s of s ubtl e na t ure he oa t s from
H e w ould l ea v e h is h umbl e sta ti on h is
e a rth a s if on pi ni ons
h one s t t oil h is comforta bl e home he wb uld b e g re a t H e runs
with ea se t he p a th s of d i s ti ncti on; he d i sta nce s riv a l s ; wea l th
a nd p ow e r w a i t upon h im t he mighty ta k e h im b y t he h a nd
H is d re ss is cos tl y h is fa re s umpt uous his h ome a pa l a ce a nd h e
re v e l s in t h e pl e a s ure s he h a s re a d of a nd be li e v e d to b e a cti on
M usic sound s th rough h is lofty h a lls sage s a sse mbl e to d o h im
h onor w ome n of t he b righte s t b e a uty th rong a round h im he is
no l onge r p oor l owly a nd d e s pi s e d b ut a d e migod
T he fe a s t
is s p rea d t he s pa rkli ng c up ll e d t o the b ri m w i t h hot wi ne a nd
he ri se s to w e l come one wh om he has l e ft fa r be hi nd in t he pa t h
A nd a s he a d
of gl ory to tend e r to him t ri umph a nt courte s y
v a nce s a s te p h e re e l s a nd s tagge rs wildly a nd c ompe titors
g ue sts mi ns t re l s ma g ni ce nce a l l fa d e from h is vi s i on a nd t h e
g ra y cold re a li ty of d a w n b re a k s up on his h e a te d b ra i n a nd h e
k now s th a t a l l wa s nought a nd th a t he is t he sa me na me l e s s
c re a t ure th a t he ha s e v e r bee n A cold s h udde r a gita te s h is
f ra me w ea k a nd w orthl e ss he s e e k s t he a ir b ut nd s no re li e f
H e ca nnot t urn h is th ough ts to his ca lli ng h e is un t for e xe r
ti on his da y s p a ss in sl oth a nd in bitte r remorse A nd wh e n nig h t
c ome s in gl oom h e s e e k s a ga i n t he s orce re ss i nto wh ose p owe r
h e ha s s unk a nd wh ose nge r mock s while it be ck ons him
.

on

ms

w ond e rful p ow e r in the use of thi s d rug


I t h old s out a t e mp ta ti on fa r more
t o a t t ra ct a nd ca ptiv a t e
p owe rful th a n th a t of a ny oth e r i ntoxi ca ti ng age nt S uch is t h e
te s ti mony of e xpe ri e nce a s w ell a s obse rva ti on in t he ma tte r
Thi s fa sci na ti on d oe s not a ri se me re ly from th a t p a ss i on in h uma n

e
t
c
e
m
e
n
r
o
x i
t th a t y e a rni ng a fte r s ti mul us a nd th a t
na ture f
h orror of e nnui wh ich c rowd t he P a ri s i a nTh e a tre
t he E ngli s h
G in P a l a ce a nd t he A me ri ca n Ba r Room ; b ut from h a vi ng
e xpe ri e nce d or h e a rd of th a t p e c uli a r s ta t e of e cs ta s y which ca n
Th e re

s ee

to b e a

25

prod uce d onl y by thi s d rug a nd w hich ha s not i na pprop ria te l y

in s ome re s pe cts be e n te rme d t he


Chi ne se H ea v e n
A w rite r in t he Chi nese Re p ository for 1 8 3 6 compa ri ng t he
e e c t s of a rd e nt s pi rits wi t h Opi um a fte r e nume ra t i ng se v e ra l
p oi nt s of re se mbl a nce concl ud e s his re ma rk s (p 2 9 7 )as foll ows :
Th e re is b ut one p oi nt more of d ie re nce be t we e n t he intoxi
ca ti on of a rd e nt s pi ri ts a nd t ha t of Opi um d e se rvi ng of pa rtic ula r
a tte nt i on a nd th a t is t he ten ol d force with w hich e v e ry a rg u
f
me nt a ga i ns t t he forme r a ppli e s to t he l a tte r Th e re is no sl a ve ry
on e a rth to be compa re d with t he bond a ge i nto whic h Opi um
ca s ts its victi m Th e re is sca rce ly one k now n i ns ta nce of e sca pe
from its toil s wh e n once th e y h a v e fa i rly e nv e l ope d a ma n T he
fa c t is fa r too notorious to b e q ue s ti one d for one mome nt th a t
t h e re is in Opi um w h e n once i nd ulge d in a f a ta l f a s cina tion
which ne e d s a l most s upe rh uma n pow e rs of se l f de nia l a nd a l so
ca pa city for t he e nd ura nce of pa i n to ove rcome T he ope ra tion
of Opi um is on thi s a ccount fa r more d ea dly by ma ny d egree s

t h a n its l e ss ty ra nnous riv a l


I t is t he a er or s econd a ry e e c ts of thi s d rug which h a v e
I ts conti nue d
s uch a d e s t ruc tiv e i n ue nc e on t he cons ti t uti on
d e ra nge s t he digestiv e orga ns
us e d e s t roy s t he na t ura l a pp e tite
i mpe d e s t he c i rc ula ti on a nd vitia te s t he q uali ty of the bl ood
de pre ss es t he spi ri ts a nd g ra d ua lly w e a k e ns t he powe r of t he
i nv ol unta ry ne rve s as w ell a s t he v oliti ons of t he mi nd th e re by
ta ki ng a wa y t he powe rs of free a ge ncy a nd conve rti ng t he ma n
i nto the b rute H ow e xpre ss ive the re ma rk once ma de by a
na t ive : I t is not the ma n w h o eats O pium b ut it is O p ium

be

'

'

'

'

th a t

ea ts

the

ma n

p ra ct ice of eating Opi um a s a l ux ury ha s p re va ile d for


more t h a n a ce nt ury in Pe rsi a a nd T urk e y b ut tha t of s mok ing
it origi na te d a t a much l a te r pe ri od a nd ha s bee n con ne d mos tly
T he e ff e cts of the l a tte r
to Chi na a nd its a dj a ce nt p rovi nce s
p ra ctice w e be lie v e a re fa r more pe rnicious th a nt he forme r T he
truth of thi s positionis s upporte d by t wo a rg ume nts l et T he diffe r
F rom
e nt mod e of re ce ivi ng t he d rug i nto the s y s te m a nd 2 a dly
h
Opi
t
k
s
a n e x a mi na ti on of t he f a cts in t he ca s e
u
m
i
e
e
n
a
n
W
i nto t h s t oma ch be sid e s its l oca l e e c ts its inue nce is commu
nica te d both by t he se ntie nt ne rv e s of the s toma ch to the ce re bro
T he

'

26

pi na l sys te m a nd th e nce to t he wh ol e a nima l e conomy a nd b y


a bsorpti on i nt o t he bl ood th rough t he v e i ns a nd l y mph a tic s
B ut
wh e n Opi um is i nh a le d i nto t he l ungs it comes in di re ct conta c t
w it h a fa r more e xte nd e d a nd d e lica te ti ss ue compos e d ina g re a t
mea sure of ne rve s a nd not only ente rs the ci rc ul a ti on more or
l e ss by a bsorption b ut a t the sa me ti me by its i nh e re nt na t ure
contra cts t he a ir ce ll s of the l ungs in s uch a ma nne r a s to p re v e nt
i
h
s
e
T
n
the bl ood f rom receiving its d ue proportion o
o
x
f
yg
ra dica l ch a nge in t he qua lity of t he bl ood mus t h a v e a mos t d e
s t ructiv e i n ue nc e
T he ma nne r of s moki ng Opi um d ie rs
ma te ria lly from th a t of t obacco T he proce ss cons i st s in ta ki ng
ve ry l ong w h i s th e re b y e xp a ndi ng t he l ungs to th e i r ut mos t
ca pa city a nd communica ti ng t he i n ue nce of the d rug toa ll t h e
s poss i
a
a ir ce ll s a nd a t t h e sa me ti me re ta i ni ng it th e re as l on
g
bl e
This se cre t e xpl a i ns in pa rt t he a l most i ns ta nta ne ous and
we rful e e ct w hic h it e x e rts upon the w h ol e s y s te m
po
I n t he forme r ca se t he poi son e nte rs t he sy s te m v e ry muc h
dil ute d with oth e r i ngre die nts ; b ut in the la tte r it is rece ive d in
a p ure r a nd more c once nt ra te d form a nd its d e a dl y e e cts fa l l
more di re ctl y up on the vita l orga ns of the sys te m N ow as t o
t he f a cts in t he ca se
T ra v e lle rs in Pe rsi a T urk e y a nd oth e r
countrie s wh e re the vice of Opi um e a ti ng ha s e xiste d for a l ong
ti me d o not re p res e nt t he e vil s to be nea r a s g re a t a s t h ose of
Opi um s mok e rs in C hi na T he ch a nge p rod uce d by t he forme r
pra ctice upon the ph y sica l sy ste m is not ch a ra cte rize d by so ra pi d
or ma rk e d p rogre ss
I ts victi ms too re ta i n a be tte r cont rol a s
we ll a s l onge r use of th e i r me nta l fa c ultie s a nd a re k now nofte ne r
to re form
Othe r e sse nti a l p oi nts of d ie re nce might be notice d
b ut with out dw e lli ng on this pa rt of the subj e ct l onge r w e wil l
h e re i ntrod uce a s umma ry sta te me nt from v a ri ous w ri te rs w ho
ha v e bee n ca re ful ob se rv ers of t he e ects of smoki ng Opi um
L e t us liste n int he rs t pl a ce to t he te s ti mony of t he C hi ne se
th e mse lv e s on this s ubj e ct A di sti ngui s h e d Chi nese sch ola r in a
Opi um is a p oi sonous d rug
me mori a l to the E mpe ror sa y s :
b rought from fore ign countrie s a nd wh e n the poi sonta k es e ffe ct
t he h ab it be c ome s xe d a nd t he s l ee pi ng smok e rs a re lik e corp s e s

l ea n a nd h agga rd as d e mons H e p rocee ds to ill ustra te in


it ex haus ts the anima l
d e tail its ee cts und e r th ese hea d s
s

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

27
spirits

w a stes
erty

d
e
t
h
e
s
e
im
p

n
c
e
o
n
a
w
f

business
r
the es h a nd b l ood
o
d is sipa tes every k ind o
f p p
rend ers the pers on ill f a vored
r
i
t
e
n
o
m
o
t
s
o
b
s
c
e
p
y

d is cl os es

regul a r

viol a tes

s ecrets

o
f

e
r
p

the l a w s

atta ck s

the

and

vita l s

A noth e r Chi nese , (h oldi ng a hi gh of ce in gov


c ra me nt , s pea ki n of Opi um smoki ng , re ma rk s th a t
t
h
e
n
wh
e
g
)
h a b i t be comes i nv e te ra te , it is nece ssa ry to smok e a t certain xed

h ours
Ti me is consume d , me ns d uti e s a re forgotte n, a nd th e y
ca n no l onger liv e with out thi s p oi son
I ts sy mptoms a re di th
d es troy s l ife

c ulty of b rea thi ng cha lk y pa l ene ss di scol ore d te e th a nd a


with ere d ski n People perce i ve tha t it h urri es th e m to d e struc

ti on but it l ea ves th e m with out spi rit to d es i s t


A noth er
gov e rnme nt of cer w rites to S ir He nry Potti nge r th a t Opi um
I t is
is a n a rticl e wh ose owi ng poi son sp re a d s lik e a mes
ne ith e r p ul se nor gra i n ye t multit ud e s of our Chi ne se s ubj e c ts
cons ume it wasti ng th e ir prope rty a nd d e stroy i ng th e i r lives ;
s it
w
f
a nd t he ca l a miti e s a ri s i n
t
r
u
n
u
tt
bl
e
H
o
i
h
e
e
r
o
m
ar
e
r
a
e
g

In
p ossible to re fra i n from forbiddi ng our peopl e to use it
e of t he E mperor s
a noth e r s ta t e pa pe r thi s e vil is d e s c ribe d b y on
mi ni st e rs as a fe a rful d esola ti ng pe stil e nce pe rva di ng a ll cla sse s
fh e bl ing th e i r me nta l fa ca l
of pe opl e w asti ng th e i r p rope rt y e n

ti e s rui ning th e i r bodies a nd s h orte ning th e i r live s


Wh at
n
u
r
o
u
s
e

e
c
t
s
r
u
b
e
s
r
h
n
e
l
a
e
d
ch
ct
i
t
i
j
i
s t ron
a
ca
n
u
e
t
o
a
z
e
e
r
a
e
g
g g
s id e nts a nd
n
re
o
n
e
vil
?
B
t
s
x
m
i
n
wh
t
f
o
r
e
ig
a
of a n
e
u
t
l
e
e
a
e
u
y
D oct G H S mith w ho
t ra v e ll e rs in Chi na sa y on t he s ubj e ct
re s id e d some yea rs as a s urge on a t P e n
a ng d e s c ri be s t he e e ct
of Opi um s moki ng in t he M e dico Chi rurgica l Re vi e w for A p ril
1 8 42 as foll ow s :
T he h ospita l s a nd p oor h ouses a re chi e y
ll e d with Opi um s mok e rs
I none th a t I ha d t he ch a rge of t he
inma te s a ve rage d s ixty d a il y ve s ixth s of wh om we re s mok ers
of Ch a nd oo
T he ba ne ful e e cts of thi s h a bit on the h uma n
constit uti on a re cons picuousl y dis pla ye d by s tupor forge t ful ness
e s e ma ci a ti on d c
u
f
n
e
n
e
r
a
l
d
t
r
i
o
r
a
ti
o
n
f
l
t
h
m
e
t
a
l
a
c
lti
e
e
l
o
a
e
g
b ility sal l ow compl e xion livid ne ss of lips a nd e ye lid s la nguor
a nd l a ck l us t re of e ye a p pe tite e ith e r d e s t roy e d or d e p ra ve d
I n t he morni ng th ese c rea t ure s h a ve a mos t w re tch e d a ppea r
o
r i nvigora te d b
f
e
s
e
h
d
r
e
r
an
ce e vi nci ng no sy mpt oms of be i n
g
y
h owe ver p rofound T h ere is a rema rkable d ry ness or
s l ee p
,

'

'

'

,
:

28

burni ng in the th roa t which urges th e m to re pea t t he Opium


s moki ng
I f t he d ose b e not ta k e n a t t he usua l ti me th e re is
re a t p ros t ra ti on v e rti o t orp or a nd d i
e
m
t
h
f
o
s
r
f
t
r
r
ch
g
w
e
a
e
o
a
g
g
e ye
I f t he p riva tion b e compl e te a s till more formid a bl e t ra i n
of ph e nome na ta k e pl a ce
Cold ne ss is fe lt ove r t he wh ol e bod y
with a chi ng pa i ns ina l l pa rts D ia rrhce a occ urs ; t he mos t h orrid
fe e li ngs of w re tc h e d ne ss come on a nd if t he poi son be withh e l d

d e a th te rmi na te s the vi cti m s e xi ste nce


I n th e L ond on La nce t
for 1 8 4 1 we nd th e se obse rva ti ons from J a me s Hill a s urge on

of a n E ngli s h s hip
T he
whic h vi s ited Chi na in 1 8 3 9 :
h a bit ua l use of Opi um a s p ra cti se d by the Chi ne se ca nnot fa il to
p rod uce t he most i nj urious e ffe cts upon the cons tit uti on T he
p e c ulia r la nguid a nd va ca nt e xp re ssion t he s ha ll ow a nd s h rive lle d
counte na nce t he d im a nd s unk e n e ye a nd t he ge ne ra l e ma cia te d
a nd with e re d a ppe a ra nce of t he body e a s ily di s t i ng ui s h t he c on
rme d Opi um s mok e r
T he mi nd lik e wi se soon pa rt icipa te s in
t he ge ne ra l w re ck of t he b ody
a nd t he unh a ppy i nd ivid ua l l os i ng
a ll re li s h for s oc i e ty re ma i ns in a s t a t e of s ot t i s h ind ie re nce to
e v e ry thi ng a round h im b ut t he d e a d ly d rug now h is only s ol a ce

which soone r or la te r h urrie s its victi m to a n unti me ly g ra ve


S uc h is t he t e sti mony of t wo me dica l obse rve rs wh ose e d uca tion
a nd p rofe ss i ona l d uti e s ga v e th e m s upe ri or a dv a nta e s for j udgi n
g
g
corre c tly of t he e e cts of thi s d rug
Ca pt J oh n Sh e ppe rd re ce ntly ch a i rma n of t he Ea s t I ndi a
Compa ny w ho ha s s pe nt consid e ra ble ti me in Chi na sa y s :
T he s moki ng of Opi um ha s t he most d e mora lizi ng e e cts T o
a c e rta i n e x te nt it d e s t roy s t h e i r reas on a nd fa c ulti e s a nd s h orte ns
A con rme d Opi um s mok e r is ne v e r t to cond uct b us i
l ife
ne ss a nd ge ne ra lly un t for a ll s ocia l i nt e rcourse wi t h his frie nd s
"ou ma y te ll h im by h is i na me d e y e s a nd h a gga rd
a nd fa mily

counte na nce
M r T L a y w ho a ccompa ni e d Buche y s e xpe diti on a s N a t u
ra l is t s ta te s in h is j ourna l whil e a mong t he Chi ne se th a t t h e
Opi um s mok e r ma y be rea dily id e nti e d by his la nk a nd
w
vi sa ge
f
g
it
ll
ee bl e v oic e
a nd
sa
o
a
s h riv e ll e d li mb s tot t e ri n
g
the d e a th bod i ng gl a nce of h is e ye ; th ese a re so s upe rl a tiv e in
th e i r d e gre e a nd so cl ose ly bl e nd e d in th e i r uni on th a t t h e y a t
once bes pea k him to be t he mos t forl orn crea t ure th a t t rea d s the

e a rth
,

'

'

29

L ord Jocel y n who wa s e ngage d as military secre ta ry in the


ca mpa ign of 1 8 4 0 t h us a dve rts to t he use of Opi um a s wit ne sse d
a t Si nga pore :
O ne of t he st re e ts in t he ce nt re of t he tow n
is wh olly d e v ote d to s hops for t he sa l e of t hi s poi son a nd h e re
in t he e v e ni ng ma y b e se e n a fte r t he l a bors of t he d a y a re ov e r
c rowd s of Chi ne se w ho see k th e se pla ce s to sa tis fy th e ir de p ra ve d
a ppe tit e s
T he rooms wh e re th e y sit a nd s mok e a re surround e d
by w ood e n couc hes with pla ce s for t he h e a d to re st upon a nd
ge ne ra lly a s id e room is d e vote d to ga mbli ng T he pip e is a
re e d of a b out a n i nch in di a me te r a nd t he a pe rt ure in t he b owl
for t he a d mixture of Opi um is not l a rge r th a n a pi n s h e a d T he
d rug is p re pa re d wit h some ki nd of conse rve a nd a v e ry s ma ll
p orti on is s uic ie nt to ch a rge it one or tw o whis be i ng the
ut mos t th a t ca n be i nh a l e d from a s i ngl e pipe a nd t he s mok e is
ta k e n i nto t he l ungs a s from t he h ooka h in I nd ia O n a be gi n
ne r one or t w o pipe s will h a ve a n e ff e ct b ut a n ol d s t a ge r will
cont i nue smoki ng for h ours At t he h e a d of e a ch couch is
pla ce d a s ma l l la mp a s re mus t be h e ld to t he d rug d uri ng the
p roce ss of s moki ng ; a nd from t he di f c ulty of lli ng a nd pro
p e rly lig h t ing t he pi pe th e re is ge ne ra lly a pe rson who w a its
A fe w d a y s of thi s
upon t he s mok e r to pe rform th a t of ce
fea rful l ux ury wh e n ta k e n to e xce ss will giv e a pa l e a nd ha g
e fa ce a nd a fe w month s or e v e n w e e k s will
d
l
k
t
o
t
h
o
r
o
a
g
ch a nge the st rong a nd h ea l t h y ma n i nto a littl e be tte r th a n a n
idiot s k e l e ton T he pa i ns th e y s ue r wh e n d e p rived of the d rug
a nd it is only wh e n
a fte r l ong h a bi t no l a ng ua ge ca n d e s c ribe
t o a ce rta i n d e g re e und er its i n ue nce th a t th e i r fa c ulti e s a re
I n th e se h ouse s d e v ote d to th e i r rui n th e se i nfa t ua te d
a liv e
pe ople ma y be se e na t ni ne o cl oc k in t he e ve ni ng in a ll t he d if
S ome e nte ri ng ha l f di st ra cte d to fee d t he c ra vi ng
fe re a t s ta ge s
a ppe tite th e y h a v e b e e n oblige d t o s ubd ue d uri ng t he d a y
oth e rs l a ughi ng a nd t a lki ng wildl y und e r t he e e cts of a rs t
pi pe whil st t he couch e s round a re ll e d with t h e i r d ie re nt occu
p a nts w ho l ie la ng uid with a n idiot smile upont h e i r counte na nce
too muc h und e r t he i n ue nce of t he d rug to ca re for pa ss i ng
e v e nt s a nd fas t e me rgi ng to t he wi s h e d for c ons umma t i on T he
la s t s ce ne in t his t ra gic pl a y is ge ne ra lly a room in t he re a r of the
b uildi ng a s pe cies of d ea d house wh e re l ie st re tche d th ose w ho
,

'

30
of bl ia wh i ch the O pium stack er
a n e mble m of the l ong slee p to w hich he is

have pa ss ed into the

ma d l y

see

ks

sta te

bli ndly h urryi ng


M r R M Ma rti n w ho is we ll k now na s t he a uth or of seve ra l
va l ua bl e work s on I ndi a a nd t he Briti s h C ol oni es has re ce ntl y
p ubli s hed a l a rge work on Chi na M r Ma rti n for some time
h e ld the situation of he r Maj esty s T reas urer for Col onial C on

M em
a nd was a l so a
sul a r a nd Di pl oma tic S e rvi ces in Chi na

H is
b e r of he r M aj e s ty s Le gi sl a tiv e Council a t H ong Kong
opportuniti e s th e re fore of a cq ui ri ng i nforma ti on oicial and b y
obse rv a ti on we re s upe rior a nd in a ch a pte r on thi s s ubj e ct vol
N o l a nguage w ould conve y
II pa ge 1 7 6 he re ma rk s th us
a d e s c ripti on of the s ue rings of th os e to wh om Opi um has b e
come a ne ce ssa ry pa rt of e xiste nce ; no pict ure could i mp re ss
t he fea rful mi se ry which t he i nma te s of a n Opi um s moki ng s h op
T h ose d e ns of h uma nsue ring a re a tte nd e d by na fe r
e xhibit

as Opi um in t he e a rl y use is a ph rodi s ia c a nd


tuna te w ome n
I n fe w but v e ry fe w i ns ta nce s
as s uc h p rize d by t he Chi nese
if i nd e e d in a ny mod e ra ti on in Opi um is e x e rci se d : once fa i rl y
beg un th ere is no ce ssa tion until pove rty a nd d e a th e nsue a nd
wh e n dige s ti on has ne a rl y cea se d a nd d egl utition e ve n be comes
h
i
l
f
u
t
e ut mos t e e ct of t he d rug is me re ly t o mitiga te t he
n
a
p
Those w ho begi n its use a t tw enty ma y
horrors of e xi s te nce
the count e na nce become s
e xpe ct to d ie a t thirty y ea rs of age
t
h
e me mory fa il s t he
y
s a ss ume a wild b righ tne
l
e
e
l
i
d
t
h
e
a
p
a
l
s
n
f
r
n
e
r
a
it
t
o
tt
r
s
e
t
a
l
e
x
ti
o
n
n
d
m
o
r
a
e
i
k
a
n
d
a
igh
t
u
e
m
r
c
o
a
g
g
ful ma ra s mus or a t rophy re d uce s t he victi m toa gh a s tl y s pe cta cl e
Th e re is
w h o ha s ceas ed to l ive bef ore he ha s ceas ed to exis t
no sl a ve ry so compl e te as th a t of t he Opi um ta k e r : once h a bit
ua te d to h is d ose a s a fa ctiti ous s ti mul a nt e ve rythi ng will be
a nd
t he unh a ppy be i ng
e nd ure d ra th e r th a n t he p riv a t i on
ess of his ow n
e nd ure s a l l t he morti ca tion of a consci ous n
deg ra d ed sta te whil e rea d y to se ll wi fe a nd child re n b ody a nd
soul for t he c onti nua nce of his w re tch e d a nd t ra ns i e nt d e l ight
tra nsi e nt i nd e e d
for a t l e ngth t he utmos t e ffe ct p rod uce d is a
te mp ora ry s us pe ns i on of a gony a nd na ll y no d ose of t he d rug
wil l re move or re lie v e a s ta te of s ue ring w hich it is utte rly im
possibl e to d escri be T he plea sura bl e se nsa tions a nd i magi na ti ve
.

'

'

'

,.

'

31

id eas a ris i ng at rst soon pass a way t h ey become fai nter a nd


fa i nt e r a nd a t l a s t e ntire ly g ive pla ce to horrid d re a ms a nd
a ppa lli n pict ure s of d e a t h : s pe ct res of fea rful vis age ha unt t he
g
mi nd the light w hich once se e me d to e mana te from hea ve n is
conv e rte d i nto the gl oom of he ll ; sl ee p balmy sl e e p has e d
fore v e r ; nig ht s uccee d s d ay only to be cl oth e d w ith ne ve r e nd
ing h orrors
i nce ssa nt sick ness v omiti ng dia rrh ea a nd tota l
ce ssa tion of digestive functi ons ens ue ; a nd dea th a t l e ngth
b ri ngs wit h its a nnihila tion of t he corpore al s t ruct ure the sol e
re lie f to t he victi m of se ns ua l a nd c ri mi na l i nd ulge nce
T he
Opi um s h op s which I vi site d in t he Eas t we re pe rfe ct type s of

h e l l upon e a rt h
M r J F D a vis the p rese nt G ov e rnor of H ong K ong pub
l is he d a work on C hi na some y ea rs s i nce a nd in givi ng a b ri e f
re ma rk e d a s foll ow s :
s k e tc h of Chi ne se comme rce
T he
e ng ross i ng t a s t e of a l l ra nk s a nd d e ree s in Chi n
f
a
r
o
i
m
u
a
O
p
g
d rug wh ose i mporta ti on has of l a te ye a rs e xce e d e d the aggre ga te
va l ue of e v e ry oth e r E ngli s h i mport c omb i ne d d ese rv e s pa rtic u
l a r notice e s pe ci a lly in conne cti on with t he re v e nue s of B riti s h
I ndia of which it forms a n i mp orta nt i te m T he use of t his
pe rnici ous na rcotic ha s be come a s e xte nsive as the i ncrea si ng
d e ma nd for it was ra pid from t he rst T he contra ba nd t ra d e
f
o
r Opi um ha s a lwa y s bee n p rohibite d a s h urt ful to t he h ea lt h
(
a nd mora l s of t he pe opl e ) w a s origi na lly a t M a ca o ; b ut t he
P ort ugue se d rove it to t he I sl a nd of Li nti n whe re t he Opi um is
k e pt st ore d in a rme d s hips a nd d e liv e re d to t he C hi ne se smug
rs b y w ritte n ord e rs from C a nton on t he mone y be i n pa id a t
l
e
g
g
th a t pla ce A la te me morial to t he E mpe ror from one of t he
I ha ve l ea rne d
ce nsors l a i d ope n t he e vil in a l l its d e formity
sa y s he th a t th os e w ho s mok e Opi um a nd e v e nt ua lly be c ome its
vic ti ms h a v e a pe ri odica l longi ng for it which ca n only be as
If
suage d b y t he a pplica t i on of t he d rug a t t he re gul a r ti me
th e y ca nnot ob ta i n it wh e n thi s d a ily pe ri od a rrive s th e i r li mbs
be come d eb ilita te d a disch a rge of rhe um ta k e s pla ce from t he
e y e s a nd nose a nd t he y a re a ltoge th e r une q ua l to a n e x e rti on
y
b ut with a fe w w his th e i r s t re ngth a nd s pi rits a re i mme dia te ly
re s tore d in a s urpris i n
r
n
n
e
u
s
e
o
m
Th
pi
b
c
m
a
m
e
t
u
O
o
s
g
O pi um smokets their very l ife a nd whe n th e y a re se ize d a nd
,

'

32

b rought be fore magist ra tes th e y will soone r s uffer a se vere ch as

t ise me nt th a n i nform a ga i ns t th ose w ho s e ll it


I n 1 8 47 R e v G eorge S mi t h p ubli s h e d a w ork d e ta ili ng h is
re s e a rc h e s in Chi n
a in t he y e a rs 1 8 4 4 5 a nd 6 whil e on a n
e xpl ori ng e xpe diti on with i ns t ructi ons from t he Ch urch Mi s s i on
a ry S oci e ty to coll e ct i nforma ti on upon t he mora l a nd re lig ious
ch a ra cte r a nd wa nt s of t he Chi ne se H is a tte nti on wa s th e re fore
p a rticula rly ca ll e d to t he i n ue nce of t he Opi um t ra d e a s furni s h
ing a g rea t obsta cl e to t he i nt rod uction of Ch ri stia ni ty i nto Chi na
a nd in his w ork a s w e ll as p ub lic s p e e ch e s on his re t urn to E ng
l a nd he wa s fa ith ful in e x pos i ng t he e e cts of thi s e vil Si nc e
th e n M r S mith ha s bee n a ppoi nte d Bi s h op of H ong Kong M r
S s pe nt t he wi nte r of 1 8 46 a t A moy a nd the foll owi ng sk e tc h
is in pa rt the re s ult of his obse rv a ti ons on thi s s ubj e ct
D uri ng my sta y a t A moy I ma d e ma ny i nqui ri e s re s pe cti ng
t he p re va l e nce a nd e e cts of Opi um s moki ng a nd ofte n vi s i te d
wi t h a Mi ssi ona ry fri e nd some of t he s h op s in which Opi um w a s
T he rs t Opi um h ous e which we e nt e re d wa s s it ua te d
s old
cl ose to t he e nt ra nce to t he ta ou ta i s p a l a ce F our or ve rooms
in di ff e re nt pa rt s of a s q ua re court w e re occ upi e d by me n
st re t ch e d out on a rud e ki nd of couc h on whi c h l a y a h e a d
pill ow wi th l a mps pipe s a nd oth e r a ppa ra t us for s moki ng Opi um
I n one p a rt of t he p ri ncipa l room the p rop rie t or s t ood wi t h d e li
ca te s te e l y a rd s w e ighi ng out t he p re pa re d d rug whi c h w a s of a
d a rk thic k se mi uid consi s te ncy A little compa ny of Opi um
s mok e rs w ho ha d c ome hith e r to i nd ul ge in t he e xp e ns iv e fume s
or to fe a s t th e i r e y e s on t he sight of th at which i nc re a s i ng p ov e rty
ha d pl a ce d be yond th e i r re a c h s oon ga th e re d a round us a nd
L im pa i w ho a ccompa ni e d us
e nt e re d i nt o c onv e rsa ti on
hi mse l f a re cla i me d Opi um s mok e r e a rne stl y took p a rt in t he
c onv e rsa ti on with his count ry me n Th e y forme d a mote ly g roup
of s a ll ow s unk e n ch e e k s a nd gl a s s y w a te ry e y e s a s with idiotic
l ook a nd v a ca nt l a ug h th e y re a dily v ol unte e re d ite ms of i nforma
ti on a nd d e sc ribe d t he p roce ss of the i r own d egra d a tion Th e y
a l l a sse nte d to t he e vil s a nd s ufferi ngs of t h e i r c ours e a nd pro
Th e y a ll compla i ne d
fe sse d a de si re to be force d from its p owe r
of l oss of a ppe tite of t he a gonizi ng c ra vi ngs of t he e a rly morn
ing of p ros t ra ti on of s t re ng t h a nd of i ncreasi ng fee bl e ne ss b ut
,

33

id t ha t th ey could not ga i n rmne ss of re sol uti on to ove rcome


t he h a bit
Th e y a l l s ta te d its i ntoxica ti ng e e cts to be w orse
th a n th ose of d runk e nne ss a nd d e sc ribe d t he e xt re me dizzi ne ss
a nd v omit ing which e ns ue d s o a s to i nca p a cita t e th e m for e xe r
ti on T he old e s t ma n a mong th e i r numbe r wi t h a stra nge ia
cons i ste ncy a nd ca nd or e xpa tia te d on t he mi se ry of h is course
For th re e y e a rs he sa id he ha d a ba nd one d t he i nd ulge nce a t t he
p e ri od of Commiss ione r Li n s me na ci ng e dicts a nd comp ul sory
p rohibition of Opium At the concl usi on of t he B ri ti s h wa r t he
Opi um s hips ca me unmole s te d to A moy h e ha d ope ne d a n
Opi um s h op for ga i n a nd soon he hi mse l f fe ll a victi m H e
e nl a rge d on t he e vil s of Opi um s moki ng w hich h e a sse rte d to b e
s ix :
l s t L oss of a pp e ti t e ; 2 L oss of s tre ng t h ; 3 L oss of
mone y ; 4 L oss of t i me ; 5 L oss of l onge vity ; 6 L oss of
vi rt ue l e a di ng to proiga cy a nd ga mbli ng H e th e n s pok e of
t h e i ns idi ous a pp roa ch e s of te mpta ti on s i mil a r to th ose of t he
d runk a rd s ca re e r A ma n w a s s i c k or ha d a cold ; a fri e nd
O r a ga i n s ome
re comme nd e d Opi um a nd he fe ll i nto t he s na re
a cq ua i nta nc e w ould mee t h im a nd p re s s him by urge nt soli c ita ti ons
At rs t he w ould re fuse
t o a cc ompa ny h im to a n Opi um h ouse
to j oi n in s moki ng ; b y d e g ree s h is fri e nd s b e ca me ch ee rful ;
th e i r soci e ty wa s pl e a sa nt ; h is s crupl e s w e re d e rid e d ; his oh
e c t ions s p e e dily v a ni s h e d ; he pa rt ook of t he l ux ury ; it s oon
j
be ca me e sse ntia l to his d a ily l i fe a nd he found hi mse l f a t l e ngth
una bl e to ov e rcome its a ll ure me nt s
I
s ub se que ntly vi s i te d a b out thi rty oth e r Opi um s h op s in
O ne of th e se Opi um d e ns w a s a
d ie re nt p a rts of the city
na rrow d a rk a nd lthy h ol e a l mos t un t for a h uma n b e i ng to
F rom
e nte r a nd a pp rop ri a te ly j oi ni ng a cof n ma k e r s s h op
t he pe opl e w e ga i ne d v a ri ous pa rtic ul a rs a s to t h e na t ure a nd
T he l a rge na tiv e wh ol e sa l e d e a l e rs
e xte nt of th e Opi um t ra f c
w e re in t he h a bit of s t rongly ma nni ng a nd a rmi ng a boa t in
whic h th e y procee d e d outs id e t he bound a ri e s of t he port to the
Six I sla nd s Th e re t he fore ign Opi um v e sse l s lyi ng a t a nch or
w e re s i mila rly a rme d a nd p re pa re d for re s i s ta nce in e v e nt of the
T he na tiv e
C hi ne se a ut h oriti e s a tte mpti ng to ca pt ure th e m
boa ts re t urne d with the ch e st s of Opi um to A moy a nd might be
f
l
f
t
p
s
i
n
g
s
wi
tly
th
g
a
o
s
see n wi t h some E urop e a n a g y i n
a
r
o
u
h
g
sa

34
t he

h a rbor with sa il s se t a nd a ll the crew pl yi ng th e i r oa rs


T h e y a l w a y s forme d too s t rong a force to e ncoura ge t he h op e of
s uc ce ss ful
e
h
u
rs uit
T
t
t
i
h
r
by
pi
i
e
e
t
h
e
r
n
s
r
a
s
o
m
n
d
r
e
a
a
p
wh ol e sa l e na ti ve s muggl e rs t h e n re ta il t he Opi um ba ll s se pa ra t e l y
to t he re ta il d e a l e rs a nd p rop ri e t ors of Opi um s h ops
N o se cre c y
is ob se rv e d re s p e cti ng thi s a rti cl e of univ e rsa l tra ic
I ha ve
s e e n th re e c onse c ut iv e h ouse s k e pt by Opi um v e nd e rs
T he
p e opl e sa y t h a t t he re a re ne a rly a th ousa nd s uc h e sta bli s h me nt s
in A moy
P ubli c noti ce s on t h e c orne rs of s t re e t s fre q ue ntly
i nvi te d t he a tte nti on of pa sse rs b y to Opi um th re e wi nte rs ol d
s ol d in t h e opp os i te h ouse s
T o t he b e tte r cl a ss of th e se s h op s
t h e se rv a nts of ri c h me n might b e se e n re s orti ng in ord e r t o
p urc ha se t he p re pa re d d rug a nd to ca rry it in li t tl e b ox e s or if
t he q ua nt i ty w e re mod e ra t e on li t tl e b a mb oo l e a v e s to t h e i r
ma ste rs for s moki ng a t h is ow n h ouse
Th e y a l l a sse rte d t h a t
th e y p a id no b ribes to t he ma nd a ri ns sa yi ng t ha t th e se a l s o
s mok e d Opium a nd th e re fore w e re p re v e nt e d by s h a me from
i nte rfe ri ng w i t h t he p e opl e Th e y a sse nte d to the p roba bili ty of
b ribe s be i ng pa id to t he na ti ve a uth oriti e s by t he l a rge wh ol e s a l e
p urc h a se rs w ho go outs id e the h a rb or to b uy Opi um from t he
fore ig n s hip s
A mong ot he r p roofs of t he full cog niz a nce of t he
l oca l a uth oriti e s a s w e l l a s of t he v e ry ge ne ra l p re va l e nce of
Opi um s moki ng ma y be me nt i one d t he fa ct of pe rsons be i ng
me t wi t h in a l mos t e v e ry s t ree t w ho ga i n t h e i r e nti re liv e lih ood
by ma nufa ct uri ng the b owl s of Opi um pipe s whic h th e y p ubli cly

e xp ose for s a l e in e v e ry d i re c ti on
We migh t e x te nd t h e s e q uota ti ons d e ta ili ng t he e ffe cts of
Opi um s moki ng a s se e n a nd d e s cribe d by v a ri ous oth e r t ra v e ll e rs
T he wit ne s s e s
or re s id e nt s in Chi na b ut d e e m it unne ce ss a ry
w e h a v e a l re a dy s ummone d ca nnot b e a c c use d of pa rti a li ty or
e x a gge ra ti on in th e ir d e sc ripti ons as th e y c ould h a v e h a d no
mot iv e or i nd uce me nt w h a te v e r to re sort to a ny s uc h me a ns
M ost of t he m w e re office rs h ol d i ng i mp orta nt t rus t s und e r t h e
E ngl is h gov e rnme nt a nd w e re w e ll a c q ua i nte d w i t h t he s ta te of
thi ngs in C h ina h a v ing re sid e d t h e re some of th e m t w e nt y
y e a rs It w il l b e se e n t h a t t he re is g re a t s i mil a ri ty in t h e se
d e s c ripti ons th ough e xp re sse d in d i ffe re nt l a ng ua ge W h il e it
may a ppe a r th a t t he e vide nce a l rea d y s ubmitte d a s to th e e vil
,

35
e ffe c ts

th i s d rug w as a bund a ntl y s uf ci e nt s till w e wi s h to


noti ce b ri e y its use in t w o pl aces v e ry di ffe re ntly si t ua te d from
Ch i na I f w e ta k e for i nsta nce a n i sl a nd or p rovi nce w he re t he
p op ula tion is pe rma ne nt w ith no g rea t c h a nge or incre a s e from
a b roa d a nd wh e re t he ge ne ra l use of Opi um h a s p re v a il e d for
te n y e a rs or more w e s h a ll t h e n h a v e s till s tronge r e vid e nce of
its p e rni c i ous e ffe c t s
T he I s l a nd of F ormosa s it ua te d in the
Chi ne se se a s wa s visited in the se v e nte e nth a nd e ighte e nt h ce n
f uri e s by t he D utch a nd P ortug ue se me rc h a nts a nd b e ca me a
d
a
a
n
h
a
e
l
ce
o
f
c
n
s
id
bl
t
d
w
e
a
lt
h
Thi
s
I
s
l
n
d
th
o
e
r
r
e
n
a
a
a
e
a
d
p
nob l e ra ce of pe ople d i sti ng ui s h e d for th e i r i nd us t ry a nd e nte r
p ri se But in the hi s tory of F ormosa w e nd t he foll owi ng

s t riki ng pa s sa ge :
T he na tiv e s of thi s pl a ce w e re a t rs t
s p rightly a nd a ctiv e a nd b e i ng good s oldi e rs w e re a l w a y s s uc
ce ss ful in b a ttl e
B ut t he pe opl e ca ll e d H ung ma ou (R e d ha i re d )
ca me thith e r a nd h a vi ng ma nufa ct ure d Opi um se d uce d some of
t he na tiv e s i nt o t h e h a bit of s moki ng it
F rom th ese the ma nia
for it ra pidly s p rea d th rough out t he wh ol e na ti on ; s o th a t in
p roce ss of t i me t he na tiv e s be ca me fe e bl e a nd e ne rva te d s ub mit
te d t o fore ign rul e a nd w e re ulti ma t e l y c ompl e te l y s ubj uga te d
N ow t he E ngli s h a re of t he ra ce of fore ig ne rs ca ll e d H ung
ma ou I n i nt rod uci ng Opi um i nto th is count ry th e i r p urp ose
I f not
ha s bee n to w e a k e n a nd e nfe e bl e t he C e nt ra l E mpi re
e a rly a rous e d to a se nse of our d a nge r w e s h a ll nd ours e lv e s

e re l ong in t h e l a s t s te p t ow a rd s rui n
T he ot h e r pl a ce re fe rre d to is A s sa m a s ma ll p rovi nce lyi ng
on t he e a s te rn fronti e r of B e nga l a nd a dd e d to t h e B ri ti s h pos
M r B ruce s upe ri nte nd e nt of t he
s e ss i ons by c onque s t ia 1 8 2 5
T e a P l a nta ti ons in A ssa m in h is re p ort p re se nte d a fe w y e a rs

s i nce to t he E a s t I nd i a C ompa ny re ma rk e d a s fol l ow s :


I
mi gh t h e re ob se rv e th a t t he B riti s h gov e rnme nt w ould confe r a
l a s t i ng b l e ss i ng on the A ssa me se a nd t he ne w se t tl e rs if imme d i
a te a nd a c t iv e me a s ure s w e re ta k e n to put d ow n t he c ul tiv a ti on
of Op ium in A ssa m a nd a fte rw a rd s t o s top its i mp orta ti on
If
some thi ng of t hi s ki nd is not d one a nd d one q ui ckly too t he
th ousa nd s th a t a re a b out to e migra te from t he pl a i ns i nto A ssam
of

S ee Chinese R epository, vol V p 3 98


.

36

will soon b e i nfe cte d with t he Opi um ma nia th a t d rea d ful


pl a gue whi c h ha s d e p op ul a te d thi s bea uti ful count ry t urne d it
i nto a l a nd of wild bea sts with whic h it is ove rrun a nd ha s d e
ge ne ra te d th e A ssa me se from a ne ra ce of p e opl e to the mos t
a bj e ct se rvil e c ra ft y a nd d e mora lize d ra ce in I ndi a
Thi s v il e
d rug has k e pt a nd d oe s now k e e p d ow n t he pop ul a ti on t h e
w ome n h a v e fe we r child re n compa re d with th ose of oth e r coun
t ries a nd t he c hil d re n se l d om liv e to b e come ol d me n b ut in
i
n
e
n
e
n
e
s
e
r
a
i
e
f
w
e
n
e
n
l
ly
h
d
v
y
b
i
g
d
e
r
e
o
l
d
m
t
e
r
a
a
m
n
o
o
a
g
;
this unfort una te count ry in compa ri son with oth e rs But th ose
w ho h a v e re s id e d l ong in th is unh a ppy l a nd k now t he d rea d ful
a nd i mmora l e ffe ct s which t he use of Opi um p rod uces on t h e
na tiv e
H e will s te a l se ll his p rope rty his child re n t he mot h e r
of h is c hil d re n a nd na lly e v e n murd e r for it
W ould it not
be t he high e s t of bl e s s i ngs if our h uma ne a nd e nlighte ne d
o
e
r
n
m
n
l
s
s
e
o
u
s
m
d
a
l
o
v
t
w
ld
s
t
p
th
vil
v
A
th
o
e
se
e
s
a
n
d
sa
a
a
n
e
e
g
a bout to e migra te i nto it a s te a c ultiva t ors from t he d rea d ful
re s ult s a tt e nd a nt on t he h a bit ua l use of Opi um ?
We s h ould in
t he e nd he ri c h l y re w a rd e d b y h a vi n a ne h e a lthy ra ce of me n
g
grow i ng up for our pl a nta ti ons to fe ll our fore sts to cl ear t h e
l a nd from j ungl e a nd wild bea s ts a nd to pl a nt a nd c ultiv a te t h e
l uxury of the w orld Thi s ca n ne v e r be e ffe c te d by t he e nfe e bl e d
Opi um consume rs of A ssa m w ho a re more e ffe mi na te th a n w o
,

"

me n

th ese fa cts the questi on na turally ari se s wh a t


h a s Chi na d one to opp ose t he i nt rod ucti on or a rre s t t he p rogre s s
of such e vil s ? H a s s he e v e r a s a gov e rnme nt a d opt e d a ny d e
cid e d sy ste ma tic me a s ure s to p re v e nt th e m
It w oul d se e m a t
rs t th ought th a t a na tion s o l a rge a nd p owe rful might h a v e
e a si l y a b oli s h e d t hi s e nti re t ra f c
Wh a t th e n has b ee n t he his tory of Chi ne se l e gi sl a ti on upon
thi s s ubj e ct ? P ri or to the y e a r 1 8 0 0 Opi um w a s i ncl ud e d in t he
ta ri of ma ri ti me d uti e s und e r t he h ea d of me dici na l d rugs
a nd wa s t re a t e d by gov e rnme nt a s a na rt i cl e i nte nd e d e x c l us iv e ly
for med ica l p urp ose s
A nd the d uty e x a cte d upon its i mp orta
t i on wa s a me re nomina l s um with out a ny p a rtic ul a r re fe re nce

vil e
B ut t he p ra ctice of s moking the
to ra i s i ng a re v e nue
d irt ha d a l rea dy ta ken d ee p root a nd its e vil effe cts w ere begi n
I n vi e w of

all

'

37

tte nti on of t he Chi nese gove rnme nt I n


1 7 9 9 one of t he E mp e ror s chi e f mi ni st e rs
fe a ri ng l e s t t he
r
a
t
c
ce
of s moki ng Opi um s h ould s p re a d a mong a l l t he p e opl e
i
p
of the i nne r l a nd to t he w a s te of th e i r ti me a nd t he d e s truc ti on

of th e i r p rop e rty
p re se nte d a me moria l re questi ng th a t the sa l e
of t he d rug s h ould b e p rohibite d a nd th a t offe nd e rs s h ould b e
ma d e a me na bl e to p uni s h me nt
S oon a fte r this the Chi ne se
g ov e rnme nt e na cte d spe ci a l l a ws to p re v e nt both its i mp or
ta tion a nd its use d e nounci ng a t t h e sa me ti me t he se v e re s t
e
n
a
t
h
e
s
r
s
t
l
i
e
o
c
t
v
ti
th
i
o
d
e
r
I
n
1
8
0
n
o
n
o
f
e
r
9
h
e
r
e
n
t
n
o
a
p
gov e rnor of C a nton th e n h oldi ng t he sea l s of t he commi ssi on of
*9
ma ri ti me c ust oms p ubli s h e d a n e d i c t re q ui ri ng the H ong me r
ch a nts wh e n p re se nti ng a p e t iti on for a s hip to di sch a rge he r
c a rgo a t W h a mp oa to giv e a b ond th a t s he ha d no Opi um on
boa rd ; a nd in ca se of re fusa l the ve sse l s h ould not be pe rmitte d
to l a nd b ut s h ould b e e xp e ll e d from t he p ort
I n 1 8 1 5 t he gov e rnor of a not h e r p rovi nce s e nt up a re p ort t o
t he E mpe ror compl a i ni ng th a t s ome t ra it orous na tiv e s ha d e s ta b
l is he d th e ms e lve s a s d e a l e rs in Opi um a t M a ca o a nd in re pl y
c omma nd s w e re giv e n to ca rry the l a ws i nto vigorous e x e cuti on
B ut t he t ra f c w a s s till ca rri e d on a t th e se t w o c i ti e s e ith e r by
b ribi ng or d e ce ivi ng t he l oca l of ce rs Fi ndi ng th e i r l a w s ine f
fe c tua l to p re v e nt t he i mp orta ti on or use of t he d rug t he gov e rn
me nt iss ue d s till more s t ri nge nt p rohibiti ons in 1 8 2 0 a nd com
Thi s
me nce d in e a rne s t to i ni c t t he p e na l t i e s of vi ol a te d l a w s
s te p force d t h e Opi um me rc h a nt s to withd ra w th e i r s hip s from
M a ca o a nd W h a mpoa to Li nti n a n Isl a nd in t he h a rbor with out
t he j uri s d i c ti on of t he p rovi nci a l gov e rnors
A s one of t he re s ul ts
of thi s c h a nge fore ig ne rs w e re k e pt some wh a t a t a d i s ta nce a nd
t he Chi ne se th e ms e l ve s b e ca me more a c tiv e p a rticipa t ors in t he
t ra f c
I n 1 8 3 0 2 a nd 4 one e di c t a fte r a not h e r wa s i ssue d d e cl a r

inj ury d one by t he i n ux of Opi um a nd by t he


ing th a t t he
i nc re a se of th ose who i nh al e d it w as ne a rl y e q ua l to a g eneral
ni ng to a wa k e n t he

'

h e H ong merch a nts (C h ines e )a re tw el e in number, l icensed b y go ernment


as inte rme dia te ag ents int ra d e , be tween fore ign merch ants a nd th e C h ines e peopl e,
becoming responsibl e for th e good cond uct of th e former, a nd , a t th e same time, se
4 T

curing to the

yment of

E mperor th e pa

all

maritime d uties

38
u
t
e
r a nd s mok e r of
d
ci
g
p
ll
u
n
h
s
e
n
n
n
e
e
o
o

t he p oi s on t he b a sti na d o t he w oode n c oll a r i mp ri s onme nt b a n


is hme nt a nd t he e nt i re c on sca ti on of his p rope rty ; ye s e v e n
more t he se ve re r pe na l ty of c a pi ta l p uni s h me nt e i t h e r by p ubl ic
d e ca pita ti on or st ra ng ul a ti on But notwith s ta ndi ng a l l t hi s t he
t ra d e k e pt cons ta ntly i nc rea s i ng A mos t foul sy ste m of b rib e ry
a nd c orrup ti on ha d b ee n p ra c ti se d in e v e ry g ra d a t i on of of c e t o
e v a d e t he l a w s
T he l ov e of ga i n h a d p rov e d s t ronge r t h a n
d e li ty to t he E mpe ror s comma nd s
owi ng p oi son ha d
T he
be e n d oi ng not only its w ork of de a th on t he body of e ve ry one
comi ng in conta ct wi t h it b ut it ha d pe ne t ra te d d e e p i nto t h e
I nthi s s t a te
s oul c orrup t i ng a l l t h e b e t te r fa c ul t i e s of t h e mi nd
of t hi ngs H e u N a e ts e Vi ce P re sid e nt of t he S a c ri c ia l C ourt a t
P e ki ng h a vi ng cl ose ly wa tc h e d for ye a rs t he e vil e ffe cts of t he
t ra d e both upon t he Chi ne se pe opl e a nd of ce rs urge d in a me
mori a l to the E mpe ror th a t t he t ra ffic s h oul d b e l e ga liz e d e ith e r
by a n e x ch a nge of commoditi e s or by i mposi ng a d uty upon t h e
i mp orta ti onof t he d rug i na s muc h a s its i nt rod ucti onby s muggli ng
could not b e p re ve nte d T he E mp e ror cons ul te d h is mi ni s t e rs
a s w e l l a s t he gov e rnors of t h e di ffe re nt p rovi nce s mos t of w h om
opp ose d t he l e ga liz a ti on a nd a fte r a p rol onge d a nd t h orough d is
c uss i e n of t he wh ol e s ubj e c t it w a s na lly concl ud e d t o put a
As
s top to t he t ra d e by e nforc i ng rigorously t he l a w s a ga i ns t it
e d i c t s a nd p rocl a ma t i ons ha d t h us fa r p rov e d una v a ili ng it w a s
re s olv e d by t he hig h C ourt a t P e ki ng to d e p ut e a n I mpe ri a l
C ommi s si one r to C a nton cl oth e d w i t h the high e s t powe rs a nd
a ut h ori ty
T he of ce r c h ose n for thi s p urpose w a s L in a ma n
a b out ft y y e a rs of a ge d i s ti ng ui s h e d for his t a l e nts a nd lite ra ry
a c q ui re me nts b orn a nd b re d in one of t h e ma ri ti me p rovi nce s
H e was
a nd w e ll a c q ua i nt e d wit h a l l t he a rts of fore ig ne rs
cons i d e re d a t rue pa t ri ot ; of i ncorrup tibl e h one s ty in h igh fa v or
wi t h t he E mpe ror w ho is sa id to h a v e pe rsona l ly communi ca te d
his i ns t ruc tions t o h im e xp re ss i ng a t t he sa me ti me his d e e p
s e nse of t h e e vil s th a t ha d l ong a ffli c te d h is c hild re n by mea ns

a nd a dv e rt i ng t o t h e fut ure
pa use d
of t h e owi ng p oi son
w e pt a nd sa id h ow a la s "ca n I go to the s h a d e s of my i mpe

ri a l fa t h e r a nd a nc e s tors until t h e se di re ful e vi l s a re re mov e d


I n M a rch 1 8 3 9 C ommi ss i one r L in a rriv e d in Ca nton to e nte r
con a g ra tion,

a nd

39
u on h is a r uous a nd

ponsible d utie s with the i nte ntion to

e ffe c t t he
utte r a nnihil a t i on of t he Opi um t ra d e
Fi nd i ng on
e x a mi n
a ti on t h a t t he ne s i mp ri sonme nt t ort ure s a nd e x e c uti ons
w hi c h ha d occa si onally be e n i ni cte d on t he Chi ne se pe opl e for
vi ola ti ng t he la ws aga i nst se lli ng or s moki ng t he d rug ha d not
pe rce ptibl y che ck e d its t ra f c be de te rmi ne d to l a y t he a xe a t
th e root of t he t re e
H e ga v e ord e rs a t once th a t no more
p a sse s or p e rmi ts s h ould be giv e n to fore igne rs w ho wi s h e d to go
from Ca nt on to M a ca o or W h a mp oa a nd comma nd e d th a t a ll
t he Opi um wh e th e r s t ore d in t he F a c tori e s or on boa rd of s hip s
in t he h a rbor s h ould b e i mme di a te ly s urre nd e re d
A fte r i ss ui ng
s e v e ra l e dic t s h e s ucc e e d e d in c omp e lli ng t he me rch a nt s to giv e
up
c h es ts of Op ium a nd to s ig n a b ond th a t th e y w oul d
fore v e r ce a s e from tra d ing in t he a rti c l e L in forthwith di s pa t c h e d
a me s se nge r to t he E mp e ror re q ue s ti ng i ns t ruc ti ons a s to t h e
di sposa l of the d rug ; a nd in re ply he w a s di re cte d to d e st roy
e v e ry ch e s t ne a r C a ntons o th a t b ot h t he
na tiv es of the C e l e s ti a l
E mpi re a nd fore ig ne rs might wit ne s s a nd b e a wa re of the e nti re

d e s t ructi on of t he d e stroyi ng p oi son


T he pl a ce se l e cte d for ca rryi ng i nt o e ffe ct thi s ord e r w as
Chi nk ow a fe w mil e s from Ca nton lyi ng on t he wa te r a nd con
ve nie nt for t ra ns p orti ng t h e Opi um
M r Ki ng a n A me rica n
me rc h a nt w a s pe rmitte d to be p re se nt a nd t h us d e sc ribe s
s i a tic J ourna l
t
f
r
o
t
A
e
pl
c
n
n
e
r
o
d
s
t
yi
n
g
e
h
1
h
a
n
e
9
a
e
d
m
a
8
3
(
)
T he l a rge r pa rt of t he fore ground w a s c ov e re d
p oi son
by th re e v a ts of pe rh a p s 7 5 fe e t by 1 5 0 e a c h ope ni ng by s l uice s
i nto t he rive r T he c h e s ts of Opi um a fte r be i ng re w eigh e d a nd
b rok e n up in t he p re se nce of high of ce rs w e re b rought d ow n
to t he v a t s
t he conte nt s b a ll a fte r ba ll
b rok e n d ow n a nd
c rus h e d upon pl a t forms ra i se d on high be nc h e s a bov e t he wa te r
a nd th e n p us h e d b y t he fe e t of t he cooli e s i nt o t he re c e pt a cl e s
b e ne a th A l a rge numbe r of me nw e re e mpl oy e d inth us ma ce r
a ti ng t he ba l l s for some d a y s with l on
k
e s until t he w h ol e
r
a
g
be ca me a fe e
he n t he s l ui ce s w e re ra i se d a nd t he v a t s
e mp t i e d i nto
riv e r
Ev e ry p re ca uti on se e me d to be use d by
t he oice rs t
s ure t h e c ompl e te d e s tructi on of t he d rug the
s p ot b e i ng w
in fa ct w e
ua rd e d t he w ork me n tick e te d e tc
full y sa ti s e d th a t t he work w a s be i ng
se e
t urne d from
p

re s

40

pe rforme d w ith rigid fa ith ful ne ss a nd much di s pose d to w ond er


th a t whil e Ch ri stia n gov e rnme nt s a re growi ng a nd fa rmi ng t hi s
d e le te ri ous d rug t hi s p a ga n mona rch s h oul d nobly disda i n to
e nric h his t re a s ury wi t h a sa l e th a t w ould not fa l l s h ort of R
,

Thi s b ol d a nd d e cid e d mea s ure of L in to s uppre ss t he Opi um


tra f c l e d to a wa r be tw e e n E ngl a nd a nd Chi na commonly d e

Opi um w a r W ith out givi ng a d e ta ile d a ccount


nomi na te d t he
of thi s w a r w e will b ri e y s ta te t he more p romi ne nt p oi nt s a t
i ss ue toge th e r with some re ma rk s a s to its c h a ra cte r a nd termi
na ti on
T he a b s tra ct rig h t of t he Chi ne se gov e rnme nt to se iz e
a nd d e st roy thi s Opi um w a s not ca ll e d in q ue s ti on e ith e r by
E nglis h me rc h a nts or me mbe rs of Pa rli a me nt
Ne ith e r t he
fa c t th a t t he Opi um w a s s muggl e d i nto Chi na in vi ol a ti on of
w a s ma d e a
t he l a w s of t h e na ti on a nd t h e re fore forfe i te d
B ut v a ri ous c i rc ums ta nce s c onne cte d
s ubj e ct of cont rov e rs y
wi t h t he hi story of the t ra d e a nd t he ma nne r of se izi ng t he
Opi um a s w e ll a s t he ge ne ra l t re a t me nt whic h fore ig ne rs re ce iv e d
from t he Chi ne se b e ca me t he p ri ncipa l ground s of compl a i nt
a nd p re te x ts for w a r
It w a s a ll e ge d th a t th e Chi ne se ha d pe r
mitte d t he t ra d e to go on a l mos t forty y e a rs with out st rictl y

s
t
e
a
r
f
c
i
n
g
h
l
w
th a t th e y ha d th e mse lve s be come ac tive
en o
p a rti cipa tors in t he tra f c th a t mos t of the Opi um se ize d w a s
on b oa rd of v e s se l s b e y ond t h e j uri sdi cti on of t he Chi ne s e gov e rn
me nt a nd th a t h oldi ng ce rta i n E ngli s h me rc h a nts a s p ri sone rs
until t he Opi um w a s a l l giv e n up a nd e xp e lli ng oth e rs from
C a nton a nd M a ca o ons us pi ci on of be i ng conce rne d in t he t ra d e
G re a t a uste rity a nd e x c l u
w a s a n i ns ult t o t he E ngli s h na ti on
ma ny i ns ta nce s of vi ol e nce p ra c ti s e d by t he
a nd
s ive ne s s
Chi ne se in th e i r i nte rcourse wi t h fore ig ne rs w e re a dd uce d
a s vi ol a ti ons of t he l a w s or e s ta bli s h e d us a g e s of a ll c iviliz e d
na ti ons
A not h e r a rgume nt a dva nce d in fa v or of thi s w a r w a s to ob
ta i n i nd e mni ty for t he l oss of th e se
c h e s t s of Opi um
Ca pt El l i ot t he s upe ri a
e s ti ma te d t o b e w ort h
te nd e nt of tra d e in his p ublic ca l l on B ri t i s h s ubj e cts to s urre nd e r
a l l t he Opi um in t h e i r p oss ess i on i nt o h is h a nd s to b e d e liv e re d
t
ov e r to he ord e r of C ommi ssi one r L in d e cl a re d hi mse l f re spon
,

41

i bl e for its l oss on beha l f of her M ajes t y s gove rnme nt A nd


a ccordi ngly th e merch a nt s in con rma ti on of thi s pl e d ge of Ca pt
Elliot a fte rwa rd s se nt a pe tition to the L ord s of he r Maj es ty s
a
a
m
o
e
r
n
f
v
t
i
o
l
l
o
wi
n
cl
i
Th
t
e
o
m
e
n
u
n
t
h
n
r
e
a
s
s
s
a
r
a
g
g g
g
t he t ra d e in Opi um ha d be e n e ncoura ged a nd p romote d by t he
India n gove rnme nt under t he e xpre ss sa nction a nd a uth ority
la tte rly of the Briti s h governme nt a nd Pa rlia me nt a nd with t he
full k nowl e d ge a l so a s a ppea rs from the d e ta il e d e vid e nce be fore
th e H ouse of C ommons on th e re ne wa l of the l a s t ch a rt e r th a t

t h e t ra d e was contra ba nd a nd ill e ga l


T he E nglis h gov e rnme nt its e l f ha d in fa ct di re ctly a p
p rove d of the traf c a nd was d e e pl y i nte re sted in its con
t inua nce
For we nd th a t t he Pa rli a me nta ry c ommittee
a ppoi nte d in 1 8 3 2
e xp re ssl y for the p urpose of cons id e ri ng
t he Opi um monopol y in a l l its be a ri ngs mora l politica l a nd
e conomica l concl ude d th e i r re p ort which w a s a cce pt e d as fol
l ow s
I n t he p res e nt s ta te of the re v e nue of I ndi a it d oe s
not a ppea r a dvi sa bl e to a ba nd on s o i mp orta nt a source of re v e
nue a d ut y upon Opi um be i ng a ta x which fa ll s p ri ncipa ll y
upon t he fore ig n consume r a nd which a pp ea rs up on t h e wh ol e
l e ss lia bl e to obj e cti on th a n a ny oth e r which could b e sub stit u

te d
Th us w e see th a t E ngla nd wa s a n interes ted pa rty a nd
w ould na t ura ll y be di sp ose d to j usti fy re cours e to w a r in ord e r
T he
t o se c ure i nd e mnit y for l oss a nd a continua nce of t h e t ra d e
Chine se gove rnme nt ha d e nde a vore d to a rre st t he tra f c by pun
is hing s e v e re l y a nd in va ri ous w a y s t h e i r own subj e cts a nd a l so
b
t
a l l to
u
th
t
i
E
li
h
s
re mons t ra ti ng e nt re a ti n
a
n
n
d
a
e
n
t
h
r
e
n
e
g
g
g
Th ey sa w the i r count ry a nd pe opl e be comi ng im
no p urpose
e i r ow n
h
f
o
ve ris he d a n
i
n
d
v
p
i
h
t
t
r
u
e
t
h
u
s
e
o
d
e
se
er
n
m
n
e
p
s ubj e ct s of no a v a il so l ong a s t he E ngl i s h conti nue d to s e ll h un
d red s a nd th ousa nd s of ch e sts of Opi um inspite of e nt rea tie s a nd
th rea ts a nd in conte mpt of a l l l a w Wha t more could th e y d o?
N othi ng ? T he y might h a ve a tte mpte d to ta k e possess ion of the
Opi um s hips by force b ut t his would h a ve bee n a tte nd e d with
a fea rful a mount of b l ood s h e d a s t h es e Opi um s t ore s hip s w e re
T he
a l l a rme d lik e s hips of w a r a nd ll e d with d e s pe ra d oe s
Opi um w as a l l f orf eited by be i ng b rought th e re cont ra ry to the
l aws of t he na tion a nd the h a rbors whe re t he Opi um s hips w e re

42

t ti one d w e re a pa rt of t he Chi ne se possess ions a nd unde r th e i r


j uri sdi cti on a s muc h a s t he l a nd T he Chi ne se gove rnme nt h a d
a ri g ht by t he l a w s of na t i ons forc ibly if ne c e s sa ry t o se iz e t h e
Opi um B ut th e y e e cte d its s urre nde r wi t h out vi ol e nce or l os s
of li fe and wh e n t h e y might h a v e l e ga lly s ol d it for more t h a n
th e y d e st roy e d e ve ry ch e s t of it ope nly a nd pub
l icl y d i sd a i ni ng to ra i se a re v e nue from t he rui n of t h e i r ow n
p e opl e Th e y could not th e re fore re ga rd thi s w a r in a ny ot h e r
light th a n a n out ra ge ous i nva s i on of th e i r rights a nd p rope rty
M a ny of t he E ngl is h a t Ca nton a nd in I ndia ha d l ong be e n
d e s i ri ng w a r a ll e gi ng th a t t he Chi ne s e ha d use d vi ol e nce up on
th e i r me rch a nts a nd would not ope n th e i r p orts ge ne ra lly to a l l
ki nd s of t ra d e b ut the se cre t ca us e of a ll t hi s w a s k e pt out of
vi e w a s muc h a s p oss ibl e
w a s ra i s e d
wa r
T he c ry of w a r
a nd re e c h oe d in e v e ry p os s ibl e w a
A
l
i
l
rc ums ta nce s a nd
c
y
me a ns a nd p re te xt s w e re use d to ma k e a ca us e for w a r a nd
e x c i t e t he na ti on to it
But t he re a l ca us e of a l l th e se t roubl e s
t he Opi um t ra d e
w a s a s muc h a s p oss ibl e k e pt out of vi e w
T he P a rlia me nt a nd p e opl e of E ngl a nd a nd of e v e ry count ry
must b e my s ti e d in a l l possibl e w a y s in re s pe ct to t he Chi ne se
t roub l es T he E a s t I ndia C ompa ny i ncl udi ng t he gre a t body
of E urop e a ns in I ndia a nd ma ny th ousa nd s in E ngl a nd w e re
d e e ply i nte re ste d in t he ma tte r re ce ivi ng a l a rge re v e nue from
thi s source T he Opi um tra d e rs a nd s muggl e rs in Chi na a nd
I ndi a w e re of course i nte re ste d to t he a mount of
t h e va l ue of t he Opi um which t he Chi ne s e h a d s e iz e d a nd
d e st roy e d A l l pa rtie s conce rne d e xce pt t he Chi ne se gove rn
M e n w ho ha d s o g re a t
me nt wi s he d a l so to conti nue t he tra d e
i nte re sts a t sta k e
wh ose c h a ra cte rs a l so w e re i mplica te d
w oul d of course e mpl oy t he b e s t ta l e nts a nd a ll p ossibl e mea ns
th a t mone y could comma nd
w rite rs a ttorne y s a nd ora tors to

w orse a ppe a r t he be tte r ca use


N ume rous pa m
ma k e t he
n
t
h
e s ub e c t ma g ni fyi ng t he
o
e t s a nd re vi e w s a ppe a re d
hl
j
p
g ri e va nce s of t he E ngli s h a nd ndi ng a l l ma nne r of fa ult with
Still th e re w e re some nobl e e x
t he c ond uct of t h e Chi ne s e
S e v e ra l me mb e rs of P a rl ia me nt p ubli cl y e xpose d t he
ce pt ions
e vi l s of t he Opi um t ra d e a nd re s is t e d mos t s t re nuously a ll w a rl ik e
I t is a di sgra ce to a Ch ri s
mea s ures S a id L ord Sa nd on:
s a

'

43

i a n country to ca rry on t he Opi um t ra d e a s w e h a v e d one S a id


W H Li nd sa y P M
A s it is nothi ng ca n b e more i nj u
rious to t he B riti s h ch a ra cte r th a n t he mod e in whi c h t he Opi um
t ra de is a t p re se nt cond ucte d It is rea l s mugg l ing a ccompa ni e d
by a ll its w orse fe a t ure s of vi ol e nce a nd mus t fre q ue ntly b e

a t te nd e d wit h bl ood s h e d a nd l oss of li fe


A nd e v e n C a pt
Elli ot t he re p re se nta tiv e of t he E ngl i s h gov e rnme nt in Chi na a nd
comma nd e r of its force s d uri ng the w a r w a s cons t ra i ne d to

ma k e thi s confe ss i on in one of his me ssa ge s :


N o ma n e n
t e rta ins a d ee p e r d e te s ta ti on of t he di sg ra ce a nd s in of t hi s force d
t ra f c th a n t he h umbl e i ndivid ua l w ho signs thi s d e s pa tc h I se e
littl e to c h oose b e tw e e n it a nd pi ra cy a nd it is ra pid l y s ta i ni ng

t h e B ri ti s h c h a ra ct e r wit h t he d e e pe s t di sg ra ce
O ne of t he
l e a d i ng "ua rte rli e s a t the ti me re ma rk e d on the s ubj e ct a s fol
We ma y d e ce ive ourse lv e s for t he mome nt b ut w e
l ow s :
s h a ll not d e ce iv e our c ont e mpora ri e s
nor t he ne xt ge ne ra ti on
T he O pium Wa r will s ta nd out in hi st ory a s t he bl a c k e st s ta i n
on t he ch a ra cte r of B rit a i n b e i ng a n out rag e on j usti ce on

p ubl ic p ri ncipl e a nd on t he i nd e pe nd e nt righ ts of na ti ons


Th a t t he Chi ne se gove rnme nt ha s a l w a y s b ee n ea rne st a nd
s i nce re in re s i s t ing t he introd uc ti on of Opi um th e re ca n b e no
d oubt Th e i r l a w s p rov e thi s fa ct a nd s uc h is the te sti mony of
Sa y s a w ri te r in
a l l d i s i nte re s t e d fore ig ne rs re sidi ng in Chi na
h
e oppos iti on
T
t he Chi ne se Re pos it ory for 1 8 4 0 p 4 1 6 )
(
of t he Chi ne se gov e rnme nt t o t he Opi um t ra d e ha s b ee n s t e a dy
t he p roh i b iti ons h a v e
a nd s t rong d uri ng a p e ri od of forty y e a rs
b e e n a s cl e a r a nd a s e xpli cit a nd t he me a s ure s toca rry th e m i nto
e e c t a s const a nt a nd vigorous a s th e combi ne d wi sd om a nd

p ow e r of t he E mpe ror a nd h is mi ni s te rs could ma k e th e m


Th e y re fuse a l so to a ll ow t he c ultiv a ti on of t he Poppy in Chi na
wh ich in soil a nd cli mate is a d mi ra bly tte d for its prod uction
I f th e y w ould only a ll ow t he Opi um to b e p rod uce d in Chi na its
i mporta ti on w oul d s oon cea se a nd th us a h ea vy d ra i n of s ilve r
b e sa v e d to t he na ti on T he y will not h ow e v e r i mpose a ny ta x
or d uty up on its i mp orta ti on th ough th e y might in thi s w a y
t

'

I t sh oul d b e s ta te d th a t th e P oppy is cul ti a ted to some e tent in "una n and


oth e r provinces , in t h e sout hern part of C hina , but ag ains t th e e pres s l a ws of th e
C hines e go ernment

'

44

l a rge re venue A nd a l l p roposa ls or sugges tions in re fe r


e nce to e ncouragi ng th e c ul tiv a tion of t he P opp y or th a t t he
tra d e in the d rug be l ega lized origi na te d in the opi ni on a nd fe a r
T hi s is
th a t its cont ra ba nd i ntrod ucti on coul d not be prevented
a wit h
a l a me nt a bl e s ta te of thi ngs in a grea t na ti on li k e Chi n
of i nha b ita nts
T he E mpe ror w h e n urge d t o
It is
le ga lize the tra d e re pli e d in the e me morab le w ord s

true sa id he I ca nnot pre v e nt t he i ntrod uction of the owi ng


poi son; ga i n see ki ng a nd corrupt me n will for p ro t a nd se ns u
a lity d e fea t my w i s h e s ; but nothing w il l ind uce me to d erive a

e
m
o
l
e
revenue f rom the vice a nd mis ery o
f yp p
M uc h has bee n sa id re s pe cti ng the a nti socia l a nd non i nte r
It
course ch ara c te r a nd pri ncipl e s of t he Chi nese gove rnme nt
wa s s o w h e n E urope a ns rs t w e nt to Chi na
Th ey a ll owe d t o
some e xte nt c omme rci a l b ut not political or di pl oma tic i nte r
course This has bee n t h e i r fore ign policy from ti me imme mo
I t see ms to be i nte rwove n a s a pa rt of th e i r na tiona l ch a r
ri a l
A nd ha s the cond uct of E urope a ns be e n
a cte r a nd e xi st e nce
s uch a s to ov e rcome thi s p rej udice a nd se c ure th e i r conde nce ?
L ook a t the wh ol e history of t he O pi um t ra de for a h a l f ce nt ury
H as not this ca use more th a n a ny oth e r te nde d not
a nd more
onl y to pe rpe t ua te b ut a l so i ncrease thi s e xcl usive a nd non i nte r
course p ra cti ce ? Aga i n Wh a t has be e n t he his tory of Ja va
A sa m Ce yl on Ea ste rn a nd We s te rn I ndia a nd oth e r na ti ons
wh e re E urope a ns had obta ined fre e a ccess ? Ha ve not all th e se
na ti ons be e n s ubj uga te d st rippe d of the i r most va l ua bl e possess
ions a nd vi rt ua ll y mad e sl a ves to th ese fore ign pow e rs ? T h e
Chi nese k ne w th e se fa cts we ll Wa s it stra nge th e n th a t wh e n
s uc h a fa te b e fa lli ng th e ir ne ighb ors s ta re d th e m a l s o in t he fa ce
the y s h ould p e rsis t more th a n e v e r in t he i r non intercourse pol
icy ? Wa s not t hi s th e i r only re sort to a v oid comi ng i nto
hostil e conict with fore i gn na ti ons ? A nd was thi s a cri mi na l
t hi ng a nd did it a ord a ny re ason or j us ti ca ti on for re course to
wa r ? I t is not pre te nde d b ut th a t the Chi ne se w e re guilty of
ma ny gra v e a nd se ri ous p rov oca ti ons to wa r a side from t hi s
tra f c ; th e i r trea t ment of L ord Na pi e r a nd certa i n meas ure s
e mpl oy e d to ob ta i n re d ress for e vil s re a l or i ma i na ry i nicte d
g
upon th e m by fore igne rs w e re h ig hl y cen
But would t he
s ura b l e
ra ise a

'

45

t war e ve r h a ve a rise n ha d it not bee n for the E nglish


e
r
s
s
n
n
i
t
l
n
s
s
i
n
r
u
n
n
a
i
ti
g
hi
u
G
S
t
th
t
i
r
e
r
t
a
a
d
e
S
e
o
o
m
?
p
gg
g
g
w h om th e re is no hig h e r a uth ority in B rita i n be i ng thoroughl y
ve rse d in Chi ne se hi s t ory a nd a ffa i rs de cl a re d in Pa rlia me nt th a t

if th e re ha d be e n no Opium th e re ha d b e e n no w a r
T he Chi ne se be i ng i ne xpe ri e nce d in t he ta ctics of mod e rn w a r
fa re soon found t h e mse lv e s ov e rpow e re d b y Briti s h a rms a nd
w e re not di s p ose d to conti nue l ong so une q ua l a contes t
A fte r
se v e ra l uns ucce ss ful e ncounte rs w hich th re w four of th e i r p ri n
c ipa l citi es i nto the h a nd s of th e i r e ne mi e s a nd ndi ng N a nki ng
block a d e d a nd Pe k ing t he ca pita l itse l f th rea te ne d Ke yi ng
h igh commiss ione r of t he E mpe ror a dd resse d a communica ti on
to S ir He nry P otti nge r comma nd e r of t he B riti s h force s re que s t
ing a c e ssa ti on of h os til iti e s a nd soli c iti ng a n i nte rvi e w with
re fe re nce to te rms of pea c e
T he a rti cl e s of t rea ty propose d b y
t he E ngli s h P l e nipote nti a ry we re :
l s t La sti ng pea ce b e tw e e n
th e t wo e mpi re s
2 nd T he Chi ne se gov e rnme nt to pa y tw e nt y
one milli ons of d oll a rs be fore t he e xpi ra ti on of th ree y ea rs tw el v e
be i ng for t he e xpe nse s of the w a r th re e for d e bts d ue t he E ng
li s h me rch a nts a nd six for t he Opi um dest roye d 3 rd T he ports
of Ca nton A moy Fughc ha u Ni ngpo a nd Sh a ngh a i to be
th row n ope n to B riti s h t ra d e a nd re s ide nce und e r s uch rest ric
tions a s s ha ll be sa ti s fa ctory 4 th T he isl a nd of H ong Kong to
be ce d e d to t he "uee n 5 t h A l l B ri ti s h p ri sone rs to b e re l e a s e d
6 t h All Chi ne se int he h a nd s of t he E ngl i s h to be pa rd one d a nd
h e ld guiltl ess 7 th Corre s ponde nce to b e cond ucte d h e rea fte r
8 t h W h e n t he t rea ty re ce iv e s the
on t e rms of pe rfe ct e qua lity
E mpe ror s asse nt a nd six milli ons of d olla rs a re pa id t he E ng
lis h force s s h a ll withd ra w from t he rive r a nd t he pl ace s now occ u
pie d b ut Ch usa n a nd Kula ng to b e re ta i ne d til l a l l p rovis ions of
t he t rea t y a re compl e te d
A fte r th e se se v e ra l ite ms ha d be e n disc usse d be twe e n t he two
t
r
s
h
e
di
t
b
c
i
u
r
n
s
a
e
pa rti es t he tra d e in Opi um t he chief ca use o
f
why will you
was i nt rod uce d
T he C hi ne se a nxiousl y i nq ui re
not p rohib it t he growth of t he P oppy in y our d omi ni ons a nd th us

"our pe opl e must


e ec tua l l y st op s o pe rnici ous a t ra f c ?
be c ome v irt uous a nd y our of ce rs i ncorruptibl e a nd th e n you

is t he re pl y T he
ca ns top t h e Opi um c omi ng i nt o y our c ount ry
r
e
se
n
p

'

46

C hi ne se consci ous th a t t he i rpe opl e ha d not mora l p ri ncipl e e nough


to re s i s t t he use of t he d rug nor phy s i ca l force s uf ci e nt to re
p
ve nt its i ntrod ucti on by s muggl i ng ea rne s tly d e s i re d t he a d op t i on
of s ome me asure by t he E ngli s h th e mse l v e s whi c h w oul d e ra d i ca t e
t he e vil root a nd b ra nc h a nd th e re fore p re sse d t he que s ti on s till
more urge ntly
Oth e r p e opl e will b ri ng it to you if w e st op
t he c ul tiva ti on of t h e P oppy ; if E ngl a nd c h ose to e x e rci se s o
a rbit ra ry a p owe r ov e r he r t ill e rs of t h e s oil it w oul d not c h e c k t h e

e vi l
a dd s t h e E nv oy
"ou ca nnot d o be tte r th a n l e ga liz e its
i mporta t ion a nd t he re by li mit if not re move t he fa cili tie s whi c h

now e xi s t for s muggli ng


T he Chi nese a ck now l edge d t h e
pl a us ibility of t he a rgume nt b ut e xp re sse d th e mse lve s pe rs ua d e d
th a t t h e i r ma s te r w ould ne ve r li ste n to a w ord on t he s ubj e c t
T h e y w e re e vid e ntly di sa pp oi nte d th a t s ome prop ositi on to put
a n e nd to t h i s i nfe rna l t ra ic wa s not ma d e a p a rt of t he a rt i cl e s
of a g re e me nt ; a nd whil e a ppa re nt l y h e s ita ti ng a nd ra i s i ng ob
t
e
o
i
c
n
s
s
n
m
a
e
t
t
n
w
o
n
th
i
p
o
i
t
t
a
i
ti
t
d
h
a
a
d
e
l
y
l
s
i
a
o
r
r
e
f
u
s
n
a
j
y
to a cce pt t he condi t i ons a l re a dy b e fore th e m w oul d l ea d a t once
to a re ne w a l of h os tili ti e s
Th us th e y w e re a b sol ute ly compe ll e d
to a cce d e toj us t s uc h t e rms a s th e i r e ne mi e s p ropos e d or e l se se e
th e i r count ry pl unge d s till d e e p e r i nto a ll t he h orrors of a sa n
,

u
n
r
i
a
w
r
a
g
y

Th e re

h re e p oi nt s in t h e se a rti cl e s of t re a ty d e se rv
W e nd of t he tw e nty one
ing more p a rt i c ul a r a tte nti on
milli ons of d oll a rs e x a c te d of t he Ch ine se s ix put d ow n a s in
d emnity to t he ow ne rs of t he
ch e st s of Opi um whi c h
we re d e stroy e d A ccordi ng to t he l a w s a nd usa ges of a l l ci vi l
ize d na ti ons contra b a nd g ood s a re li a b le t o forfe it ure a nd con s
ca ti on Thi s is t he p e na l ty i nva ria bly a t ta c h e d to t he vi ola tion
*
N 0 one que s t ione d for a mome nt t h a t t he Chi ne se
of s uc h l a w s
t
o
v
t
p
t
ight
e na c t s uc h l a w s a nd wh e n vio
f
e
r
o
e
r
c
r
e
n
n
m
d
e
h
a
g
l a te d to s e iz e t he s muggl e d a rti cl e if ne e d be vi cl a rmis I n
thi s ca se no vi ol e nt me a sure s w e re re sorte d to I nste a d of se ll
ing t he Opi um a nd d e p osi t i ng t he p roce e d s in t he p ubli c t re a s ury
a re

t w o or t

ve y id

muggl ers

w h o h a ve l os t th eir property b y th e
k
w
m
s
re
s
t
e
r
u
h
n
e
s
t
o
o
e
h
h
w
s , w hich t h e
l
s
e
e
f
l
a
v
i
a
t
e
d
T
u
r
i
n
t
e
o
e
t
a
t
o
s
o
o
e
,
p
p
y
j
y
p
ris k s t h ey incurre d ; t h ey w e re t h e ir ow n ins ure rs ; th ey h a ve rea ped a pro t in pa s t
f
l
i
i
u
c
n
r
m
i
t
h
c
n
a
o
w
h
u
f
f
er
s
o
e
o
t
h
s
t
h
h
v
e
d
d
d
s
n
l
s
e
n
s
o
e
w
ears
t
h
o
a
a
d
e
t
t
a
l
e
o
o
,
,
y
y
y

T he

ea

of ind emnify ing

r
p o ts

A s ia tic Journal , 1 8 3 9

47

E mpe ror orde re d e v e ry ches t to be publicly destroyed as a n


e vid e nce of h is d e te s ta ti on of t he d rug
T he ow ne rs ha d be e n
fore wa rne d a ga i n a nd aga i n ; th e y k ne w full w e l l wh a t mig ht
u
s tly be t h e cons e que nce s of t he i r forbidd e n course
why
n
A
d
j
only h a lf of t he e s t i ma te d v a l ue of t he Opi um cl a i me d ? T he
s mu gl e rs oug ht t o h a v e l os t t he w hol e in e q uity
w
a
l
l
f
o
r
as
g
fe ite d
O n w h a t p ri nc ipl e s t h e n of j uri s p rud e nce or for wh a t
rea s ons w a s only h a l f its v a l ue e x acte d ?
D o t he E nglis h gov e rn
me nt e v e r pa y for s muggl e d good s w h e n se ize d ? D o t he y
e v e r d es tro
ri ous t o th e i r
th
wh
th
i
r use w ould be i n
j
u
m
e
n
e
e
y
o
e
pl
e
p
Thi s t re a ty re qui re d tha t ve of t he p ri nc ipa l c iti e s of Chi na
s h ould b e th row n o e n to B ritis h t ra d e a nd resid e nce und e r ce r
p
ta in re st ri ctions w hic h s h oul d be sa ti s fa ctory to t he E ng l is h a s
w e l l a s t he Chi ne s e
a nd t he i s l a nd of H ong K ong to be ce d e d
out right a nd fore ve r to t he "ue e n
T he p rofe s se d obj e c t of t hi s
p rovi s i on w a s to ope n the c hi e f ports of Chi na for ge ne ra l t ra d e
a nd comme rci a l i nte rcours e w hi c h might p rov e e q ua lly a s b e ne
cia l to th a t na ti on a s to oth e rs
B ut wh a t ha s be e n its p ra cti ca l
e ffe ct ?
H a s it not ope ne d t he d oor s till wid e r a nd give n a more
pe rma ne nt footh ol d th a n e ve r for t he Opi um t ra f c ? T he Ca n
ton Ci rc ul a r of 1 8 4 6 s pe a ki ng of t he hig h p ri ce whi c h t he d rug
We
b rought a t th a t ti me ve ry s igni ca ntly re ma rk e d th us :
ne e d not ask th e n the que s ti on w ho ha s be e n c hi e y b e ne tte d

by t he wa r in Chi na j us tly ca ll e d t h e O pium w a r


H ong Kong is a n i sla nd e igh t mil e s in l e ngth a nd from t wo
t o four mil e s in b re a d t h nea r t he mouth of C a nt on riv e r a nd
It now conta i ns a p op ul a ti on of
3 7 mil e s e a s twa rd of M a ca o
a b out
a nd be s id e s b e i ng ve ry a cce ss ibl e t o a ny p a rt of
t he Chi ne se c oa s t p osse s se s one of t he be s t h a rb ors in t he w orld
T he E ngli s h s e l e cte d thi s i s l a nd a s a gre a t d e pot for t ra d e a nd
h a v e e xpe nd e d a ccordi ng to M r M a rt i n s e s ti ma t e s ix or e ight
milli ons of d oll a rs on p ublic i mp rov e me nt s s uc h a s road s wh a rve s
b uildi ngs e tc M os t of t he E ngli s h of ce rs re sid e h e re a nd a re
s upp orte d by gov e rnme nt a t a n e xpe ns e of more th a n tw o h un
d re d th ousa nd d olla rs a nnua lly T he sa l a ry of the gove rnor
a l one is b e tw e e n thi rty tw o a nd thi rty th re e th ousa nd d oll a rs
T he p rincipa l a rticle of comme rce ca rri e d on h e re is Opi um
t he

48

Bes id e s numerous shops

a nd stores , se ve ra

l arge

hips
I n 1 8 4 5 a n i mpor
a re s ta ti one d t he y e a r round in t he h a rbor
ta nt e v e nt oc curre d h e re in the h istory of t he t ra d e viz G ov e rnor
Da vi s lice nse d t he p ublic sa l e of Opi um by re ta il M r R M
M a rti n the n t re a s ure r a nd me mbe r of t he Ex e cutiv e Council
ea rne s tly oppose d t he mea sure a nd in h is w ork on Chi na a l rea dy
p 1 8 6 e xp re sse his disse nt in pa rt in t he
re fe rre d to vol II
foll owi ng s t rong l a ngua ge
Twe nty Opi um s h ops h a ve bee n
lice nse d in Hong K ong wit hi n gun s h ot of t he Chi ne se E mpi re
w h e re s uch a n oe nce is d ea t h " H ong K ong ha s now th e re
fore bee n ma d e t he l a w ful O pium s mok ing s h op wh e re t he mos t
a nd d e p ra v e d of t he Chi ne se ma y
se ns ua l d i ssol ute d e g ra d ed
se c ure ly pe rpe t ra te c ri me s whic h d e gra d e me n fa r b e l ow t he l e v e l
of the b rute a nd re v e l in a vi ce whi c h d e st roy s b ody a nd s oul ;
which ha s no pa ra ll e l in its fas ci na ti ng se d ucti on in its i ne xp ress
ibl e mi se ry or in its a ppa l l i ng rui n W he n t he Gov e rnor
propose d t he conve rsion of H ong K ong i nto a l e ga lize d Opi um
s h op
und e r t he a ssume d lice nse of our mos t g ra ci ous a nd
re ligi ous S ov e re i gn I fe lt b ound a s a s worn me mbe r of H e r
Maj e sty s Counc il in Chi na to e ndea vor t o di ssua de him from thi s
gre a t c ri me ; b ut no re a soni ng w ould i nd uce h im to foll ow t h e
nobl e e x a mpl e of t he E mpe ror of Chi na w ho wh e n urge d t o
d e rive a re ve nue from the i mporta ti on of Opi um th us righteously
re corde d h is se nti me nt s ina na ns we r whic h w ould h a v e bee n w or
thy of a C hri stia n mona rc h
I t is true I cannot prevent th e
d
c
r
a
t
ee
k
n
n
o
r
u
int rod uction o
i
n
s
i
o
w
t
h
o
i
s
o
n
a
i
n
e
f
p

g p
g
g
men w il l f or pro t a nd s ens ua l ity d ef ea t my w is hes but
s
re ce vin
g

'

v
c
e
n
d
a
t
h
e
i
m
f

e
l
e
B
u
o
m
t
mone y w a s de e me d of more conse
mis ery o
f yp p
o
n
n
n
m
o
a
r
i
H
K
g
th
o
a
lity
it
d
t
i
d
i
h
e
u
n
ce
n
w
n
n
t
e
a
s
e
e
r
m
e
g
q

nothing w il l ind uce me to d erive

a revenue

ro

na me of H e r

Maj e sty to se ll t he pe rmi ssi on to t he hi ghe st bid


of the e xcl us iv e right to poi son t he C hi
d e r by p ublic a ucti on
a nd t o op e n a giv e n numbe r of Opi um s mo
ne se in H ong Kong
k i ng s h op s und e r t he p rote cti onof t he poli ce for the commi ss i on
W ould w e h a ve a cte d th us towa rd s F ra nce
of this a ppa lli ng vice
or R ussia a nd e sta bli s h e d a smuggli ng d e p ot on th e i r s h ore s in a
p rohibite d a nd te rri c p oi son? We d a re not W hy th e n
s h ould we l ega li ze a nd p rote ct t h i s d re a d ful t ra ic on a n i sl a nd
-

49
e
n
o
t
u
s
t
m
f
iv
b
y
h
e
v
er
n
n
o
Chi
id
c
r
e
t
n
r
o
a
as
a
es
e
n
e
a
n
d
f
o
g
g

comme rcia l intercourse


Th us the wa r i nstea d of putti ng a n e nd or e ve n a c h e ck to
th i s e vil h as a ct ua ll y a ord e d g re a te r fa ciliti e s for p ros e c uti ng
the tra ic
I t wa s ne v e r in a more ouri s hi ng a nd vigorous sta te
tha n a t the p re se nt ti me M ore th a n
c h e s t s a re now
a nnua lly s hippe d to C hi na ta ki ng off in re t urn thi rty ve mil
lions of d olla rs a sum grea te r by one h a l f th a n is pa id on t he
wh ol e i mports from a ll oth e r countri e s A ccordi ng to t he mos t
re ce nt i nt e llige nce it is esti ma te d th a t t he sa l e w ill re a ch
c h es ts t he p re se nt y ea r
T he a rticl e is l a nd e d a l l a l ong t h e coa s t
A nd notwith s ta ndi ng
a nd s mok e d publicly in th e chi e f citi es
the s upply has ra pidl y i ncre a se d t he d e ma nd more th a n k e e p s
pa ce with it ; a nd s uch in all p robability will conti nue to b e the
case for ma ny ye a rs if not a ge s to come unl ess Divi ne P rovi
d e nce s h oul d i nte rpose to a rre st its p rogre ss
T he ol d l a w s pro
ge d Th a t th e ir
hib it ing its use a nd t ra f c still re ma i n unc h an
na t ure with the p e na lti e s a tta ch e d ma y b e corre ctly und e rst ood
w e w ill h e re cop y th e m a s th e y now stand in the X I th v ol ume of
Dea l e rs inOpi um s ha ll b e e xp ose d
th e P e na l C od e of Chi na
with t he w ood e n coll a r a bout the i r ne ck s one month a nd th e n
Accomplices s ha ll b e p uni s h e d
se nt to t he a rmy ont he fronti e r
with a h und re d bl ow s a nd transporte d th re e y e ars T h ose w ho
ope n s h e ps to se ll Opi um a nd e ntice the sons of re s p e cta bl e fa m
il ie s to smok e s h a ll be cond e mne d to d e a th by s t ra ngli ng a fte r a
e s s h a ll b e p uni s h e d with a
Acc
o
plic
m
ri od of con ne me nt
e
p
h und red bl ows a nd tra ns porte d th ree y ea rs M a ste rs of b oa ts
cons ta bl es a nd ne ighbors s h all b e p uni s h e d with a h und re d bl ows
O f ce rs of gove rnme nt a t Court
a nd th ree y e a rs t ra ns p orta ti on
w ho b uy a nd smok e Opi um s h a ll b e di s mi sse d from t he se rvice
re ce iv e a h und re d bl ow s a nd e xp ose d wit h t he coll a r a b out th e i r
S oldi e rs a nd common pe opl e w ho buy a nd
ne ck t w o month s
d re d bl ow s a nd e x
s mok e Opi um s ha ll be p uni s h e d with a h un

pose d wit h the coll a r one month


But th e se l a w s t o a l l p ra ctica l p urp ose s a re a d ea d l e tte r on
th e i r sta t ute b ook Si nce the wa r with E ngl a nd s ca rce ly a ny
a tt e mpt wh a t e v e r ha s b e e nma d e b y the C h ine se to e nforce th e m
s
f
w
f
a
o
r
n
e
r
i
thi
p
i
h
e
t
o
th
i
vi
l
ti
ve ry fre
s
w
a
u
s
r
o
n
r
t
n
o
o
r
a
m
o
P
.

'

50

quent occurre nce It is somew h at dif cul t to a ccount for the


p re se nt i na ctive course of t he Ch ine se gove rnme nt in re spe ct to
a n e vil whi c h is e x e rti ng s uch a d e s t ructiv e i n ue nce on th a t

pe opl e M r Wl l l ia ms re ma rk s th a t thi s cond uct ca n be e x


pl a i ne d onl y on the s upp os iti on th a t h a vi ng sue re d so muc h
the E mpe ror a nd h is mi ni s te rs th ought sa fe ty from fut ure troub l e
l a y in e nd uri ng wh a t w as pa st c uri ng ; th e y ha d a l re a dy s ue re d
b
r
e
u
s
w
e
tly
tt
pti
g
pp
it
n
th
r
ight
a
i
n
t
o
s
r
e
s
n
d
o
e
r
a
m
n
m
a
a
e
a
g
ca use d by me ddli ng with t he d a nge rous subj e ct s i nce too it w as
now gua rd e d by w e ll a rme d v e sse l s
P ublic opi ni on wa s still too
s t rong a ga i ns t or e l se c onsi s t e nc y oblige d th e mona rch to forbid
l e ga liza tion w hich he could h a rdl y a v oid a ck nowled gi ng w a s t he

l e a s t of tw o e vil s
It is a n e a sy thi ng for a gov e rnme nt t o p a ss
l a w s i nte rfe ri ng with p e ople s a ppe tite s a nd ta ste s b ut a v e ry
d iicul t thi ng to e nforce such l a w s
S ome p orti ons of our ow n
count ry with a p op ula ti on a s mora l a nd orde rly a s ca n be found
on t he gl ob e und e rsta nd thi s di f c ult y w e ll wh e re l a w s h a v e
be e n e na cte d to s upp re ss the sa l e of i ntoxica ti ng d ri nk s t he e xe
outi e n of which has e ncounte re d v e ry p ow e rful oppos iti on H ow
much g re a te r th e n must be thi s d iicul ty a mong a popul a ti on
lik e the Chi ne se in a tte mpti ng to p rohibit th e sa le a nd use of a n
a rticl e fa r more fa sci na ti ng th a n a rd e nt s p irits a nd e s pe ci a ll y
w h e n the p ri ncipa l d e p re da tors as in t he p re s e nt ca se a re re l a
t ive l y s o g re a t a nd p ow e rful a s t he E ngli s h ?
T he e normous p ro ts w hic h t he E ast I ndia C ompa ny a nd me r
ch a nts re ce iv e from thi s t ra f c cons titute a n i mp orta nt fea t ure in
its ch ara cte r a nd di s ti ng ui s h it from al l oth e r a rticl e s of com
me rce Conne cte d w ith thi s fa ct is a l so a noth er e qua lly i mpor
ta nt viz t he im
mens e d ra in o
s
e
r
c
i
e
C
h
i
n
a
o
T
h
m
e
f p
f

F rie nd of I ndi a for J ul y 2 6 1 8 4 9 p ri nte d a t S e ra mp ore a nd of


t h e h igh e s t a ut horit y in ma tte rs of thi s ki nd p ubli s h e d t he foll ow
ing fa c ts be a ri ng onthi s p oi nt :
T he cl e a r p ro t of the B riti s h
o
e
r
n
m
e
n
h
s
u
o
f
f
m
o
n
m
i
r
o
t
e
o
n
f
u
v
t
I
d
c
pti
Opi
b
y
Chi
n
a
o
m
t
h
e
g
nese a t t he e nd of t he of ci a l y e a r 1 8 4 8
9 i ncl udi ng of c ourse
t he ta x on M a lw a Opi um a t B omb a y w ill b e found to h a ve fa ll e n
li ttl e s h ort of three c rore s a nd tw enty l a kh s of rupees or three
.

'

'

mil l ions two hund red th ous a nd pound s s terl ing


I t is the most s i ngul a r a nd mos t a noma l ous tra ic in the w orld
,

51

T o al l

p rese nt a ppea ra nce s we s houl d nd it di f cult toma i nta i n


o ur h old of I ndi a wi t hout it ; our a d mi ni s t ra ti on w ould b e
s wa mpe d by its na nci a l e mba rra s s me nts
I ts e ffe cts on Chi ne se
nance s mus t be a s di sa s t rous a s it is be ne cia l to our ow n T h e
tra de is not l e ga lize d in Chi na a nd t he d rug is pa id for in ha rd
T he a nnua l d ra i n of t he p re ci ous me ta l s from Chi na
cash
th rough thi s a rticl e is th e re fore be tw e e n ve a nd six millions
ste rli ng
N o w onde r th a t the Ca bi ne t a t Pe ki ng a re st ruck d umb
by th i s oozi ng out of s ilve r a nd th a t we h e a r from time to
time of t he mos t resol ute de te rmi na ti on to e xti nguis h t he t ra d e
But with more th a n a th ousa nd mile s of se a coa s t to g ua rd a nd so
sma ll a p rote ctiv e na v
i
n
d
n
n
e te nth s of t he oice rs in it v e na l
a
y

to a p rove rb th a t C a bi ne t is h e lpl e ss
H e re w e h a ve a cl e a r pro t in one y ea r to the B ritis h gov e rn
me nt in I ndi a
or
which a ccrue d from
the sa l e of
ch es ts of Opi um T he sa l e s for the ve pre
vious y ea rs w e re
as
foll ow s :
1 8 43
ch e sts ;
4
,

1 8 44
1 847

1 8 46

6,

1 8 45

5,

7,

mounti ng in a l l , with th ose of

1 8 48

9,

e a ch y ea r
v
i ng
Esti ma ti ng the
sa l es of t he ve rs t y e a rs a t t he sa me ra te a s th ose of 1 8 48
9 (a nd w e b e li e v e the a v e rag e price ob ta i ne d wa s cons id e ra bly
hig he r ) w e h a ve a n a nnua l re ve nue d uri ng t he l ast s ix y ea rs to
the E a s t I ndi a C ompa ny of
a mounti ng in a l l to
"e s be sid e s the e xpe nse a tte ndi ng the
nea rl y
p rod uction t ra ns porta ti on a nd sa le of the d rug in India thi s
s i ngl e a rti c l e of t ra d e ha s yi e ld e d t hi s v a s t s um of cl e ar p ro t to
t he E a s t I ndia C ompa ny s i nce the d e cl a ra ti on of p ea ce b e twe e n
Chi na a nd E ngla nd We ll might t he w rite r of the a bove a rticle
fea r in ca se of its re mova l th a t t he B riti s h gove rnme nt w ould
nd it di f c ult to ma i nta i n its h old in I ndia a nd th a t its a d mi n

is tra tion th e re w ould b e sw a mp e d by na nci a l e mba rra ssme nts


B ut t he a nnua l d ra i n of the p re ci ous me ta l s from Chi na is
more t han ve or s ix mi l l i ons ste rli ng We h a v e see n th a t t he
a v e ra ge numbe r of ch e s ts sold from 1 8 43 to 1 8 4 9 w a s
e
a
er
a
h
e
t
e
o
t
e
s
u
n
cc
di
h
b
t
a
th
iti
s
v
n
r
u
d
o
r
n
o
r
e
a
n
m
a
a
t
e
;
g
g
p
p ri ce which t he Chines e ipf l a te y ea rs h a v e pa id for Opi um has
A t thi s ra te the a nnua l d rain of s pecie
be e n $ 7 0 0 pe r ch e st

h t

to

c e s s , a e rag

52

Chi na w ould be
a nd for t he l as t six y e a rs
it w ould a mount to
F rom a ca reful e xa mi na ti on
of t he a mount of Opi um sold d uri ng t he six y e a rs i mme di a t e l y
p re ce di ng th e wa r t ha t is from 1 8 3 3 to 1 8 3 9 w e nd the a v e r
a ge qua ntit y to fa ll b ut littl e s h ort of
ch e s ts pe r a nnum
*
which a t $ 6 0 0 pe r ch es t ma kes a na nnua l d ra i n of
0 0 0 a nd d uri ng th i s p e ri od of s ix y e ars t he sum of
c h e st s
000
F rom 1 8 2 3 to 1 8 3 3 t he a v era ge sa le was
a nnua lly which a t t he sa me ra t e a nd for thi s p e ri od of te n y e a rs
I f w e now a d d t he $ 2 1 0 0 0
a mount s t o
more
0 0 0 which t he Chi ne se pa id t he E ngl i s h gov e rnme nt a t t he cl os e
of t he wa r for t he d e s t ructi on of t he
c he sts of Opi um
a nd a l so for l osse s by t he Hong me rch a nts toge th e r with t he
e xpe nse s a tte ndi ng th e w ar w e h a v e th e round s um of $ 3 90
nea rl y one h a l f of w h ich found its wa y di re ctl y i nto
t h e t re a s ury of t he E as t I ndi a C ompa ny a nd t he re ma i nd e r i nto
t he pock e t s of t h ose e nga ge d in t he t ra f c
A nd w e ma y sa fe ly ca lcul a te th a t the O pi um c onsume d by t he
C hi ne se p ri or to 1 8 2 2 cos t th e m
more
We h a v e
th e n the i mme nse s um of
of s pe ci e d ra i ne d from
Chi na withi n t he l a s t ha l f ce nt ury for thi s si ngl e a rticl e a lone
a nd a l l thi s too in e xp re ss vi ol a ti on of t he re pe a te d e dicts of t h e

E mpe ror forbiddi ng the e xporta tion of syce e silve r


N o
w ond e r t ha t t he C a b i ne t of Pe ki ng a re s truck d umb by thi s

of t he s ilv e r " Wh a t oth e r na ti on is t h e re on t he


oozi ng out
e which w oul d or co
o
l
d
f
i
l
b
b
e
a
r
s
u
ch
h
e
v
y
d
t
s
u
n
t
s
o
u
a
r
a
g
p
p re ci ous me ta l s ? 1
But thi s fore ig n d ra i n of s i l v e r d oes not cov e r t he wh ol e
T here a re in a ddi tion the pe rquis ite s or b ribe s pa id to
e xp e nse
l oca l of ce rs a nd t he p ro ts of the re ta il er which und oubte dl y
to
would a nnua ll y i ncrea se the e xp ense from
on

,
.

'

l
a
u
In 1 83 9, wh en th e Ch ines e destroyed th e
i
w
as
ed
i
u
m
ch ests of
t
,
p
t h a t is $ 60 0 per ch est
Th is was consid ered a t th e time, a modera te
at
estima te ; no compl aint w as ma d e ag ains t it on th e part of th e C h inese : s ince th e n
T h e h igh est for which
th e a erage price h as not aried much from $ 700 per ch es t
I

'

1
6
9
r
h
2
3
60
i
n
7
n
w
s
it was e er sol d , w as
c
s
1
8
d
l
t
e
t
i
n
1
a
t
h
e
o
e
e
$
p
;
1 Since writing th e a bo e paragra ph , we are informed by a gehtl ema n wel l ac
h
se tra d e, th a t some deduction sh oul d be made from th ese es ti
i
n
e
w
i
d
t
h
C
u
a
i
n
t
e
q
mates of th e drain of bull ion, as bill s of e ch ange are frequentl y recei ed in
hi
f
i
u
m
w
c
h
n
t
r
a
m
are used b y merch ants to urc a se teas , sil k s , etc of the
o
e
p
p y
p
.

v
.

53

more

x a ct amount of p ro t ma d e in the
reta il t ra d e ca nnot be d e nite ly s ta te d a s it mus t v a ry a t di ffe r
en
t ti me s a nd pla ce s a nd t h e n d e pe nd s upon a va ri e ty of
ci
rcums ta nce s which it is v e ry d iicul t to i nv esti a te
f
u
r
B
t
o
m
g
a ca re ful e x a mi na ti on of a l l t he mea ns a t our comma nd w e a re
sati s e d th a t it mus t ona n a v e ra e cons id e ra b l y e xce e d tw e nty ve
g
r
e
e
n
c
t A nd wha t re t urnof commodity or e quiva le nt in va l ue
p
doe s thi s i mme nse outla y b ri ng t o Chi na ? N othi ng "N 0 not hi ng
but l os s of h ea lth wa ste of p rope rt y me nta l i mbe cility mora l
degra da ti on a nd d e st ruction of li fe
T hese evil s ca nnot b e
reck one d in d oll ars a nd ce nt s : g ure s a nd l a ng ua ge both ut te rl y
fa il to port ra y th e i r ma g nit ude a nd e xte nt
T he cl e a r p ro t to me rch a nt s e nga ge d in the tra ic is re p t e
sente d b y M r M a rti n to a v e ra ge a bout 1 5
s
r
c
t
I
t
i
s
t
a
t
e
d
e
e
n
p
tha t in conse que nce of re a lizi ng s uch s ure ga i ns in so s h ort a
time a nd with so littl e trouble in the Opi um tra d e th e y a re
unwilli ng to e mba rk in a ny oth e r b ra nch of comme rce or b us i
nes s
It s h ould be borne inmi nd th a t ca rgoe s of Opi um inp oi nt
of v a l ue a nd ce rt a i nty of s a l e a re v e ry unlik e th os e of a l l oth e r
o
t
n
o
d
s
o
h
r
u
o
a
v
l
th
t
t
p
t
d
g
I
di
Chi
T
e
s
s
r
t
e
f
r
o
m
n
a
h
s
s
r
a
n
e
e
a
g
w
n
t
r
e
e
e
er
s
s
n
o
o
r
e
ll
y
c
y
m
o
c
h
t
m
a
ki
g
th
0
0
a
rr
o
1
3
f
r
8
0
0
t
a
g
voyage s in a ye a r which se lli ng a t $ 70 0 pe r ch e s t will p rod uce
I n 1 8 4 8 one
in re t urn from
to ov e r
ship ca rri e d 1 8 0 0 ch e st s from B omba y t o H ong K ong a nd s old
it for $ 7 5 0 pe r ch es t re ce ivi ng for thi s s i ngl e ca rgo
S uppose a ve sse l ca rrie s 1 0 0 0 c h e st s a nd se ll s for
thi s a t 1 5 pe r ce nt w oul d ne t t he ow ne r
B es id e s
t h e re is no ri s k or d e l a y in t he sa l e a nd t he pa y is a l wa y s ca s h
mm
e
s
n
h
e
e
w
s
o
f
t
t
i
n
s
a
n
e
will
ti
i
l
t
ti
n
ly
o
t
c
i
l
u
r
a
n
o
n
i
s
o
n
e
o
m
n
e
W
wea lth obta i ne d in thi s wa y M r Ja rdi ne (of t he rm Ja rdi ne
M a th e son 61 Co ) be i ng a bout to re t urn to E ngl a nd a fe w y e a rs
a l mos t
s ince di vid e d with his pa rt ne rs
(
00 0 ) of p ro t in t ra d e t he gre a te r p orti on of which ha d be e n
H owqua one of t he
a cc umul a te d in t he s pa ce of t e n y e a rs
l ea di ng H ong me rch a nts di e d in 1 8 4 2 h a vi ng bee n e nga ge d in
H is p rope rty a t h is d e cea se
th is t ra f c more th a n thi rt y y e a rs
or nea rly
wa s s uppose d to a mount to
H ow true it is t ha t e v er si nce t he world be ga n the c omme rce
T he

54

d among its a rticl es ,th e b od i es a nd souls of


me n has bee n mos t l ucra tive wh e th e r it be in one th a t d e a l s
d ire ctl y in es h a nd bones as somuc h me rch a ndi se or one which
te mpts with poi sonous d rugs a nd e ry d ri nk s
I t s h ould be h ome in mi nd a lsoth a t the p ro ts rece ive d b y me r
ch a nts from this tra ic a re divid e d a mong a s ma ll numbe r
re sid ing in Chi na I ndi a a nd E n
r
l
d
p
t
c
iv
by
a
n
h
e
r

s
e
e
e
d
T
o
g
t he E as t I ndia C ompa ny a mounti ng to a l mos t one h a l f of th e
wh ol e rece ipts go not onl y to e nha nce t he va l ue of its ca pital
s t ock
b ut to s upport the I ndia gov e rnme nt its numerous
Besides a considera bl e
of ce rs its l a rge a rmy na v y e tc
l
a nd
t
o
a mount of t he s pe ci e th us obta i ne d nd s its w a
E
n
g
y
a nd bill s of e xch a nge a re pa sse d to me rch a nts in L ond on Liv e r
pool a nd oth e r citi e s with which t he y p urc hase the ir te as s ilk s
M r Willia m St urge ss sta t e d
a nd oth e r me rch a ndi se of Chi na
in a l e ct ure d e liv e re d not l ong s i nce be fore t he Bos ton M e rca ntil e
Lib ra ry A ssocia ti on t h a t in 1 8 1 8
in s pe c i e wa s
ca rri e d from t he U nite d S ta te s to Chi na to pa y our i mp orta tions
from th a t country b ut now mos t a ll our p urc h ase s a re pa id
by bills of e xch a nge on E ngl a nd f rom the proceed s of the
w hich has

re ck one

O pium tra d e

Th e re is one oth e r i mp orta nt fa c t s ta te d in the p a ragra p h


t he i na bility of t he Chi ne se gove rnme nt to
a l re a d y q uote d viz
Thi s i na bi l ity a rise s ma i nly from th re e ca use s
e nforce its l a w s
l st from t he c h a ra cte r of the Chi nese p e opl e a s a ffe cte d by t h e
a rti c l e in t ra d e a nd 2 a dl y from t he p e c uli a r e xpos ure of t he
country a nd 3 d l y from t he p re se nt s ta te of its gov e rnme nt T he
Chi ne se pe opl e h a ve na t ura lly e xce ssiv e a cqui s itive ne ss a nd fond
ne s s for th ose te mp ora ry e nj oy me nt s whi c h d o not re q ui re gre a t
Be s ide s th e y h a v e ne v e r bee n t ra i ne d
s orts of b od y or mi nd
t o t h e rigid e x e rci se of mora l p ri ncipl e or d e ci s i on of ch a ra c t er
L a rge re w a rd s t h e re fore in t he w a y of b ribe s a ppe a l powe rfull y
to th e i r l ov e of ga i n a nd w he n once th e y h a v e ta s te d t he
be wi tchi ng pl ea s ure of thi s d rug th e y rea dily y i e ld to th e te mp
A nd t he l onge r suc h h a bits a re i nd ulge d t he more
ta t ion
p ow e rful the control of t he p rope ns itie s ov e r the i nte lle ct a nd
cons cie nce Th us a l l wh e th e r b ribe d or e nga ge d in v e ndi ng

or us i ng t he
owi ng poison be come more a nd more corrupt
.

55

pe rsons w il l re sort to all ma nne r of e xpe die nts to e v ade


l a w ; a nd no d e pe nd e nce wh a te v e r ca n b e pl a ce d in th e m e ith e r
Wh a t ca na gov e rnme nt d o with s uch
a s i ndivid ua l s or of ce rs
s ubj e ct s in a c ount ry t oo of more th a none th ousa nd mil e s of se a
c oa s t i nd e nte d with nume rous h arb ors i nl e t s a nd riv e rs i nviti ng
t h e w h ol esa l e Opi um s muggl e r with his richly l a d e n v e sse l a rme d
wit h a ll t he force s which w e alth a nd skill ca n comma nd a
count ry more ov e r w h ose se a p orts villa ge s a nd coa sts a re conti n
ua l l y th ronge d by milli ons of i nh a bita nt s goa d e d on by a n
a c ountry d e fe nd e d
i nsa tia bl e c ra vi ng for thi s fa sci na ti ng d rug
by a n a rmy a nd na vy a lwa y s sma ll b ut re nd e re d ine icie nt a nd
trea ch e rous by thi s v e ry p oi son itse l f a nd wit h ni ne te nth s of its
own gov ernme nta l oice rs v e na l s ure ly a C a bi ne t with such
w ith s uch d e fe nce s a nd s uch ag e nts mus t be h e lpl e ss
subj e cts
i nd ee d "
We h a ve a l rea d y see n wh a t a n i mme nse d ra i n of sp e cie thi s
t ra f c a nnua ll y ma k e s on Chi na Th ough s he a lwa y s re ce ive d
sma ll s uppli e s from t rib uta ry p rovi nce s h e r mi ne s origi na lly mus t
h a v e ra nk e d a mong t he rich e s t int he k now n w orld But to s uch
a n e xte nt ha s thi s d ra i n b e e n ca rri e d th a t ma ny of t he old e r
mi ne s a re now e nti re ly e xh a uste d a nd gov e rnme nt by the l a s t
re p ort s w a s a ct ua lly e ngag e d in ma ki ng s urv e y s to d i sc ov e r ne w
one s
M r W illi a ms s ta te s the foll owi ng i mporta nt fa ct th a t

t he Opi um t ra d e ha s b ee n for fte e n y e a rs ne a rly f teen mil


l ions o
d
x
o
l
l
r
t
e
l
r
e
a
n
e
e
a
s
i
n
x
e
s
s
h
r
e
u
a
c
h
c
c
o
m
m
o
f
f
f
g o
o
g
d ities a nd the d ra i nage of t he count ry for thi s ba l a nce will
p roba bly go on a s l ong a s t he ta s te for thi s p e rnici ous na rcotic

conti nue s or th e re is s pe ci e to pay for it


Th us w e se e th a t
notwi t h s ta ndi ng t he i mme nse q ua ntiti e s of te a a nd silk s whi c h
a re a nnua lly e xp orte d from Chi na th e i r v a l ue d oe s not b e gi n to
e q ua l t he e xp e ndit ure for Opi um a n a rticl e of l ux ury
or ra th e r
of d e st ructi on which b ri ngs no e q uiva l e nt in re t urn
A noth er
re ce nt w rite r re p re se nt s t he na nce s of Chi na to h a v e be e n in a n
e mba rra sse d s ta te for se v e ra l y e a rs pa s t ca use d by a di mi nuti on
of its re v e nue b ut which some a tt rib ute with more re a son to t he
va s t q ua ntity of s ilv e r whi c h l ea ves t he country to a
f
r t he
o
p y
Opi um s muggl e d i nto the Ce l estia l E mpi re by the E nglis h A nd
ma y not thi s be one of the age ncies w hich l ook t owa rd s t he
?
d ow nfa ll of th a t grea t na ti on
S uch

56

Be s ides this cons tant d ra i nof silve r in dimi nis hi ng the resource s
of Chi na t he cons umption of Opi um ope ra te s p ow e rfully in
oth e r w a ys to i mp ov e ri s h t he country
Politica l e conomi s ts ma k e
t he w e a lth of a na ti on t o be ma d e up of t he w e a lth of a ll t he
i ndivid ua l s composi ng it a nd th a t the origi na l source s of we a lt h
a re th ree l a bor l a nd
a nd ca pita l
Wh a te v e r l e sse ns e ith e r of
th e se or th e i r prod uctive ne ss wh en e mpl oye d upon ea ch oth e r
l e sse ns t he we a lth of t he wh ol e na ti on Ca pita l may be e m
pl oye d in two wa y s e ith e r to p rod uce ne w ca pita l or me rely to
a ord gra ti ca t i on a nd in t he p rod uc ti on of th a t gra ti ca ti on
ma y be cons ume d with out re pla ci ng its va l ue
T he rs t may be
ca ll e d ca pita l b ut t he las t e xpe nditure I f t he rst is la rge t he
l as t will be s ma ll a nd vi ce v e rsa With out a ny ch a nge in the
a mount of w e al th ca pita l will b e i nc re a se d by t he l e sse ni ng of
e xpe ndit ure a nd l e sse ne d by t he i ncreas e of e xpe ndit ure
L et
us a pply th e se w e ll e s ta bli s h e d p ri ncipl e s in p olitica l e conomy to
t he use of O pium z A ma n b uy s a q ua ntity a nd smok e s it
wh e n he w ould b e be tte r with out it T he e xpe nse of the articl e
a nd the ti me e mpl oy e d in obta i ni ng a nd s moki ng it a re a n e nti re
l oss H is l a bor a l so be comes le ss p rod uctive T he ca pita l of
course p rod uce d by his l a bor is di mi ni s h e d A nd the expe nd i
t ure goe s on cons ta ntly i nc reas i ng while the ca pita l is a t the
ti me cons ta ntly di mi ni s hi ng th e re by i mp ove ri s hi ng t he
s a me
i ndivid ua l more a nd more S uch is t he s impl e his tory of milli ons
A nd s uch is t he na t ura l a nd ne ce ssa ry te n
of ca se s in Chi na
d e ne y of the a buse of this na rcotic from begi nni ng to e nd I ts
use in thi s w a y is a p a lpa bl e a nd gross vi ol a ti on of a l l corre c t
p ri ncipl e s of politica l e conomy a nd must te nd i ne vita bl y a nd
powe rfully to di mi ni s h a ll t he source s of na tiona l w e a lth T he
i mp ove ri s h me nt will a ppe a r still more s triki ng if w e be a r inmi nd
th a t its use is con ne d ma i nly to men w ho a re a lwa ys cons ide re d
the g rea te s t p rod uce rs a nd w ho a fte r h a vi ng forme d th e h a bit
live on a n a v e ra ge onl y 1 0 or 1 2 ye a rs
T he C a nton Ci rc ul a r for 1 8 46 a comme rci a l pa p e r s pea ki ng
of t he s ta te a nd p ros p e cts of t ra d e ge ne ra lly in Chi na re ma rk s
th a t with re s pe ct to the Opium t ra de a s a t p re se nt cond ucte d
it is ce rta i nly a grea t e vil a nd ind irectl y inj ures the s a l e of other

Thi s e vil p rej udices the Chi ne se aga i nst a ll


mercha nd ise
,

'

57

mmercia l i nte rcourse

d e stroys a l l d e si re or
ambiti on on th e i r pa rt to i mp rov e th e i r c i rc ums ta nce s or c ultiv a te
ha bit s of i nd us try be s id e s s trippi ng th e m of a l l th e i r re source s
H a d t he i n ue nce of thi s d rug ne v e r b e e n fe lt in Chi na w e h a v e
o
o
e
e
n
e
t
o
e
d
vid
c
b
li
v
th
t
it
w
u
ld
h
v
p
v
d
b
e
e
a
s
t
o
a
e
r
o
e
t
h
e
e
g
ma rk e t in t he world for the sa l e of E urope a n a nd A me rica n
ma nufa ct ure s I t is a fa ct th a t in p roportiona s t he Opi um t ra f c
has inc re ase d th a t in B ri ti s h ma nufa ct ure s ha s d e c rea se d
It
has bee n sa id th a t t he Chi ne se w e re a dv e rse t o comme rci a l i nte r
course withgforeign na ti ons ; b ut wh a t is t he e vide nce in p roof
of thi s s ta te me nt ?
L ord Na pi e r wh ose te s ti mony is e ntitle d to
the gre a te s t re s pe ct w rote in t he y e a r 1 8 3 4 th a t
the Chi ne se

a nd a ga i n
it is a p e rfe ct
are mos t a nxi ous to t ra d e with us
axi om th a t the Chi ne se p e opl e a re mos t a nxi ous for our t ra d e

from t he gre a t W a ll to t he south e rn e xt re mity of t he e mpi re

t he p e opl e a re
S ir G e orge Robi nson a l so s ta tes th a t in 1 8 35

i nte nse ly d e si rous to e ngage in tra f c


M r G utzl a ff a f rms
tha t E ngli s h w oolle ns a re in gre a t d e ma nd ye t we h a v e s till to
l ook for tha t ti me wh e n the s pi rit of B riti s h e nte rp ri se s ha ll b e

L ord
rouse d for in re ga rd to Chi na it is a l mos t d orma nt
Na pie r i nde e d sa id th a t the Ta rta r gov e rnme nt w a s a nti

comme rcia l
It ma y be so But why is not comme rce ca rrie d
to t he full e s t e xte nt of t he p rivil e ge s which a re p osse sse d ?
S i mply a s Ca pt Elli ot s ta te d be ca use t he Opi um t ra f c is in

M r D unn w ho
te nse l y mi s chi e v ous to e v e ry b ra nc h of t ra d e
sa y s
th e y p osse ss a
spe nt ma ny y ea rs a mong t he Chi ne se
s t rong p re dil e cti on for c omme rce a nd a gre a t t a s te for fore ign
ma nufa cture s T he p ri ncipa l ba rri e r to t he ra pid i ncrea se in t he
consump t i on of B riti s h good s is I conce iv e t he Opi um tra d e

Stop thi s a nd you will ha ve th e i r w a rme s t fri e nd s hip a fri e nd


s hip th a t will s o fa cilita te a nd i nc re a se t he c ons umpti on of y our
ma nufa ct ure s th a t a fe w ye a rs only w ould s h ow th e m to b e y our

be s t custome rs
M r M a rti n i nq ui re d of one of t h e chi e f
how t ra d e could b e b e s t p romote d ; h e
o ce rs a t Sh a ngh a i
i mme di a te ly a nd with gre a t s te rnne ss a nsw e re d cea s e s end
co

w ith fore igne rs

a nd

ing

l
t
l
d
h
e
n
r
i
a
v
h
a
n
l
e
w
e
i
m
o
u
o
e
u
mil l ions w orth o
O
f p
p p

c
t
r
e
a
u
s
ey topurch ase y our ma nu
mo n
f

as

more

A noth e r fea ture

of

this t ra d e d eserv es pa rtic ul a r notice


8

viz ,
.

58

mug g l ing ch aracter

lighte ne d a nd e ve n civil ize d


na ti ons h a v e e v e r rega rd e d it as a fund a me nta l p ri ncipl e th a t a
na ti on ma y e na ct wh a te v e r l a ws of comme rce its i nte re s ts ma y b e

I t ha s a rig ht
s upp ose d to re q ui re
to p e rmit or rest rict to
e nc ourage or p rohibit a ny a rticl e s of me rch a ndi se it ma y d ee m
A ny k now n or i nte nd e d i nfri nge me nt or vi ol a tion of
ne ce ssa ry
thi s right by a not h e r na t ion is a nd s h ould be consid e re d one of
A nd to ta k e a dva ntage of t he
t he gre a te s t na ti ona l c ri me s
pe c uli a r ci rcumsta nce s of a na ti on a nd force it to y ie ld pa rtia ll y
or wh olly t hi s right to its gre a t d e t ri me nt is to sa y the l e a s t
h ighly d is h onora b l e
H ow ha s thi s esta bl i s h e d right bee n re
s pe c te d
by t he E ngli s h gove rnme nt in its i nte rcourse w ith
Chi na in t he sa l e of Opi um ? At rst a nd so l ong a s it wa s
e mpl oy e d for me dici na l p urpose s only
its i mp orta ti on with a
s ma ll d uty w a s a ll ow e d
But wh e n it b e ga n to be used some
w h a t e xt e ns iv e ly for its i nt oxi ca ti ng q ua liti e s foll ow e d b y t he mos t
p e rnici ous e ffe cts not onl y in d ra i ni ng t he count ry of its le ga l
c urre ncy a nd th e re by d e ra ngi ng t ra d e ge ne ra ll y b ut in the los s
of ti me h e a l t h p rope rty me nt a l a nd ph y sica l ca pa city for l a bor
a nd g re a tly i nc re a s i ng th e ft fra ud li ce nti ous ne ss vi ol e nc e a nd
p re ma t ure d ea th t he Chi ne se gove rnme nt to p re ve nt th e se
d re a d ful e vil s a nd sa v e th e i r country from rui n utte rly prohib ite d
its i mporta t i on th us ma ki ng it a contra b a nd a rticl e
Th e i r right to d o thi s ha s ne v e r be e n ca ll e d in ques ti on as
th e re w a s no vi ol a ti on of t re a ty stip ul a ti on a nd t he i nte re sts of
But it
the c ount ry be i ng j e opa rdiz e d re qui re d s uch a me a sure
w a s e nti re ly di s re ga rd e d
T he d rug ha s be e n s muggl e d i nto th a t
count ry in ra pidly i ncrea si ng qua ntitie s for more th a n ft y years
in fa ce of wh ol e some l a w s ea rne s t re monst ra nce s a nd se v e re
th re a te ni ngs a nd the d i re ful e ffe cts on t he i nh a bita nts of C hina
ed
H a vi ng
a l l of which w as w e ll k now n to t he pa rti e s conce rn
borne th e se consta ntly a ugme nti ng e vil s for forty ye ars t he
C hi ne se gove rnme nt a tte mpte d to a pply a re me d y not by pun
its

A ll

en

cipl e
r
i
n
p

mmon us age

na tions, and not on

T he
L o e th y neigh bor as t hys el f
th a t grea t principl e of C h ris tia n E th ics ,
s of th e C hinese in th eir trea tment
e treme ex cl a s iveness a nd a rrogant ass umption
of oth er na tions , cannot in al l instances be j usti ed by th e fund amental principl es of
C hris tianity or of uni ersal broth erhood
4 Th is

or righ t is bas ed on th e

co

of

al l

59

ishing B rit is h , b ut Chinese

muggl e rs , a nd b y d es troyi ng t he
found withi n th e i r li mits
Th e re
s

d mne d d rug wh e re v e r
upon E ngl a nd de cl a re d war a ga i ns t Chi na a nd a fte r h a vi ng d e
s troye d a n i mme nse a mount of p rope rty a nd kill e d th ousa nd s of
he r s ubj e cts ag re e d on te rms of pea ce compe lli ng t he i nj ure d
pa rty to pa y a l l the e xpe nse s of the w a r a nd t he va l ue of t he
O pi um d e s t roy e d with out e v e n a ll owi ng th a t pa rty to ha v e t he
pe rnici ous d rug d ecl a re d in t he t rea ty a contra ba nd a rti cl e A nd
stil l t he w ork of d ea th is ca rri e d on more vi gorous ly th a n e v er
by B ritis h me rch a nts s us ta i ne d a nd e ncourage d by t he B riti s h
t
n
r
e
e
n
e
h
o
e
a
v
e
n
m
n
t
th
r
o
u
gh
p
r
e
s
t
a
tiv
E
t
I
di
C
m
p
y
e
i
t
s
r
as
n
a
o
g
A s ys te m of s muggli ng on a gra nde r sca l e a nd wi t h gre a te r
p ro ts foll ow e d a t t he sa me ti me with more di sast rous re s ults
the w orld ha s ne v e r wit ne s se d
Wh a t a s pe cta cl e "A n e nlight
en
na tion h a vi ng i nte rwov e n i nt o t he v e ry te xt ure of its
ed
f
m
h
f
ll
n
e
n
t
e
r
es
o
s
n
o
a
v
t
p
i
cipl
Ch
i
ti
ity
vi
w
o
er
n
r
a
n
n
e
d
e
t
a
i
g
y
t he na ti ons of t he e a rth not me re ly t rii ng with b ut t ra mpli ng
in t he d us t a g re a t na ti ona l a ck now le dge d right a nd pouri ng in
unnumbe re d a nd di re ful e vil s upon more th a n th re e h und re d
milli ons of une nlighte ne d a nd unch ri s tia nize d pe rsons a ga i ns t
t he mos t e a rne s t re mons t ra nce s a nd s e ve re s t th rea ts of th e i r c on
I n vi e w of s uch tre a t me nt wh a t opi ni ons
s tit ute d gov e rnme nt
a nd i mpre ss i ons mus t th e se th re e h und re d milli ons of pa ga ns
Sh ould s uch a course of cond uct pre
form of s uch a na ti on
va il a mong t he na tions of t he e a rth utte r rui n bot h of gov e rn
"
me nts a nd pe opl e mus t i ne vita bly e ns ue d
Th e re is s til l a noth er i mporta nt vie w of this t ra d e which ought

e
o
e
o
o
its mora l a nd rel ig ious bea ring s
It
not t o be v rl k d
e se in th re e wa y s t o
e x ert s a powe rful i n ue nce a mong t he Chi n
p re ve nt t he i nt rod uc t ion a nd s p rea d of Ch ri stia nity : 1 s t I t
c rea te s i ns upe ra bl e p rej udice s 2 nd is t he pa re nt of ma ny oth er
vice s a nd 3 d ly d e p ra ve s if not d e s troys th e i r mora l na ture s
T he e pithe ts which th e y a pply to t he a rticl e itse l f a re a p roof of

s moki ng di rt
this prej udice
vile di rt
owi ng poi son

bla ck commodity
b la ck di rt e tc e tc A nd the pe culiar

con e

case

We k now it is

be

ha l ter

a s

M a dras

muggling

th e

ve nment

trad e, one which th e I nd ia ngo

Ch inese send
A thena um, Feb 1 848

re ersed , a nd

Opium to I ndia

coul d

the

woul d put down by th e

60

t ra i ts of ch a ra cte r which the y a t tri bute to d ea l e rs in t he d rug


s h ow a l so t he s t re ngth of th e i r p rej udice s a nd how di f c ult it is
for th e m t o thi nk of i mita ti ng t he e xa mpl e of such pe rs ons or t o

from s uch a s ource


Thi s prej udice
re ce iv e
a ny good thi ng
is ma ni fe s te d s till more s triki ngly in t he i nte rvi e ws of t he Chi ne se
with t he p rofesse d te a ch e rs of re ligion D r M e d h urst w ho ha s
live d for ma ny ye a rs in Chi na a nd visite d its pri ncipa l ma riti me
citie s sa ys
Al most t he rs t w ord utte re d by a Chi ne se wh e n
a ny t hi ng is sa id c once rni ng t he e xce ll e nce of Ch ri s ti a nity is
W hy d o Ch ri stia ns b ri ng us Opi um a nd b ri ng it di re ctl y in
d e a nce of our la w s ? Tha t vile d rug ha s d e stroye d my son
ha s rui ne d my b roth e r a nd w e ll nigh l ed me to be gga r my wi fe
S urel y th ose w ho i mport s uch a d e l e te ri ous sub
a nd c hild re n
j ure me for the sa k e of ga i n ca nnot wi s h me w e ll
s ta nce a nd i n
G 0 rs t
or be in p osse s si on of a re ligi on be tte r th a n my ow n
a nd p e rs ua d e y our ow n count ry me n to re li nq ui s h thi s ne fa ri ous
t ra f c a nd giv e me a p re sc ripti on to corre ct thi s vil e h a bit a nd
th e n I will li s te n to y our e xh orta tions on the subj e c t of Ch ris ti a n
ity
T he R e v G e orge S mi t h (now Bi s h op of H ong Kong )
in a s pe e ch be fore t he Ch urch Mi ssi ona ry S ocie ty L ond on 1 8 4 7

re ma rk e d on thi s p oi nt a s foll ow s
I f th ose w ho p rofe ss t o
d oubt t he mag nitud e of thi s obsta cl e to t he p rogre ss of Ch ri s
t ia nity in Chi na could h e a r t he more pa t riotic of t he Chi ne s e
fre que ntly with a sa rca stic s mil e a sk t he Mi ssi ona rie s wh e th e r
th e y w e re conne cte d w ith th ose i ndivid ua l s who ha d brough t
th a t p oi son which s o ma ny of th e i r country me na te a nd pe ri s h e d
th e y w ould p e rce ive it is v a i n I w ill not sa y it is v a i n
b ut it is ce rta i nl y i nconsis te nt in us a s a na ti on t o se nd t he Bibl e
T he sa me b ree ze th a t w a fts the Ch ri s ti a n Mi ss iona ry
to Chi na
to th a t be nighte d la nd b ri ngs on its wi ngs the e l e me nts of mora l
d e s t ruction in th a t ill egal t ra f c which s ta mps wit h i ncons i ste ncy

t he count ry of Ch ri s ti a n mi ss i ons
I n t he M e moirs of R e v W M L ow ri e w ho ha d s pe nt s e v e ra l
y ea rs as a Mis si ona ry in Chi na a nd wa s d row ne d in t he Chi ne se
se a s A ug 1 8 47 b e i ng th row n ov e rb oa rd by pi ra t e s w e nd p
2 0 7 thi s sta te me nt :
O ne of t he v e ry grea te st di f c ulti e s in
t he w a y of Ch ri sti a n Mi ss i ons in Chi na a ri ses from t he p re v a l e nce
of t he use of Opi um a nd it is to b e fe a re d th a t it will l ong con
,

61

Wh e n a ma n a cqui re s a ta ste for Opi um


the re
will not d o to g ra ti fy it ; a nd its use is most
d e le te ri ous It i nj ure s his bodily h e a lth it s tupe e s his me nta l
p owe rs a nd it d e a d e ns his mora l fee li ngs a nd wh e n t he h a bit of
us i ng it is once c on rme d it is a l mos t i mp oss ibl e t o a b a nd on it
T he fond ne ss for Opi um is one of t he s t rong ch a i ns in which
S a ta n ha s b ound thi s gre a t pe opl e a nd it is a h ea rt sick e ni ng
re fl e cti on th a t thi s e vil l ux ury is s uppli e d to th e m by t he me r
cha nts of t he t wo na ti ons which p rofe ss to b e a ct ua te d by t he

pures t Ch ri s ti a nity
D r M a l col m a l so in h is T ra ve l s in s outh
p 1 5 9 in re ma rki ng on t he i n ue nce of the
ea s te rn A s i a vol II
Opi um t ra d e sa ys We h a ve li t tl e re a son to w ond e r a t t he re l ue
ta nce of Chi na to e xte nd he r i nte rcourse w ith fore ig ne rs ; ne a rly
the wh ol e of s uch i nt e rcourse b ri ngs upon h e r pe stil e nce pov e rty
N o p e rson ca n d e s c ribe t he h orrors
cri me a nd di s t urba nce
of t he Opi um t ra d e
T he i nfl ue nce of t he d rug on Chi na is more
di re ful a nd e x te nsive th a n th a t of rum in a ny country a nd w orse
Tha t me n of c orre ct
to its victi ms th a n a ny outwa rd sl a v e ry
mora l se nsibili t ie s a nd e nlighte ne d mi nd s s h ould b e s o bli nd e d
by c us tom or d e s i re of ga i n a s to e ngage in thi s b us i ne ss is
Th a t t he gove rnme nt of B riti s h I ndia s h ould be
a ma zi ng
t he p ri me a b e ttors of thi s a bomi na bl e t ra f c is one of t he
i
n
t
th
c
t
y
p
rea t e s t w ond e rs of t he
n
e
ee
n
e
n
u
r
T
h
roud e s
e
g
c utc h e on of t he na ti on th a t d e cl a i ms a ga i ns t t he sla ve t ra d e is
th us ma d e to be a r a blot b roa d e r a nd d a rk e r th a n a ny othe r in

t he Ch ri s ti a n w orld
Th a t t hi s t ra f c is t he pa re nt of ma ny vi ce s a nd d e ba se s the
mora l na t ure of ma n t he re by furni s hi ng a mos t p owe rful obsta cl e
t o t h e s p re a d of Ch ri s ti a ni ty re q ui re s b ut littl e p roof a fte r t he
de ta ile d a ccount of t he e vil s w hi c h w e h a v e a l re a dy p re se nte d
A s i ng le p ra ctice th a t ne ces s a rily a nd i nva ria bly be ge ts in ra pid
s ucce ss i on idl e ne ss
pov e rty fra ud di s h one s ty li ce nti ous ne ss
th e ft pi ra cy a nd e ve n murd e r ne e d s ye t a w ord in a ny l a n
riz e it
u
f
t
o
r
c
e
h
e
a
g
u
lly
h
t
wh
l
phy
ic
l
y
t
e
a
a
T
e
o
i
s
c
s
e
m
s
s
a
g
p ros tit ute d t he i nte ll e ct s tupe e d t he cons ci e nce pe rv e rte d a nd
t he will b rought i nt o c ompl e te s ubj e c ti on t o one a ll c ont rolli ng
pa ssi on c onv e rti ng its p osse ssor i nt o a b rute
na y more a sot
S uc h ch a ra cte rs sure l y mus t a ord a l mos t h ope l e ss ma te rial s for
Ch ri s ti a nit y to re a ch a nd re nov a te
tinue

in t he way
is nothi ng he
.

Wha t is to be th e probabl e re sul t of thi s t ra f c upon China


is a questi on of mome ntous i nte re s t
H ow l ong is it to conti nue
to d ra i n t he count ry of its s pe ci e e mba rra ss its na nce s
corrupt its of ce rs
i mpove ri s h a nd w in its i nh a bita nts ? A re t he
di f cultie s a tte ndi ng thi s contra b a nd tra d e s till to be t he occa s ion
of fre q ue nt b roil s a nd i nt e rrupti ons of comme rci a l i nte rcourse a s
in y ea rs pas t be twe e n t h e Chi ne se a nd fore ig ne rs ? M us t th e re
be a noth e r Opi um wa r ? I s thi s a nc i e nt a nd e xte ns ive count ry
to b e rui ne d c omme rci a ll y p oli t ica lly a nd mora lly ?
Will t he
Chi ne se s uffe r the d e va s ta tions of this e vil to go on till t he grea t
Ce l e sti a l E mpi re wit h h e r t h re e h und re d a nd fty millions of
i nha bita nts lose lik e s ome ne ighbori ng p rovi nce s he r ow n i nd e
e
n
d
n
r
s
e
o
e
ce
n
d
b
m
t
r
ib
u
t
a
y
t
a
f
r
ig
n
p
w
r
t
o
e
c
a
p
a
e
c
e
o
o
e
o
e
r
?
O
p
s uch a me l a nch oly fa te will h e r gov e rnme nt e ith e r re sort t o t h e
e xte ns iv e c ul tiva ti onof t he P oppy wi t h in he r ow n bord e rs or e l se
l ega lize t he i mporta tionof the d rug from a b roa d ? A re th ere a ny
rationa l p ros pe ct s th a t Chi na w ill e v e r e xt rica t e h e rse l f from
th e se d re a d ful e vil s ? We a re const ra i ned to re pl y th a t ne ith e r
t he light of e xpe ri e nce nor t he p ros pe cts of t h e fut ure a fford us
a ny w e ll ground e d h op es of s uch a d e s i ra bl e re s ult
Who is re s pons ibl e th e n for t he conti nua nce of th ese e vil s ?
A nd w ho ha s p owe r a nd to wh om d oe s t he d uty be l ong to put

t
t he me rch a nt s e nga ge d in ca rryi ng it
n
t
s
r
a
f

C
o thi
P
an e d
on or t he Ea s t I ndi a C omp a ny w h ose t re a s ury is so muc h
or the E nglis h gov e rnme nt th a t con
e nri c h e d by its p ro ts
fe rs up on t hi s C ompa ny s uch ch a rte re d p rivil e ge s ? F orme rl y
t he wh ol e t ra d e
not onl y in I ndi a b ut t he t ra ns porta tion to
a nd t he sa l e of t he d rug in Chi na w as a c ompl e te monopoly of
e nt ; b ut now th a t monop oly is con ne d to I ndi a w h e nc e
v
r
n
m
o
e
g
a l l t he s uppli es come a nd wh e re gov e rnme nt ha s t he e nti re con
t rol of its c ultiva ti on ma nufa ct ure a nd s a l e which it ca n a t a ny
But w e h a ve no re a son wha t
t i me e ith e r a ba nd on or p rohibit
e v e r t o e xpe ct th a t t he me rch a nts w ill v ol unta rily re li nq ui s h a
t ra f c so l ucra tive nor t h a t t he E a s t I ndi a Compa ny (a n i ncor
o
ra te d b ody in c ommon pa rl a nc e w ithout a s oul
will
t
t
ll
y
a
o
p
)
ch a nge its re ve nue la w s whic h ha v e be e n cons ta ntly i nc reas i ng its
re sources for more th a n fty y e a rs
We mus t th e n look to t he
E nglis h gove rnme nt a s p ri maril y a nd chie y re spons ible for th is
,

63
t ra f c , a nd t o P arlia me nt in

ticul ar C la rk son a nd Wil be r


force by th e i r d e vote d a nd unw ea ri e d l a bors to a boli s h sl a v e ry in
t he B riti s h pos s e ss i ons w oni mmorta l fa me ; b ut h e re is a n e vil of
fa r grea te r mag nit ud e e ns la vi ng t he soul s a s w e ll a s bodi e s of
ma ny millions fos te re d too for more th a n a h a l f c e nt ury by
m
e
r
n
e
n
s
e
n
o
e
s
v
t
it
l
f
A
s
t
E
a
t
I
i
C
o
m
p
n
y
h
tly
t
o
h
s
d
a
a
i
s
o
r
g
pe titi on P a rl iane nt for a re ne w a l of its cha rte r w ho will fe a r
le s sly come forw a rd lik e Cl a rk son a nd Wilbe rforce to e x a mi ne
i nto t hi s e vil e xp ose its te rrible e ffe ct s a nd ca ll for th e i r re mov al
H ow ca n t he Chi ne se re ga rd t he E nglis h in a ny oth e r light
t h a n w h ol e sa l e s muggl e rs a nd wh ol e sa l e d e a l e rs in p oi son
T he
la tter ca n e xpe nd a nnua lly ove r tw o milli ons of d oll a rs on the
coa s t of G re a t B rita i n to p rote ct its ow nre v e nue l a w s b ut a t the
sa me ti me se t a t b old d e a nce s i mil a r l a w s of p rote cti on e na ct e d
by t he forme r T he E ngli s h a re consta ntl y supplyi ng the Chi ne se
a d ea dly p oi s on with whi c h th ousa nd s y e a rly put a ne nd t o th e i r
I n E ngl a nd e v e n t he d ruggi s t s a re e xp re s sly forbid
e xi s t e nce
d e n to se ll a rse ni c l a ud a num or ot h e r p oi son if th e y h a v e t he
l e a st s us pi ci on th a t th e i r c us tome r i nte nd s to commit s ui cid e
But in Chi na e ve ry fa cility is a fford e d a nd ma te ri a l s upplie d
und e r t he B riti s h a g a nd sa nc ti one d by P a rli a me nt its e l f for
wh ol e sa l e sl a ughte r H ow l ong will a n e nlighte ne d a nd Ch ris
ti a n na ti on conti nue to fa rm a nd grow a mea ns of vice with t he
p roce e d s of which e ve n wh e n in he r p osse ss ion a be nighte d a nd
pa ga n na ti on di sd a i ns to re pl e nis h he r t re a s ury be i ng d ra w n from
t he rui n a nd mi se ry of h e r p e opl e ?
W he re is t he consi s te ncy
or h uma nity of a na ti on s upp orti ng a rme d v e sse l s on t he coa s t
of A fri ca t o i nte rc e pt a nd re s cue a fe w h und re d of he r sons
from a fore ig n b ond a ge w he n a t t he sa me ti me s he is forgi ng
c h a i ns to h old milli ons on t he coa s t of Chi na in a fa r more
?
h ope le ss b onda ge
A nd wh a t mus t t he world thi nk of t he
re ligi on of a na ti on th a t c onse c ra t e s ch urch e s ord a i ns mi ni ste rs
of t he gos pe l a nd se nd s a b roa d Mi ss i ona ri e s of t he c ross whil e
in t he me a n ti me it e nc oura ge s a nd uph old s a vi ce which is da il y
i nfl i cti ng mi se ry a nd d e a th upon more th a n four millions of
h ea t h e n A nd wh a t mus t be t he ve rdi ct of future ge ne ra ti ons
a s th e y p e ruse t he hi s tory of th ese w ron s a nd outrage s ?
Will
g
r
a
p

64
as
page of hi story whic h now re cord s
conse c ra te d on t he a lta r of h uma nity to e ma ncipa te
sl a v e s l ose a l l its s pl e nd or a nd b e come p os itiv e ly odi ous w h e n
it s h a ll be k now n th a t thi s ve ry mone y wa s obta i ne d from
the p rocee d s of a cont ra ba nd t ra f c on t he s h ore s of a w ea k
a nd d e fe nce l e ss h ea th e n e mpi re a t the sa cri ce too of mil l i ons
upon millions of live s ?

not t he

A P P E N D I X

SI N C E th e preceding p ages were mostl y in typ e some important facts


up on t h is subj e ct h a v e come to ha nd w hich w e consid e r so v al ua bl e as to
a pp e nd t o t h is E s sa y
S W Wil liams L L D in a l etter date d Ca nton
Sept 2 7 1 8 4 9 and publishe d in t h e M issiona ry H eral d for Feb 1 8 5 0
T h e O pium tra d e is th riving a nd
re ma k s on th is t ra f c as fol l ow s
from fte e n to six te e n mil lions of dol l a rs l e a v e C hina a nnual l y fo th is drug
much of it in spe cie a nd al l of it for p rod uce as good l e a ving
a l one
T h e e ditor of th e Frie nd of I ndia
inste a d e v e y th ing e vil a nd d isast ous
say s if it w as not for t his import a tion of sp ecie and th e re v e nue of t wo
a nd a h al f mil l ions ste rling d e riv e d f om t h e O pium tra d e h e d oe s not s e e
h ow th e gov e nme nt of I nd ia coul d b e carrie d on a nd th e a rmy th e re p aid
Th at gov ernme nt is conseque ntl y taking me asures to incre ase th e suppl y
ch e sts b rought to C h ina in 1 8 5 0 or
a nd t h e e w il l p rob ab l y b e
Still th e C hinese government
ne a rl y e igh t mil l ions of p ound s of O pium
s h ow s no s ig ns of a ny d isposition t o l e g alize th e tra d e
a nd
with th e
or va p oring e dict by some p atriotic
e x ce p t ion of a n occa sional se izure
of ce r on th e coa st is doing nothing to h ind e r th e e ntra nce of th e drug
T h e growt h of th e Poppy in C hina is t hought to b e on t he incre as e b ut th e
infe rior ma nufact ure re nde rs th e na tiv e product a compe t itor not a t a ll to
This commodity b ears th e same re l ation to th e I ndian th a t the
b e fe a re d
te a p rod uce d th e re does to t h e ge nuine C hinese l eaf ; wha t a diff e re nce
b e tw e e n th e na ture of th e two products I t is encoura ging that amids t so
much th a t is d ishearte ning to k now th a t th e gospe l is al so nding its way
in a nd tha t th e God of t h a t gosp e l is al so th e R ul er of comme rce a nd t ha t
all th e r ami ca t ions of me n in p ursuit of gain are a p art of his w ond er
wo k ing sch e me to re d e e m t h e w o l d
A f ie nd in I ndia h a s sent us t wo papers from which we mak e th e foll ow
I t w il l b e see n th a t th e se sta tis tics d o not di e r ma te riall y
ing e x t ra cts
from t hose al re a dy given which cost much l a bor to coll ect from various
,

source s

o
e
Opium of th e

I
i
F
m
e
F
r
i
n
d
o
f
n
d
a of N
r
t
h
"

o e mbe
v

r8,

s e as on of 1 8 4 8
T h e l as t sal e of
9, a t C al cutta , h as be en
compl e te d , a nd we a re now e na bl e d to e s tima te the resul ts of t h e whol e
yea r, a nd to institute a comparison between it and that of previous years
.

66
I nord er to give th e re ad er a vie w of th e gradual incre ase of this bra nch of
th e public re ve nue , w e ha v e d ra wn up from t h e st a te me nts p ublish e d by
v
p
ro ts of th e
rnme nt , a re turn of t h e re ce ip ts , d isb urse me nts a nd
e
o
g
Op ium during th e l ast t w enty ye ars O f th e re sul ts for th e ye ar now
We ha ve , th e refore , ta k e n th e
cl ose d no O icial R e t urn h as y e t a ppe a re d
sum of rece ipts from th e re ports of mont hl y s al e s , a nd , for th e col umn of
e xpe nditure h a ve ass ume d th e cost of e ach ch e s t of 3 00 R upee s
.

1829

30 ,

1 8 30

31,

1 8 31

32 ,

1 8 32

33 ,

1 3 33

34 ,

1 8 34

35,

1 8 35

8 6,

1 836

3 7,

1 837

33 ,

1 8 38

3 9,

1 8 39

40,

1 8 40

41 ,

1 841

42 ,

1 842

1 843

43
44

e e ip
c

ts

D is burs

eme n

ts

P r ts

1 8 44

4 5,

1 8 45

46,

1 8 46

4 7,

1847

48 ,

1 848

4 9,

ppe a r that with th e e xception of th e pe riod


in which the Opium tra d e was dist urbe d by th e con sca tion of th e t we nt y
t housa nd chests by t h e I mp e rial C ommissione r L in t h e income d e riv e d
D u ing th e l a st se ason
from t his a rticl e h a s b ee n ste adil y on th e incre ase
notwithst a nd ing th e l os s inicte d on t h e re v e nue by th e negl e ct which cc
curre d in one of th e a ge ncie s t h e cont ibut ion to t h e e xch e que r from this
urce at this Pres ide ncy a l one fe ll l it tl e sh ort of t we nt y ve mil l ions of
so
Sixty ye ars ago whe n Burk e
R upees or t wo millions a nd a ha l f s te rl ing
dre w up his wel l k nown re port on th e sta te of B e ngal th e e nti e prod uct
By th e incre asing
of th e Opium d id not e xcee d thre e mill ions of R upee s
d ema nd fo this articl e among th e C hinese and th e good husb and y of th e
Board of C ustoms sal t and Opium th e M porta nce of this bra nch of our
resource s h as be e n incre ase d to such a n e x te nt t h a t it e x ce e ds th e entir e
reve nue d e riv e d from t h e l a nd w hen Wa rr e n H as tings quitte d th e gov e rn
We re L ord C l ive to wak e from
ment with th e triumpha nt e x cl ama tion
de ath or M r Va nsittart gre at as was th e mind of th e forme r a nd e x te nsive
as th e k nowl e dge a nd re a d y th e resou ce s of th e l a tte r a nd to b e tol d w h a t
e rful e x ertions h a d be e n ma d e by B e ngal wit hin th e l ast six or se v e n
w
o
p
years and wha t was its a ctua l sta te and ca pabil ity ne ithe r one nor th e
a
oth e r w oul d giv e c re dit to t ha t informa t ion b ut pronounce it to b e imm
sibl e from t h e recoll ection of wha t t he y k ne w of th e powers of th at gov ern
From this

st a teme nt

it will

67

ment , and from any all owance which

improv e me nts

th e

mak e for its

y coul d

subsequent

T h e Opium re ve nue h as now be come so important a n el e ment in our


na ncia l sy ste m t ha t it is dif cul t to imagine h ow th e machine of gov e rn
me nt coul d b e carrie d on without it I t is se cond in val ue onl y to th e l a nd
re v e nue s , e ith e r of t h e L owe r or t h e N ort h We st Province s
T h e rel a tive
contributions from t h ese t hre e source s d uring th e l ast y ear of which we
ha ve a ny re turn, ma y b e thus e xhibite d
.

N W Provinces,
L ow e r Provinces ,
Opium,
.

ce ipt s .

C h arg

N et R

s.

e enu
v

e.

ve nue derived from th e O pium at this Presidency must b e added


th e dut y obta ine d for th e M a l wa Opium sh ippe d through th e port of B om
b ay of w h ich we ha ve no account
B ut our Bomb a y cont e mpo arie s will
d oubtl e ss b e so k ind as to suppl y it to compl e te th e Opium st a tist ics of th e
year now cl ose d
T o th e

re

e e

o emb e 2 0
T he F ie nd of I nd ia in a n articl e on th e O p ium re v e nue of Be nga l w hich
w e re p ub l ish ca l l s fo sta ti t ics of t ha t of B omba y We shoul d ha v e thought
th at so e mine nt a ta tis t icia n as th e Frie nd w oul d not ha ve req uire d tose nd
fo t h e info ma tion w h ich h e d esires ; b ut se e ing h e h as d one so
so fa
are much as h ame d a t not b e ing ab l e to suppl y h im with a ny thing so p e rfe ct
as w e ought
B ut such as w e h a v e w e give unto h im a nd it runs as
z
B
f
N
F
m
t
h
e
m
b
a
G
a
tt
o
r
y
"

fol l ows

SA L E S

OF

OP I U M

P A S SE S

AN D

or
"ou"
1 8 30

B" T H E

GO V E R N

BO M B A "

31

1 8 32

33,

1 8 33

34 ,

1 8 34

35 ,

1 8 35

36 ,

1 8 36

3 7,

1837

38 ,

1 8 38

39,

1 8 39

40,

1 8 40

41 ,
,

1 842

43,

1 843

44 ,

1 8 44

45 ,

1 8 45

46 ,

1 846

4 7,

1 84 7

48 ,

75

32 ,

42

M EN T

N e t R ov e nue
r al iz d

1 8 31

1 841

OP I U M

E
m
s
t
i
t
d
a
e
(

68
T h e gre ate r pa rt of t h e above information, and all of it th at is compl ete ,
is compil e d from th e s ucce ssive accounts of Annual R e v e nue a nd D isburse
me nt of th e E as t I ndia C ompany pre se nte d to Parl iame nt , our l e s of w hich
p ape rs, w e se e , are so incompl e te tha t w e ca nnot l l up th e proper gures

4 1 , a nd 1 8 4 1
42
If th e Fr iend w ill l ook into th e ma tte r we
for 1 8 4 0
da re sa y h e w il l b e abl e to l l them up hims elf

i
i
n
f
w
r
l
r
i
n
r
m
w
c
e
n
e
a
t
3
h
h
h
a
v
v
g
t
h
e
o
a
o
n
e
e
t
o
1
8
0
i
Fo
ti
3
1
a
n
d
,
g
1 8 3 3 , w e h a v e b e e n inde b te d tot h e k ind ness of M r D al zell , a n a bl e
1 8 32
Assista nt C ol l e ctor in th e C ustom H ouse of Bombay With th e aid of th e
vol ume of M e Gregor s C ommercial Tariffs a nd R egul ations, R esource s
re l a ting to I nd ia , etc
a nd T ra d e of t h e d iffe re nt C ountrie s of t h e Worl d
w
e n consul ting ,) w e coul d
o
a much fa rt he r w a y b a ck in
h
h
h
v
b
w
i
e
a
e
e
c
(
g
val ue s nor re ve nue
sta ting e xport s of ch es ts of O pium, b ut d onot nd
Anothe r circumsta nce dissua de s us from
a ttac he d to th os e st a te me nts
going fa rther ba ck ; w hich is, th at a ve ry conside rabl e p art of th e Opium
e xport t ra d e from We ste rn I nd ia in forme r ye a rs , w as ca rrie d on b e yond
th e te rritorie s of B omb a y , a nd of cours e be yond th e control of th e B ritis h
I
v
w
as c a rrie d on t h rou h D e ma un a small Port uguese se t
e rnme nt
t
o
g
g
(
t l e me nt to th e north of t h is) a nd th e te rritorie s of th e Ame e rs of S cind e ,
w hich l as t ha ving come into our p osse ss ion, by th e right of conque st , t ha t
circuitous t ra f c w as put a n e nd to ; a l l t h e M a l w a Op ium w as b rought t his
wa y , a nd s ubj ecte d to a l arge a nd v e ry virtuous t a x t he re upon, w h ich course
coul d not h a v e b e e n v e nt ure d on w hil e a me a ns of t ra ic w as l e ft op e n in
This is a use of Scinde to us which h a s not been s uicientl y
t ha t w ay
T h e s e v e ra l ra te s of pass d uty pre val e nt during t hese t w e nty
e nl a rge d on I
yea rs past , ha ve b e e n as fol l ows : from 8 th N ov , 1 8 3 0 , to O ct , 1 8 35 , R s
1 75 pe r ch e st ; from O ct , 1 8 3 5 , to 7th S e pt , 1 8 4 3 , R s 1 2 5 ; from 7th Se pt ,
1 8 4 3 , t o 1 st h A ug , 1 8 4 5 , R s 2 0 0 ; from 1 3 th A ug , 1 8 4 5 , to l st D ece mb e r ,
1 8 4 6 , R s 3 0 0 ; w he n th e ra te w as ra ise d t o R s 4 0 0 a t which it re ma ins
T h e re d uction of th e ra te to R s 1 2 5 in th e ye a r 1 8 35 , a ppe a rs t o h a v e given
th e tra d e a gre a t d e gre e of activity ; a nd under it re v e nue l a rgel y a nd
stea d il y incre as e d , b ut it d oe s not a pp e a r by th e succe ssiv e a dditions to th e
t a x t ha t t h e re v e nue h as su e re d , though th e t ra de undoubte dl y h as
P er
haps gove rnme nt are now conte nt with wha t they get, a nd are conte nt to
gra tify the ir conscience a nd suppl y the ir coffe rs a t th e same time by ta x
ing t h e tra de so w e l l as t h ey d o ; a nd now resol ving to l e t it al one on t hose
te rms 1
4 9 , it shoul d b e ve ry cl ose , be ing
A s to our e stima te of th e y e a r 1 8 4 8
th June , 1 8 4 9 ,
th e e x act numbe r of ch e sts e x porte d from l st Jul y, 1 8 4 8 to so
T h e C ustom H ouse
mul tipl ie d by th e pre se nt tax of 4 0 0 R upe e s pe r che st
ye a r runs from l st Augus t to 3 l st Jul y ; b ut we ha ve no state me nt for the
.

ye ar

so

The

de ned by us
,

a nd

ha ve

use

d wh a t

w e h ad

ge the r suggest a number of


ree ct ions
The y (th e reect ions) ma y b e cut short by re ma rk ing t ha t
British I nd ia now rea l l y see ms to b e supporte d by th e cul tiva tion of a poi
sonous d rug a nd se l l ing it or smuggl ing it into C hina 1
T h e e nt erp ize whe n
thus l ook e d into does not see m ve ry nobl e b ut th e n
wh a t ca n p eopl e
se

t a l e s of t h e

Friend

s a nd

our ow n to

do

Related Interests