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Lecture 2

Network Core: Circuit Switching

End end resources reserved for call

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Link bandwidth, switch capacity


Dedicated resources: no sharing
Circuit-like (guaranteed) performance
Call setup required

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Lecture 2
Network Core: Circuit Switching

Network resources (e.g. bandwidth) divided into pieces

Pieces allocated to calls


Resource piece idle if not used by owning call (no sharing)
Dividing link bandwidth into pieces

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Frequency division
Time division

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Lecture 2
Network Core: Packet Switching

Each end-end data stream divided into packets

User A,B packets share network resources


Each packet uses full link bandwidth
Resources used as needed

Resource contention:

Aggregate resource demand can exceed amount available


Congestion: packets queue, wait for link use
Store and forward: packets move one hop at a time

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Node receives complete packet before forwarding

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Lecture 2

Packet Switching

Data are transmitted in short packets

A typical upper bound for packet

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If a source has longer message, then broke it up into a series of


packets
Each packet contains data plus control information
At each node en route, packet is received, stored and passed on to
the next nod

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Lecture 2

Datagram

Each packet is treated independently, with no reference to


packets that have gone before.

Each node chooses the next node on a packet's path

Packets with same destination do not follow the same route.

Packets may arrive out of sequence at receiver.

It is also possible for a packet to be destroyed in the network.

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Lecture 2

Virtual Circuit

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A preplanned route is established before any packets are sent


Once a route is established, all the packets between a pair of
communicating parties follow the same route through the network
Because the route is fixed for the duration of the logical connection,
it is somewhat similar to a circuit in a circuit switched network and is
referred to as a virtual circuit.
Each packet contains a virtual circuit identifier as well as data
Each node on the preestablished route knows where to direct
packets, no routing decisions are required.

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Lecture 2
Packet-switching:store and forward

Takes L/R seconds to transmit packet of L bits on to link or R


bps

Entire packet must arrive at router before it can be


transmitted on next link: store and forward
Delay=3L/R
Example:
L=7.5 Mbits
R=1.5 Mbps
Delay=15 sec
04.03.08

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Lecture 2
Packet Switching versus Circuit Switching
Packet switching allows more users to use network

1 Mbps link
Each user:

Circuit-switching

10 users

Packet-switching

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100 kbps when active


Active 10% of time

With 35 users, probability > 10 active less than .0004

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Lecture 2

04.03.08

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Lecture 2
Packet Switching versus Circuit Switching

Great for bursty data

Excessive congestion: packet delay and loss

Resource sharing
Simpler, no call setup

Protocols needed for reliable data transfer, congestion control

Q: How to provide circuit-like behavior?

04.03.08

Bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video applications


Still an unsolved problem

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Lecture 2
Packet Switched network: forwarding

Goal: move packets through routers from source to destination

Datagram network:

We will study several path selection (i.e. routing) algorithms


Destination address in packets determine next hop
Routers may change during session
Analogy: driving, asking direction

Virtual circuit network:

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Each packet carries tag (virtual circuit ID), tag determines next hop
Fixed path determined at call setup time, remains fixed thru call
Routers maintain per call state

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Lecture 2
Reflections

Packet switching requires reserving resources along the end-to-end


path
True or false

In ckt-switched networks, queuing delay is virtually non-existent


True or false

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Lecture 2

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Lecture 2

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Lecture 2

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Lecture 2

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Lecture 2

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Lecture 2

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Lecture 2

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Lecture 2

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