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PREFACE



Maple
DraTex


D. Hilbert
G. Martin The Foundations of Geometry & the Non-Euclidean Plane
G. Martin Geometric Constructions, Springer Verlag

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CONTENTS

01
CHAPTER
1















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02
CHAPTER
51

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C







03
CHAPTER
161














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243
255

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CHAPTER 1

1.1



273

273
273

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C8 C7 C9


a Ba B
B aB a

B a a B


Boy Girl
Bb Bb Boy

Bb Boy Boy Bb
Bb Boy subsetBoy Bb super-
setBoy BbBb Boy
SchBb Boy Sch


C8 Girl
C8 Girl
A, B AB
C7 Boy AB A B
capcap
AB A cap B A B

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GirlBb =



GirlBb = Bb Girl

C7 , C8 , C9 Boy, Girl

GirlC7
cupcupunionAB
A B A B

or


C9

C9 Cirl
set-minus
AB A B

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A B A B = BA = A B = A
B A

Sch

KK Tall
gL
gL


KK
80
Moun-
tainTiTa


U81 , U82 , , U89
U8a , U8b , , U8

V8
V8 = {U81 , U82 , U83 , U84 , U85 , U86 , U87 , U88 , U89 }

TiTa, Mountain, Bb

= {TiTa, Mountain, Bb}



card (A) A
card (C8 ) = 273card (V8 ) = 9

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C8 273 card (C8 ) = 273
V8 9 card (C8 ) = 9
V8 C8
V8 C8
C8 V8
card = 3 TiTa,
Mountain, Bb

L Sch

L
L L =


2 q L singleton set

L=q q=L


U, V
card (UV ) = card (U ) + card (V )


U, V
card (UV ) = card (U ) + card (V ) card (UV )

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UV ,U V, V U
U = (UV ) (UV )
V = (UV ) (V U )
UV = (UV ) (U V ) (V U )

card (U ) = card((UV )) + card((U V ))
card (V ) = card((UV )) + card((V U))
card (UV ) = card((UV )) + card((U V )) + card((V U))

P
P


card(P) =


card( ) = c

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1
1.2

1.2.1





0 =












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==

> 0pixel
1024 1024


P
A PA

card(P) = 26

1.2.2


L P

m Lm

m m P
L
card (m) = card(L) =


A, B A P, B P, A B
AB

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A BAB = BA

AKB A, B
K
A, B = AB
= AB A B


Lm L
m m


m
A mB mA B

mm


Lm L

Lm L m


card( m) = 0 card( m) = 1
P

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( m) = P P = ( m)

||m

1.2.3

A PB PA B
A, B AB

AB A B
|

=BA

AB AB
|

AB AB
AKB A, B
K
|

A, B AB
|

AB
|

(AB ) {A, B}
|
|

AB = PQ A = P B = QA = Q
B = P

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AB A B A, B

|
AB = AB {A, B}
BA


(AB) {A, B}

1.2.4


AB AB A B

AB AB AB
A


AB AB A

AB{A}
A, B AB
AB A
B

(AB) {A}
AB = PQ P = A

Q = BQ AB B AQ

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m = AOB L m O

OA OB OA OB
P m P O

P OA P OB

P m

P OAP OB P = O
P m
P OA P OB

P OA P OB P = O

P OA
m P, A O m
P, B O m

P OA A OP

B m m = AOB P O
A B
O
P
A

1.2.5


A, B

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AB
AB A
|
AB A, B

|
AB AB AB AB



P, Q, R, S, = AB
P {P}
{P} , {Q} , {R} ,

D
D F
B

B H

G
P

A C E
A
C

=
|
|

(AB , CD )(AB , CD )( AB , CD )
CD, EF

|
|

(EH , GF )(EH , GF )( HE , GF )

|

(AB , CD )

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|
|

|
(PB , CD ) P( PB , CD )( PB , CD )


, P ,
,
,

|
|

|
(EG , GF ) EF
|

(EG , GF ) EF
( GE , GF ) EF
,
( ) = ( ( ) ( ))( )



( PB , PC )
|

(PB , PC )
|
|

(PB , PC )

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( ) = ( ( ) ( ))( )
, 2



s2
s2
s2



s2 =

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s2

|
|
s = (AB BC )
= AD A

|
= AB = BC CB
|

BA AD C
= CD C
= BC C = AB
|
|
|

AB BC CD A, D

=
=
|

CD D = A = AB

|
|
|
|
|
|
(ABC) ( AB BC )CA = AB BC CA
ABC
A, B, C




( ) = ( ( ) ( ))( )
|

= AB
|

BC = CA = 0
=

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= 1, 2


m 2 m
(m + 1) P0, P1, P2, , Pm P j sj
|

Pj 1 Pj j = 1, 2, , m
s m P m + l

|
Pj j sj Pj Pj + 1

(i)
(ii)
sm

s = (P0, P1, P2, , Pm) mj= 1Pj 1 Pj

Pj 0 j m P0, Pm
|

sj = Pj 1 Pj 1 j < m

F F

D E D E

A O
A

C B C B

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m P0
sm sm Pm 1 Pm

|
s = 1 j m sjsj = Pj 1 Pj j < msm Pm 1 Pm

|
m 1
s = (P0, P1, P2, , Pm 1 Pm ):=j = 1 Pj 1 Pj Pm 1 Pm

5 (ABCD EF )
6 ( OA BCD EF )

1.3

1.3.1


n
n = m + 1 3
n = m + 1 P0, P1, P2, , Pn 1 P
|

j sj Pj 1 Pj j = 1, 2, , m = n 1

|

s0 sn Pn 1 P0

n = 7= 11=
1= 2= 14
s 1 = sn 1Pn = P0 = P2n

P1, Pn s1, sn

s = 1 j n sj sj Pj
n Jordan s
|

s= (P0, P1, P2, , Pn 1) nj = 01 Pj Pj + 1

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P0, P1, P2, , Pn 1



ABCD = BCDA = CDAB = DABC
= DCBA = CBAD = BADC = ADCB
ABDC


s s

inT (P1, P2, , Pn) exT (P1, P2, , Pn)




region


s A, B s A s, B s

Q1 = A, Q2, Q3, , Qm = Bm 2

|

Qj Qj + 1 s = j = 1, 2, , m 1
A = Q1B = Qm s
Qj1 < j < m

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s

Q2 Q3
A, B s
s

A = Q1

Q4
B = Q5

s P
s s
s
s

exT (P1, P2, , Pn)


R, S RS
RS inT (P1, P2, , Pn) RS (P1, P2, , Pn)


inT (P1, P2, , Pn)convex
|

R, S RS s

ABC A a = BC
|

b = CA c = AB

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. ., 2008.06
.

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