9 views

Uploaded by vasajitha

Paper on inkjet simulation by Tomatika

- Introduction to Cf d Module
- Romkes 2003
- Pages From Flow of Fluids Through Valves Fittings Pipe - Metric
- Reynolds Report
- Experimental - Bubble column
- 4 turbulence.pdf
- div-class-title-after-transition-in-a-soft-walled-microchannel-div.pdf
- Hose Pressure Drop Calculator
- hydraulic lab
- Reynold's Experiment Lab Report
- ABC
- Fluids
- Glossary for Fire Protection System
- Flow Losses in Flexible Hose.
- Fluent-v6.3.10.pdf
- BRC Course Listing PT
- File
- Surface Pressure Distribution Over a Cylinder
- Circular Cylinders
- Lift Cap Drill Fluid

You are on page 1of 6

2013.05.08

Numerical Simulation Method of Droplet Formation for Continuous Inkjet

(Yoshifumi Ogamis paper in New Inkjet Technology (2007), Gijutsujoho-kyokai, pp.183-190

translated by Ikegawa)

1. Numerical simulation method

1.1 Basic equation

The movement is treated as two-phase (gas and liquid) flow so that the ink droplet (liquid)

may fly over air (gas). The governing equation of the flow is the Navier-Stokes equation for

two-phase flow (1) and (2), where v is the velocity, p is the pressure, is the density, and is the

viscosity.

i i vi i i vi vi i pi i i vi vi i i g Fi

a a v a a a v a v a a p a a a v a v a a a g Fa

(1)

(2)

The subscript i of expression (1) shows the ink droplet and the subscript a of expression (2)

shows air. i is a rate of the volume of ink that is occupied in a cell. (Therefore, a rate of the

volume of air a in a cell comparatively becomes a=1-i) (Fig. 2). The cell indicates each one when

the calculation area is divided into a minute area of limited pieces (Sec.1.2). The g is gravitational

acceleration and F is the outside force (centrifugal force, electromagnetic force, and surface tension,

etc.). This method considering the rate of volume to simultaneously handle gas and liquid is called

VOF (Volume of fluid) method. The cell filled with ink more than 50% is regarded as ink area.

These expressions are just the application of the law of the Newtons motion to the fluid.

That is, it is shown that the fluid is accelerated by pressure, viscous force, gravity, and other forces

sequentially shown from the right side of Eqs. 1 and 2. The left side shows the acceleration of the

fluid.

In addition, it is necessary to consider the continuousness of air and ink shown as equations

of continuity (3) and (4).

i i i i vi

t

a a a a v

t

(3)

(4)

This expression is a mass conservation rule in the cell where fluid goes in and out.

Formation and flight of the ink droplets are simulated by solving these Eqs (1)-(4).

In general, the calculation method might be different according to the laminar or turbulent

flow. Whether the flow is laminar or turbulent can be judged by the following non-dimensional

parameter, the Reynolds number.

Re

VL

inertia

whereis the density of ink, V is the representative velocity of ink, and L is the representative length

(for instance, inner diameter of the nozzle). The Reynolds number of ink flow Rei ( =iVL/i) is

221 for i=902 kg/m3, i=0.0045kg/ms, V=18.41m/s, L=6.010-5m. The flow of ink is laminar

because Re i is smaller than several thousands. Therefore, the turbulent flow model need not be used

for ink and droplets. The Reynolds number of air flow surrounding the inkjet Rea (=aVL/a) is 71

for a=1.184 kg/m3, a=1.84x10-5kg/ms, V=18.41m/s, L=6.010-5m. The air flow surrounding

the inkjet is also laminar.

1.2 Meshing and calculation

Figure 3 shows the nozzle used in simulation. Ink is filled in the nozzle, and pressure

fluctuation P and velocity fluctuation v are given at left side by the device such as piezoelectric

elements in the real inkjet printer. As a result, ink discharges out from a right end of the nozzle of

0.06mm in the inner diameter.

The calculation area as shown in Fig. 4 for the simulation is an area including not only the

above-mentioned nozzle but also the orbit of flying ink droplets. Equation (1) - (4) is applied to this

area, and the area is divided into the mesh of small limited number of cells because the memory is

limited, and the solution is obtained by the computer only on the lattice point. Figure 5 shows the

cross section of the calculation area and the closeup view of the mesh.

Special software is used for the generation of such a mesh. It is also possible to use the data

of the drawing by CAD. It leads to the accuracy of the solution and the descent of stability. A

commercial fluid-dynamic software FLOW-3D (FLOW SCIENCE, USA) was used to solve this

problem in this paper.

2. Simulation example

2.1 Boundary condition and properties

In actual inkjet printer, pressure (or, speed) fluctuation is added on the ink constant pressure

by using the piezoelectric element, etc. This fluctuation causes surface tension wave on the columnar

inkjet surface. The surface tension wave increases its amplitude, causes big curving on the ink

column and separates it into the ink droplets. The velocity at the inlet boundary is written as follows

(5)

v v0 1 C cos 2ft

where v0 is the constant speed, v0C is the amplitude of fluctuation, and f is the frequency of vibration

of the piezoelectric element.

The average speed v0 and the fluctuation amplitude v0C are shown as the number of

vibrations (Fig. 5). The value of the pressure and the amplitude at the inflow boundary can be

experimentally set from the standard of the piezoelectric element. Because it is difficult to get the

value experimentally, flow velocity is used here.

The density and the viscosity of air are assumed to be 1.21kg/m3 and 1.8110-5kg/ms

respectively, and the density, the viscosity and the surface tension of ink are assumed to be

9.02x102kg/m3, 4.50x10-3kg/ms, and 2.62x10-2N/m respectively.

2.2 Influence of amplitude

We focus the amplitude of velocity fluctuation at inlet among various factors that influences

the generation of the ink droplet. Figure 6 shows the appearance of the nozzle. The ink is filled in the

state of the first stage.

Time (s)

Fig. 7 Results: Droplets in time change (v0=5.1cm/s, C=0.005, f=64000s-1)

Figure 7 shows the results when assuming v0=5.1cm/s, C=0.005, and f=61000s-1. First of all,

columnar ink discharges from the nozzle. The ink column shows increasing big curving on the

surface and is separated into several ink droplets.

The amplitude at the velocity fluctuation at the inlet influences point (break point) where the

ink droplet is formed. Figure 8 shows the appearance of the break point neighborhood when

changing it from C= 0.005 to 0.1. Although the case of C=0.005 shows no droplets, the ink droplets

are formed in Z=7.59mm for C=0.01, and Z=5.93mm for C=0.03.

The amplitude grows larger, the break point length from the nozzle exit becomes smaller.

Moreover, in case C=0.01-0.05, the small droplets (satellite) are observed. In case C=0.05-0.07, the

distance between droplets are not uniform. The relation between the amplitude and break point

length is shown in Table 1 and Fig. 9. If the break point length becomes small, the inkjet device

can be miniaturized.

C

Fig. 9 Results: The relation of amplitude C and break point length Z

- Introduction to Cf d ModuleUploaded byShawkat
- Romkes 2003Uploaded byignacio7paz
- Pages From Flow of Fluids Through Valves Fittings Pipe - MetricUploaded bypotatoteddy
- Reynolds ReportUploaded byKiran Raj Veerappen
- Experimental - Bubble columnUploaded bylrodriguez_892566
- 4 turbulence.pdfUploaded byangemauri1
- div-class-title-after-transition-in-a-soft-walled-microchannel-div.pdfUploaded bysagarsrinivas
- Hose Pressure Drop CalculatorUploaded byViji Svr
- hydraulic labUploaded byBeshoy Emad
- Reynold's Experiment Lab ReportUploaded byCristen Alvarez
- ABCUploaded byNandN
- FluidsUploaded byChigz Leczz
- Glossary for Fire Protection SystemUploaded byPrasanthRao
- Flow Losses in Flexible Hose.Uploaded byAnonymous K3FaYFl
- Fluent-v6.3.10.pdfUploaded byTatyau Chian
- BRC Course Listing PTUploaded byjeffreymacasero
- FileUploaded byD7my
- Surface Pressure Distribution Over a CylinderUploaded byHari Manoj Ram Gandrothu
- Circular CylindersUploaded byorz
- Lift Cap Drill FluidUploaded bydn1366
- Unsteady Magnetohydrodynamic Stokes Flow of Viscous Fluid with Radiative Heat TransferUploaded byIOSRjournal
- [JACOBSEN] Impulsive Hydrodynamics of Fluid Inside a Cylindrical Tank and of Fluid Surrounding a Cylindrical PierUploaded byhal9000_mark1
- 33.IJMPERDFEB201833Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- ch08 mechanicsUploaded byamitfebrile
- Fm ProblemsUploaded byashven05
- Mechanics of Fluids November Am Rr220301Uploaded byNizam Institute of Engineering and Technology Library
- Fluid DynamicsUploaded byJoshua Laron
- Cee 451 Lecture 9Uploaded byVarun Shastry
- ASME PTC 19.3 TW Thermowell Calculations.pdfUploaded byJairo Wilches
- session3_2014Uploaded byY.K. Chen

- Construction-Snapshot.pdfUploaded byvasajitha
- IB MaterialUploaded byvasajitha
- Power Pack Hospitals.pdfUploaded byvasajitha
- Comprehensive Pack - Bio PharmaUploaded byvasajitha
- Activity based costing.pdfUploaded byvasajitha
- Comprehensive Pack HospitalsUploaded byvasajitha
- Double Entry SystemUploaded byvasajitha
- Snapshot AirlinesUploaded byvasajitha
- Construction-Power Pack.pdfUploaded byvasajitha
- Snapshot- Bio Pharma.pdfUploaded byvasajitha
- Snapshot-Hospitals.pdfUploaded byvasajitha
- Power Pack - Bio Pharma.pdfUploaded byvasajitha
- Construction Comprehensive PackUploaded byvasajitha
- Suzuki Samuri Case Study AnalysisUploaded bybinzidd007
- Case Study on Suzuki SamuraiUploaded byKeerthi Narayanan
- ME Problem Set-2-2017 BatchUploaded byvasajitha
- ME Problem Set-1.docxUploaded byHari Prasad
- ME Problem Set-1.docxUploaded byHari Prasad
- ME Problem Set-1.docxUploaded byHari Prasad
- Case Book Harvard HBS 2004Uploaded byzeronomity
- Case Book Harvard HBS 2004Uploaded byzeronomity
- Case Book Harvard HBS 2004Uploaded byzeronomity
- Case Book Harvard HBS 2004Uploaded byzeronomity
- Case Book Harvard HBS 2004Uploaded byzeronomity
- Framework for Case AnalysisUploaded byCharles Binu
- Framework for Case AnalysisUploaded byCharles Binu
- Framework for Case AnalysisUploaded byCharles Binu
- Arguments and Non ArgumentsUploaded byvasajitha
- New Microsoft Excel WorksheetUploaded byvasajitha

- aseffa sosena physics-lab9-report xxxUploaded byapi-242490990
- ECE Problem Set 1 SolutionsUploaded byicantdecide
- Engine Building FormulasUploaded byAbhijeet Feelproud
- Ch31Uploaded byMuzamil Shah
- What is Absolute Pressure_ - Universe TodayUploaded byKarim Magdy
- measuring matter-2Uploaded byapi-295018429
- Ch2 Basic LawsUploaded bySriBala
- 12th cbseUploaded byRishi Sinha
- hibbAppCUploaded byTravis Cheung
- mcqs physics.docxUploaded byAmmara Iftikhar
- الماجستير.docUploaded byobaidaaljobory
- Unit 5Uploaded byIrfan Ali
- Ch 1 上課教材.pdfUploaded byTai-Yuan Hsu
- Free Body DiagramsUploaded byjaydeepnarule
- Force- Grade 7 Science - Physics Test RevisionUploaded byRoygunEdwin
- Thermodynamic-Week2Uploaded byDon Wook Won
- ECEN 214 Lab 9Uploaded byShoaib Ahmed
- F_ma_lab2Uploaded byFiona Liu
- 2011 Gr 12 Phy Electrostatics-1Uploaded byTania Liz
- wheeler-geometrodynamics.pdfUploaded bykokopikoc lololo
- properties-of-pure-substance.pdfUploaded byMariela030
- ch3_p01-50Uploaded byJeanne Jackson
- CapacitorsUploaded byMoeez Akram
- EE2402 Notes Protection and SwitchgearUploaded byVinoth Kumar
- EnergyPendulum2Uploaded byapi-3759956
- Maxwell Original EquationsUploaded bysarathoonv
- 2007 9745 P1 VJC Physics H2 P1 Prelim Questions[1]Uploaded byMohd Syukri Kaus
- docc1993Uploaded byswchen
- 1. Circular Motion SUploaded byRamchandra Murthy
- 10083A-9-V1J-EZS0-00020Uploaded byMena Kamel