You are on page 1of 21

The study of law Studij prava

The study of law is intellectually stimulating and chalenging and can lead to a varieti of
interesting careers.
In the UK and USA, law degree programmes usually take three years to complete. In the
UK these programes typically include core subjects such as criminal law, contract law,
tort law, land law, equity and trusts, administrative law, and constitutional law.
In addition, students are often required to take courses covering skills such as legal
writing and resarch.

Pravni studij je zahtjevan i intelektualno stimulativan, te nudi veliki izbor


razlicitih zanimljivih karijera.
U VB u SAD obino su potrebne tri godine da bi se ovaj studijski program
zavrio i stekla diploma. U VB on se obino sastoji od obinih pravnih
predmeta kao to su krivino, ugovorno , deliktno, zemljino, zatim
kompanijsko, upravno i ustavno pravo.
ak ta vie od studenata se esto trai da uzimaju dodatne predmete kako bi
stekli vjetine kao to su pravno pisanje i pravno istraivanje ( traenje po
sluajevima anglo.)

There is also a variety of optional ( elective) courses available. Since many law students
go on to become lawyers, students often take courses that will be useful to them during
their future careers.
Someone wishing to run a small partnership or to work alone as a sole practitioner in a
smol town may decide to take subjects such as family law, employment law, and
housing law.
Those wishing to work in a large law practice will consider subjects such as company
law, commercial law and litigation and arbitration.

Takoe postoji veliki broj izbornih predmeta.


Budii da mnogi studenata prava postanu advokatim oni se esto odluuju za
smjerove koji e im biti od koristi u njihovim buduim karijerama.
Neki ele da vode malu partnersku advokatsku kancelariju ili da rade sami
kao samostalni praktiari u malom gradu , odluuju se za predmete kao to
su porodino pravo, radno pravo ili stambeno pravo.
Oni pak koji ele da rade u velikim pravnim firmama e uzeti u obzir
predmete kao to su kompanijsko, privredno te parnienej i arbitraa.

Many universities also offer courses on legal practice. Courses like this give students the
opportunity to experience the work of a lawyer before deciding on a career in the law.
Another way of finding out more about law in practice is to get involved with a voluntary
advice centre or law clinic. These clinics offer free legal assistance to the local
community and provide a useful introduction to some of the day to day work of lawyer.

Mnogi univerziteti nude i smjerove pravnike prakse . Ovakvi smjerovi


nude studentima priliku da iskuse rad kao advokati prije nego li se odlue za
pravniku karijeru.
Jo jedan nain da se vie sazna o pravnikoj praksi j eukljuivanje u jedan
od besplatnih savjetodavnih centara ili pravnih klinika. Ove klinike nude
besplatnu pravnu pomo u lokalnoj zajednici i na taj nain obezbjeuju
korisno upoznavanje sa svakodnevnim poslovima jednog pravnika.

For students wishing to work in a commercial practice, knowledge of foreign languages


is essential. When law firms hire newrecruits, they generally look at four things:
education, personality work experiance and language ability.
Since English is the lanhuage of the internationallegal community, law firms increasingly
expect graduates to have a good command of English.

Za studente koji ele da rade u komercijalnoj praksi ( privredi), znanje


stranih jezika je od presudne vanosti. Kada pravne firme angauju nove
radnike, obino obraaju panju na etiri stvari: obrazovanje, karakterne
osobine, radno iskustvo i poznavanje stranih jezika.
Budui da je engleski jezik zvanini jezik meunarodne pravne zajednice,
pravne firme sve vie oekuju od diplomaca da posjeduju dobro vladanje
engleskim jezikom.

The barker Rose Graduate Recruitment Programme


Program angaovanja diplomaca fifme Barker Rose
For the ambitious graduate wishingto train as a commercial lawyer, we offer trainees
first-rate work in an informative, chalenging and busy atmosphere, where your
contribution counts from day one.
We require approximately 15 exceptionaltrainee solicitors each year to contribute to our
future growth, in both uor London and Manchester offices.
Za ambiciozne diplomce koji imaju elju da stairaju kao komercijalni pravnici ( u
privredi) nudimo prvoklasan rad u informativnoj zahtjevnoj i zaposlenoj sredini gdje se
va doprinos rauna od prvog dana.
Svake godine nam je potrebno oko 15 izuzetnih pripravnika da daju svoj doprinos
naem rastu, kako u naoj londonskoj tako i u manesterskoj kancelariji.

Training programme Program stairanja


We handle only commercial matters, offering training in company, commercial an
finance, commercial litigation, employment , media, energy, trade and commodities,
shipping and properti law, and in the business skills essential to success as a solicitor.
Mi se iskljuivo bavimo komercijalnim stvarima te nudimo praksu iz kompanijske,
privredne, poslovno-finansijske , i komercijalne advokature, radnog , medijskog,
energetskog, trgovinsko uslunog prava, svojinskog i prava prevoza, te iz poslovnih
vjetina koje su od vitalne vanosti da uspijete kao advokat.

Minimum qualifications Uslovi


Strong academic qualifications, including a 2.1 degree ( any discipline ). We take a
flexible approach and are willing to progress candidates whose application othervise
demonstrates first-rate personal qualities and experience.
Visoke akademske kvalifikacije, ukljuujui diplomu minimalno treeg stepena.
Na pristup je fleksibilan i spremni smo kandidatima, iz cijih se aplikacija vide vrhunski
lini kvaliteti i iskustvo, dati ansu da napreduju dalje dalje u naem procesu izbora.

When and how to apply Kako i gdje se prijaviti


Apply by 31st July two yoears before the start of the traning contract.
3

To apply online , please click on this link:


www.barkerrose.co.uk
Prijave se primaju do 31. Jula, dvije godien prije poetka programa stairanja.
Za prijavu preko interneta kliknite na ovaj link.

Sponsorship

Stipendiranje

We will pay your full course fees for both the GDL and LPC, pls maintenance of
6,000 during your GDL and 7,000 trought your LPC study year.
Mi snosimo pune trokove za oba ispita ( GDLC i LPC ) plus stipendiju u iznosu od
6000 funti tokom vaeg GDL i 7000 funti tokom LPC godine studiranja.

Further information

Dodatne informacija

If you would like further information, please contact Graham Matthews, our Graduate
Recruitment and Trainee Manager, on 0650 581 8967 or by email at
graduate.recruitment@barkerrose.co,uk
Barker Rose will be presenting its Graduate Recruitment Programme at the University of
London Law Fair on 15 May at 2.30 p.m. in the John Adams lecture theatre.
Za sve dodatne informacije molimo kontaktirajte nas preko Grahama Metjusa,
menadera za praksu i primanje diplomaca na broj 0650 581 8967 ili preko mail adrese
graduate.recruitment@barkerrose.co.uk
Barker Rose e predstaviti svoj program primanja diplomaca na Univerzitetu
londonskog Pravnog Sajma 15. Maja sa poetkom u 14:30 u Don Adams teatru.

Contract law
Contract law deals with promises which create legal rights. In most legal systems, a
contract is formed when one party makes an offer that is accepted bythe other party.
Some legal systems require more, for example that the parties give each other, or promise
to give each other , something of value. In common law systems , this promise is know
as consideration. In those systems , a one-sided promise to do something ( e.g. a
promise to make a gift) does not lead to the formation of an enforceable contract, as it
lacks consideration.
Ugovorno pravo se bavi obeanjima koja stvaraju zakonska prava. U veini pravnih
sistena, ugovor je formiran kada jedna stranka daje ponudu koja je prihvaena od strane
druge stranke. Neki pravni sistemi zahtjevaju vie , na primjer, da stranke daju jedna
drugoj ili da obeaju da e dati jedna drugoj neto od vrijednosti. U veini pravnih
sistema ovo obeanje je poznato kao konsideracija. U tim sistemima jednostrano
obeanje da se neto uradi ( npr. Da se napravi poklon= ne dovodi do formiranja
pravosnanog ugovora, jer nedostaje konsideracija.

When is contract is negotiated the offer and acceptance must match each other for the
contrakt to be binding. This means that one party must accept exactly what the other
party has offered. If the offer and acceptance do not match each other, then the law says
that the second party has made a counter-offer ( that is, a new offer to the first party
wich then may be accepted or rejected)
Kada se pregovara o ugovoru, ponuda I saglasnost se moraju podudariti kako bi
ugovor bio obavezujui. Ovao znai da jedna stranka mora prihvatiti tano ono to je
druga stranka ponudila. Ako se ponuda i saglasnost ne podudaraju, onda zakon kae da
je druga stranka napravila kontra-ponudu (a to je nova ponuda prvoj stranci koja onda
moe biti prihvaena ili odbaena)

For there to be valid contract, the parties must agree on the essential terms.
These include the price and the subject matter of the contract.
Da bi ugovor bio validan strake se moraju sloiti oko osnovnih uslova. Oni
podrazumjevaju cijenu i predmet ugovora.

Contract may be made in writing or by spoken words. If the parties make a contrack by
spoken words, it is called an oral contract. In some jurisdictions, certain special types
of contracts must be in writing or they are not valid (e.g. the sale of land).
Ugovor moe biti u pisanoj ili usmenoj formi. Ako stranke sklope ugovor usmeno , onda
se taj ugovor zove usmeni ugovor. U nekim jurisdikcijama izvjesni tipovi ugovora
moraju biti u pisanoj formi , inae nisu validni (npr prodaja zemlje)

Contracts give both parties rights and obligations. Righrs are something positive which
to get from a contract (e.g. the right to payment of money). Obligations are something
which a party has to do or give up to get those rights (e.g. the obligations to do work)
Ugovori daju objema stranama prava i obaveze. Prava su neto pozitivno to stranka
eli da dobije od ugovora (npr. Pravo na isplatu novca). Obaveze su neto to stranka
mora da uradi ili se neeg odrei da bi dobila ta prava (npr. obaveza na rad)

When a partry does not it is requred to do under a contarct, that arty is said to have
breached the contract. The other party may file a lawsuit against the breaching party for
breach of contract. The non-breaching party (sometimes called the injured party) may try
to get a court to award damages for the breach. Damages refers to money which the
court orders the breaching party to pay to the non.breaching party in compensation.
Other remedies include specific performance, where a court orders the breaching party to
perform the contract ( that is to do what is promised to do).
Kada stranka ne uradi ono to je potrebno da uradi na osnovu ugovora , za tu straku se
kae da je prekrila ugovor. Druga stranka moe podnijeti tubu za krenje ugovora
protiv strane koja je prekrila ugovor. Stranka koja nije prekrila ugovor (koju jo zovemo
i oteeni) moe pokuati da od suda nadoknadi tetu za povredu ugovora. teta se
odnosi na novac koji, odlukom suda , oteenom treba da plati stranka koja je prekrila
ugovor. Ostale albe, ukljuujui izvrenje ugovora u kojima sud nareuje stranci koja
je prekrila ugovor da taj isti izvri (da uradi to je obeala da euraditi)

A party may want to transfer its rights under a contract to another party. This is called
as assignment. When a party assigns (gives) its rights undes the contract to another
party, the assigning party is called the assignor and the party who gets the rights is
called the assignee.
Stranka moe da poeli da prenese svoja prava na osnovu ugovora na neku drugu
stranku. Ovo se zove cesija. Kada stranka prenosi (daje) svoja prava na osnovu
ugovora na drugu stranku, stranka koja prenosi se zove ustupalac, a stranka koja stie
prava se zove ovlaenik.

The termination of your contract with Drexler Inc.


Raskid Vaeg ugovora sa Dreksler korporacijom
Dear Mr McKendrick
Thank you for coming to see me on 30 May when we discussed the termination of your
contract with Drexler Inc. I am writng to summarise our discussion and to confirm your
instructions.
Potovani gdine MekKenndrik
Hvala vam to ste doli 30. maja kada smo razgovarali o raskidu vaeg ugovora sa
Dreksler korporacijom. Piem vam da bi smo rezimirali nau diskusiju i da potvrdite
vaa uputstva.

You told me that Drexler Inc. agreed to purchase a large quantity of goods (exact
amount unspecified) from your firm, Export Threads. Under clause 2a of the contract,
Drexler were to give you two days notice of the date of shipment so that you could
arrange a lorry for the transportation of the goods. You now wish to terminate the
contract
Rekli ste mi da se Dreksler korporacija sloila da kupi veliku koliinu robe (tana
koliina nepoznata) iz vae firme, Export Threads. Pod klauzulom 2a ugovora, Drexler
vas je morao dva dana ranije obavjestiti o datumu isporuke da bi ste mogli organizovati
kamion za transport robe. Niste to mogli organizovati jer vas Drexler nije obavjestio o
ugovorenom datumu. Sada elite da raskinete ugovor.

The legal issue here is whether or not Drexlers breach is enough to allow Export
Threads to terminate the contract without being liable for damages. If the contract term
in question can be shown to be a condition, you will be able to terminate the contract
without fear of damages being awarded against you. If the term is simply a warranty, you
will be able to claim damages to cover any costs you have incurred as a result of the
breach, but may not actually terminate the contract.
Pravno pitanje je da li je Drexlerova povreda ugovora dovoljna da omogui Export
Threadsu da raskine isti bez odgovaranja za stetu. Ako se propisi ugovora pokau kao
uslov, moi ete da raskinete ugovor bez straha da e se obeteenje vama pripisati. Ako
je propis samo garancija, moi ete zahtjevati naknadu tete da pokrijete sve trokove
koji su nastali kao rezultat ove povrede ugovora, ali neete moi i da ga raskinete.

Recent case law suggests that if you do choose to terminate the contract, and if Drexler
subsequently decide to sue you, the courts would rule against you . Your contract
involves a chain of sales and in such cases, the need for ceartainty is very important. You
were unable to arrange the loading of the goods as a direct consequence of Drexlers
breach of clause 2a, and this term would be interpreted as a condition.
Dananaj sudska praksa pokazuje da, ako se ipak odluite da raskinete ugovor, I ako
Drexler zatim odlui da vas tui , sud nee presuditi u vau korist. Va ugovor ukljuuje
lanac prodaje, a u takvim sluajevima, potreba za pouzdanou je veoma bitna. Niste
bili u mogunosti da obezbjedite utovar robe to je direktna posljedica Drexlerove
povrede klauzule 2a ugovora, i ovaj propis bi se mogao tumaiti kao uslov.

I will write a letter to Drexler Inc. outling the above and notifying them of your
intention to renegotiate the contract. I will request confirmation from Drexler that they
accept our interpretation both of the events and of the relevant law, and that your
termination of the contract will not lead to any unnecessary legal action on their part. I
will be in touch again shortly. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any
questions. With kind regards
Charles Dawe
Napisau pismo Drexler korporaciji u kom u definisati sve gore navedeno i obavjestiti
ih o vaoj namjeri da ponovo pregovarate o ugovoru. Traiu potvrdu od Drexlera u
kojoj prihvataju nae tumaenje oba dogaaja i relevantnih zakona, i da va raskid
ugovora nee dovesti do nepotrebnih tubi sa njihove strane. Uskoro emo opet biti u
kontaktu. Molim vas da ne oklevate da me kontaktirate ukoliko imate bilo kakvih pitanja.
S potovanjem
Charles Dawe

Client Berlingua Language School (Joanna Staines)


Other party-Simon Burnett, Burnett TV Supplies
Facts
Ms Staines (Director of Studies, Berlingua) bought a new satellite system (including
built-in hard drive) at 50% of the normal price from Burnett TV Supplies for
educational use. She mainly wanted to use it to record foreign-language TV programmes
for use during lessons.
injenice
Gosp. Staines (director studija u Belingo koli jezika) je kupila novi satelitski system
(ukljuujui I ureaj hard disk) po 50% jeftinijoj cijeni od Burnett TV potreptine za
obrazovne svrhe. Glavni cilj joj je bio da snima TV programe na stranim jezicima i da ih
koristi tokom predavanja.
When she first set it up and tried to record, she realised that the timer function was
broken. This means someone has to physically press record and stop whenever they want
to record something.
Kada ga je prvi put ukljuila i pokuala da snima program, shvatila je da je funkcija
tajmera pokvarena. Ovo znai da je potrebno da neko fiziki pritie snimi-stop
dugme svaki put kada treba neto snimiti.
Ms Staines has asked for a replacement, but was told that she couldnt expect it to
workperfectly at such a cheap price. They have refused to replace it , but have offered to
repair it at a cost of 130.
Ga.Staines je traila zamjenu ali joj je pri tom reeno da ne moe ni oekivati da radi
savreno po tako niskoj cijeni. Zamjena je odbijena ali je ponueno da se ureaj
popravi uz cijenu od 130 funti.

Legal issues
Defect not pointed out at time of purchase; if reduction due to imperfections, seller
MUST inform client (Sale of Goods Act).
Pravna pitanja
Nedostatak nije istaknut u vrijeme kupovine; ako je cijena sniena uslijed nedostatka
prodavac MORA o tome informisati kupca (deklaracijom o prodaji stvari)

Advice /Action
Ms Staines is entitled to either a full refund or a replacement system (her choice). I
outline the options, Ms Staines is considerating which to go for. Im pretty sure that it
will only take one letter from us before Burnett backs down-hed have no chance in the
small claims court!
Savjet / Postupanje
Ga. Staines ima pravo ili na puni povrat novca ili na zamjenu sistema (njen izbor).
Ja sam joj saoptio koje su njene mogunosti i ona razmatra koju da iskoristi. Prilino
sam siguran da je samo jedno pismo dovoljno i da e se Burnett povui, nema nikakve
anse pred sudom za mala potraivanja.

Tort law
A tort is a civil wrong that can be remedied by awarding damages (other remedies may
also be available). These civil wrongs result in harm to a person or property that forms
the basis of a claim by the injured party. The harm can be physical, emotional or
financial. Examples of torts include medical negligence, negligent damage to private
property and negligent misstatements causing financial loss.
A tort je graanski prekraj koji se moe ispraviti dodjelom odtete (mogui su i
drugi vidovi naknade). Graanski delikti ove vrste mogu rezultovati tetom ka osobi ili
imovini na emu se zasniva tuba oteene strane. teta moe biti fizike, emotivne ili
finansijske prirode. Primjeri delikata su medicinski nemar, nemar na tuoj imovini kao
i namjerne lane informacije koje uzrokuju finansijske gubitke.

There are many specific torts, such as trespass, assault and negligence .
Busniess torts include fraudulent misrepresentation, interference in contractual relations
and unfair busnies practices.
Postoje mnogi specifini delikti poput povrede privatnog posjeda, napad I nemar.
Poslovni delikti obuhvataju neovlateno lano predstavljanje, uplitanje u ugovorne
odnose i nelojalno poslovanje.

10

Torts fall into three general categories: intentional torts (e.g. unfair competition),
negligent torts (e.g. causing an accident by failing to obey traffic rules) and strict liability
(e.g. liability for making and seling defective products).
Graanski delikti potpadaju pod generalnu kategorizaciju I to : namjeran delikti (npr
nelojalna konkurencija) delikt nemara (npr, izazivanje saobraajne nesree,
nepotovanjem saobraajnih pravila) kao i stroge delikte odgovornosti (npr. Odgovornost
za proizvodnju I stavljanje u promet neispravnih proizvoda)

Why some wrongs are dealt with by tort law (or the law of torts) and others considered
criminal offences is the subjects of some debate. However, there are certainly overlaps
between tort law and criminal law. For example, a defendant can be liable to
compensate for assault and battery in tort and also be punished for the criminal law
offence of assault.
Zato neki delikti spadaju u graanske delikte a drugi su krivini delikti , predmet je
mnogih rasprava.. Meutim, izmeu ove dvije sfere zasigurno postoje odreena
preklapanja. Npr optueni se moe smatrati odgovornim za nanoenje teke tjelesne
povrede u sferi delikta i biti kanjen za napad po krivinom pravu.

Differences between tort law and criminal law include: the parties involved (the state
brings an action in crime, a private individual brings an action in tort); the standard of
proof ( higher in criminal law) and the outcomes (a criminal action may result in a
conviction and punishment, whereas an action in tort may result in liability on the part of
the defendant and damages awarded to the claimant)
Razlike izmeu tort low I krivinog prava su: sukobljene strane (drava tereti po
krivinom a privatno lice po tort low osnovu); standard dokazivanja (teinski prednjai
u krivinom pravu) Ishodi procesa (krivini process rezultuje presudom I kaznom dok
se tort low odgovornost moe zavriti samo na odgovornosti tuenog I odteti za
tuioca).

11

The primary amis of tort law are to provide rellef for the harm suffered and deter other
potential tortfeasors from coming from committing the same harms. The injured person
may sue for both an injunction to stop the tortuous conduct and for monetary damages.
Primarni cilj tort low su obezbjeivanje naknade za pretrpljenu tetu kao i odvraanje
potencijalnih poinilaca delikta od vrenja istih djela. Oteena strana ima pravo tuiti I
za zabranu kojom se zaustavlja deliktno ponaanje kao i za materijalnu naknadu.

Depending on the jurisdiction , the damages awarded will be either compensatory or


punitive. Compensatory damages are intended, as far as it is possible, to put the victim in
the position he or she would have been in had the tort not occurred. Punitive damages
are awarded to punish a wrongdoer. As well as compensation for damage to property,
damages may also be awarded for: loss of earnings capacity, future expected losses, pain
and suffering and reasonable medical expenses.
U zavisnosti od nadlenosti, dodjeljene odtete e biti ili kompenzacione ili kaznene.
Kompenzacione odtete imaju za cilj vraanje oteenog u situaciju u kojoj bi bio da se
delikt nije dogodio. Kaznene odtete se donose kako bi se kaznio poinilac. Kao i u
sluaju kompenzacije za oteenje imovine, odteta se moe dodijeliti za: gubitak
mogunosti zarade, izmaklu dobit, bol i patnju kao i za razumne trokove lijeenja.

Palsgraff v. The Long Island Railroad Company, 248


N.Y.339;162 n.e.99; Court of Appeals of New York (1928)
Plaintiff was standing on a platform of defendants railroad when a train moved off from
the platform. Even though it was already moving, a passenger ran to catch the train. The
man who was carrying a package wrapped in paper, appeared to lose his balance while
trying to board the moving train. An employee of the railroad reached out to help him.
This act caused the package in the mans arm to fall onto the rails. Unknown to the
employee, th package contained fireworks. When it fell, the fireworks exploded, causing
some large equipment on the platform to strike and injure the plaintiff. The plaintiff sued
the railroad, claiming thather injury resulted from the negligence of the employee.
Podnosilac zahtheva je stajao na platformi tuenikove pruge kada je voz krenuo. Iako je
voz ve bio u pokretu, putnik je potrao da ga uhvati. ovjek koji je nosi o paket umotan
u papir, pokuavajui da se ukrca u voz u pokretu, izgubio j eravnoteu. Zaposlenik
eljeznice je pruio ruku da ga uhvati. Ova njegova inidba uzrokovala je da paket iz
putnikovih ruku ispadne na ine. Zaposlenik nije znao da paket sadri vatromet. Kada je
pao paket je eksplodirao usled ega su komadi teke opreme na platformi poletjeli, udarili
i povrijedili podnosioca zahtjeva. On je tuio eljeznicu tvrdei da je uzrok njene
povrede nemar zaposlenika eljeznice.

12

PROCEDURAL HISTORY: The trial court found for the plantiff. Defendants
appealed, and the appellate court affirmed the judgment. The railroad then appealed to
this court.
ISTORIJA SLUAJA: prvostepeni sud je donio presudu u korist podnosioca zahtjeva.
Tueni se alio ali je drugostepeni sud potvrdio presudu. eljeznica je onda podnijela
albu ovom sudu.

LEGAL ISSUE: Did the railroads negligence proximately cause plaintiffs injuries?
PRAVNA PITANJA: Da li je nemar eljeznice I priblino izazvao povredu podnosioca
zahtjev?
RULING: No. The Court of Appeals of New York reversed the decision.
PRESUDA: Ne Apelacioni sud drave Njujork j eponitio presudu I odbacio tubu.

REASONING: Negligence is not a tort unless it results in the commission od wrong. If


the harm was not deliberate, it must be shown that the act could have been dangerous.
Since in this case the harm to the plaintiff was not willful on the part of defendant, it had
to be shown that the act of droping a package had the apparent possibility of danger. As
there was nothing on the outside of the package which would cause the reasonable
person to belive it contained explosives, there was no negligence. It was the explosion
that was the proximate cause of plaintiffs injuries, an act which could not have been
foreseen. Therefore railroad was neither negligent nor the proximate cause of plaintiffs
injuries. The judgment of the appellate court was reversed.
OBRAZLOENJE: Nemar nije delikt ako nije rezultirao u injenju nepravde (zla ili
nezakonitog djela). Ako tete nije nanesena namjerno, ora se pokazati da je inidba bila
opasna. Budui da u ovom sluaju, teta podnosioc zahtjeva nije nije nanesena voljno (sa
predumiljajem) moralo se dokazati da sam in isputanja paketa nosi potencijalnu
opasnost. Poto na omotu paketa nije postojalo nita to bi razumnoj osobi ukazalo da
sadri eksploziv, nije postojao nemar. Eksplozija je ta koaj je neposredni uzronik
povrede podnosioca zahtjeva, dogaaj koji se nije mogao predvidjeti. S toga eljeznica
nije iskazala nemar niti je neposredni uzronik povreda podnosioca zahtjeva. Presuda
drugostepenog suda je ponitena i tuba odbaena.

13

The Kent Law Clinic


Kent Law school was the first in Britain to open a law clinic and to develop a clinical
legal studies programme as part of its undergraduate curriculum. A new Kent Law Clinic
was established in 1992, and it offers a unique opportunity for law students to practice
law while still undergraduates. Students regulary represent clients in a wide range of
tribunals an have, in recent years, successfully assisted litigants-in-person in the Court of
Appeal.
Pravna kola Kent je bila prva kola u Britaniji koja je otvorila studije u sklopu klinike
pri svom diplomskom studiju. Nova Kent Pravna Klinika je uspostavljena 1992. godine
i nudila je studentim ajedinstvenu priliku da steknu pravnik upraksu iako jo nisu stekli
diplomu. Studenti su redovno zastupali klijente pred razliitim sudovima, a u nekoliko
zadnjih godina uspjeno asistiraju i strankama koje biraju da same sebe zastupaju pred
apelacionim sudom.

The clinic offers free legal adviced to its clients, with a legal work being done by law
students under the supervision of qualified lawyers. You deal with real clients rather than
with fictional seminar problems, which means you can develop and refine your legal
skills and learn other practical skills, such as interviewing, negotiating and advocacy.
Equally importantly, you have the opportunity experience the actual (rather than the
theoretical) way the law and the
Klinika nudi besplatne pravne savjete svojim klijentima, gdje sav pravniki posao
obavljaju studenti koje nadziru kvalifikovani advokati. Ovdje se radi sa pravim klijentima
a ne sa teorijskim problemima na predavanjima, to znai da ste u mogunosti da
razvijete i izbrusite pravnike I ostale vjetine kao to su intervjuisanje, pregovaranje I
zastupanje. Od iste vanosti je prilika da iskusite pravi nain na koji pravo i ...

14

Criminal law
Criminal law sometimes (altrough rarely) called penal law, involves the prosecution by
the state of a person for an act that has been classified as a crime. This contrast with
civil law, which involves private individuals and organizations seeking to resolve legal
disputes. Prosecutions are initiated by the state trough a prosecutor, whil in a civil case
the victim brings the suit. Some jurisdictions also allow private criminal prosecutions.
Krivino pravo ponekad (mada rijetko) se naziva I kazneno pravo, podrazumjeva
gonjenje od strane drave osobe koja je poinila djelo koje je odreeno kao krivino.
Ovo se razlikuje od graanskog prava koje ukljuuje fizika I pravna lica koja ele da
razrijee svoje pravne nesuglasice. Krivino gonjenje se realizuje preko drave kroz
dravnog tuioca, dok u graanskim stvarima tubu podie rtva(oteeni)
Neki pravni sistemi dozvoljavaju I privatne krivine tube.
Depending on the offence an the jurisdiction, various punishments are available to the
courts to punish an offender (see Exercise 12). A court may sentence an offender to
execution, corporal punishment or loss of liberty (imprisonment or incarceration);
suspend the sentence; impose a fine; put the offender under government supervision
trough parole or probation; or place them on a community service order.
U zavisnosti od prekraja ( k.djela) i nadlenosti , sudovima su na raspolaganju razliite
kazne za poinioce. Sud moe osuditi poinioca na pogubljenje, tjelesnu kaznu i
oduzimanje slobode (kazna zatvora ili smjetanje u neku slicnu ustanovu), uslovnu
kaznu, novanu kaznu, staviti poinioca pod pojaan nadzor drave uz pomo uslovne
slobode ili im odrediti drutveno koristan rad.

Criminal law commonly proscribes-that is, it prohibits- several categories of offences:


offences against the person (e.g. assault), offences against property (e.g. burglary),
public-order crimes (e.g. prostitution) and business, or corporate, crimes (e.g. insider
dealing).
Krivino pravo obino propisuje-zabranjuje nekoliko kategorija krivinih djela:
djela protiv linosti (npr.napad) djela protiv imovine (npr.pljaka) djela protiv javnog
poretka (npr.prostitucija) te privredna krivina djela (npr.insider dealing)

15

Most crimes (with the exception of strict liability crimes such as statutory rape and
certain traffic offences) are charasteristed by two elements: a criminal act (actus reus)
and criminal intent (mens rea). To secure a conviction, prosecutors must prove that both
actus reus and mens rea were present when a particular crime was committed.
Veina krivinih djela (sa izuzetkom djela za koja se ne zahtjeva postojanje namjere da
bi bila inkriminisana kao npr.sexulani odnos sa maloljetnikom ili neki saobracajni
prekrsaj) odreena je sa dva elementa: protivpravnom radnjom (actus reus) i
namjerom da se nanese tetna posljedica (mens rea).
Da bi osigurali donoenje osuujue presude, tuioci moraju dokazati da su i actus reus i
mens rea postojali u trenutku izvrenja delikta.

In criminal cases, the burden of proof is often on the prosecutor to persuade the trier
(whether judge or jury) that the accused is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt of every
element of the crime charged. If the prosecutor fails to prove this, a verdict of not guilty
is rendered. This standard of proof contrasts with civil cases, where the claimant
generally needs to show a defendant is liable on the balance of probabilities (mere then
50% probable). In USA, this is referrd to as the preponderance of the evidence.
U krivinim djelima, teret dokazivanja je esto na strani tuioca gdje on treba pokazati
onome ko sudi, bila to porota ili sudija pojedinac, da je optueni kriv, za svaki element
djela za koje se tereti, van svake razumne sumnje. Ako tuilac u ovome ne uspije, izrie
se presuda da niej kriv (oslobaajua). Ovaj standard dokazivanja se razlikuje u odnosu
na graanske sluajeve, gdje je obino dovoljno da tuilac dokae da je tueni
odgovoran do granice vjerovatnoe (vie od 50%)
U SAD se ovo naziva prevagom dokaza.

16

Some jurisdictions distinguish between felonies (more serious offences, such as rape)
and misdemeanours (less serious offences, such as petty theft).
It is also worth nothing that the same incident may sometimes lead to both a criminal
prosecution and an action in tort.
U pojedinim pravnim sistemima se pravi razlika izmeu prekraja (teih krivinih djela
kao to je silovanje) I prekraja lake prirode (npr. Sitna kraa)
Nema prepreka da jedno isto djelo dovede I do krivine tube I do graanskog zahtjeva
za naknadu usljed pretrpljenog fizikog ili duevnog bola.

FSA fines auditor for market abuse


The Financial Services and Markets Tribunal has upheld a Financial Services Authority
(FSA) case against Mr Arif Mohammed, a former Pricewaterhouse Coopers (PwC) audit
manager, who was fined 10,000 for committing market abuse. This is the first time the
market abuse provisions in the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (FSMA) have
been the subject of a Tribunal decision.
Finansijsko trini sud je potvrdio odluku Finansijske Revizije kojom je Arif Muhamed,
bivi revizor u Pricewaterhouse Coopers kanjen sa 10000 funti zbog trine prevare.
Ovo je prvi put da su odredbe o trinim prevarama iz Akta o Finansijama i Tritu iz
2000. bile predmet odluke ovog suda.

Mr Mohammed bought shares in Delta plc, a London Stock Excange listed electrical and
engineering services company, based on his knowledge that the company intended to sell
its electrical division. Mr Mohamed become aware of this confidential information
because Deltas electrical division was on audit client of PwC, and Mr Mohammed
worked on the companys audit.
Gdin. Muhamed je kupio dionice Delta plc firmi koja se bavi inenjeringom i
elektronikom I koja je registrovana na londonskoj berzi, a sve znajui da firma planira da
proda svoje elektro odjeljenje. Gdin.Muhamed je doao do ove informacije jer je Delta
plc klijent njegove revizorske kue, gdin.Muhamed je lino radio reviziju.

17

In July 2002. Mr Mohammed first became aware of the proposed sale of Deltas
electrical division. He was told that this information was confidential and not to be
discussed with company officials. Although Mr Mohammed began handing over the
responsibility for elements of Deltas audit in September 2002. he remained on the audit
team assigned to Delta throughout the period leading up to the disposal announcement.
In particular, Mr Mohammed remained responsible for planning staff to work on Delta
and had reason to know about the sales progress because of its impact on resource
planning.
U Julu 2002. gdin. Muhamed je saznao za prodaju elektro odjeljenja Delta. Reeno mu je
da je to povjerljiva informacija i da ne smije o tome priati sa zvaninicima njegove
kompanije. Iako je gdin. Muhamed predao odgovornost za pojedine elemente Deltine
revizije u septembru 2002. god. on j eipaj ostao lan revizorskog timasve do zvanine
objave prodaje jednog dijela firme. Gdin. Muhamed je ostao zaduen za tim osoblja koji
je Delti radio strateko planiranje i imao je razloga da zna o napretku procesa prodaje jer
taj proces utie na planiranje resursa.

At the end of November 2002. Mr Mohammed was ongoing and was getting close to
agreement. Based on this information, he purchased 15,000 shares in Delta on 29
November 2002 at 80p each. Delta announced the disposal on 9 December 2002, and Mr
Mohammed sold his shares the following day at 105p each making a profit of 3,750.
Krajem novembra 2002. godine, gdin. Muhamed je bio svjestan dfa je process prodaje u
toku i da se blii postizanje dogovora. Na osnovu ove informacije, on je kupio 15 000
dionica Delte 29.nov.2002. po cijeni od 80 penija za svaku akciju. Delata je objavila
prodaju 9. decembra 2002. pa je gdin. Muhamed prodao svoje dionice sledeeg dana po
cijeni od 105 penija po akciji, pribavljajui tie sebi korist od 3750 funti.

The Tribunal held that the information Mr Mohammed had about the proposed deal
was sufficient and preices enough to be considered as relevant information according to
the market abuse provisions.
Sud smatra da su informacije koje je gdin. Muhamed imao o predloenom ugovoru
precizne i dovoljne da se smatraju relevantnim po propisima o trinim prevatama.

18

Company law
Company law is the law which deals with the creation and regulation of busniess
entities. The most common forms of bussnies entity are companies and partnerships.
Kompanijsko pravo je pravo koje se bavi formiranjem I regulisanjem poslovnih
subjekata. Najei oblik poslovnih entiteta su kompanije i partnerske firme.

A company is a group of people which is treated as a legal person of a separate identity


from its shareholding members. It can own property, enter into contracts, sue others and
be sued. This contrasts with a partnership, which is not considered to be a legal person
and is not able to own property in its own name.
Kompanije je grupa ljudi koja ima status pravnog lica i razliit identitet od svojih
osnivaa-akcionara. Moe posjedovati imovinu, zakljuivati ugovore, tuiti i biti tuena.
Ovo se razlikuje od partnerskog drutva koje se ne tretira kao pravno lice i ne moe
imati imovinu upisanu na svoje ime.

Because of the limited liability of the members of a company for its debts, as well as its
separate personality an tax treatment, the company has become the most popular from of
business entity in most countries in the world..
Zbog ograniene odgovornosti lanov akompanje za njene dugove, kao I odvojenom
pravnom subjektivitetu I poreskom statusu, kompanije su postale najpopularniji oblik
poslovnih subjekata u veini zemalja svijeta.

Companies have an inherent flexibility which can let them grow;there is no legal reason
why a company initially formed by a sole proprietor cannot eventually grow to be a
publicly listed company, but a partnership will generally have a limited number of
partners.
Kompanije imaju uroenu fleksibilnost koja im doputa da rastu; s toga, ne postoje pravni
razlozi zato jedna kompanija koja je osnovana od strane samostalnog preduzetnika ne
moe vremenom izrasti u kompaniju od drutvenog znaaja dok partnerska firma e
uvijek imati ogranien broj lanova-partnera.

19

A company has shareholders (those who invest money in it and get shares in return), a
board of directors (people who manage the affairs of the company) and creditors (those to
whom the company owes money). Company law deals with the relationships between
companies and their shareholders, creditors, regulators and third parties.
Kompanija ima vlasnike dionica (ljude koji ulau novac u nju a za uzvrat dobijaji
dionice), upravni odbor (ljudi koji se brinu za poslove kompanije) i ulagae (one kojima
kompanija duguje novac). Kompanijsko pravo se bavi meusobnim odnosima izmeu
kompanija I njihovih dioniara, ulagaa, nadzornih tijela I drugih zainteresovanih strana.

The process of registring a company is known as company formation. Companies can be


created by individuals, specialized agents, attorneys or accountants. Today, the majority
of companies formed in the UK and the USA are formed electronically. In the UK, a
certificate of incorporation is issued once the companys constitutional documents and
statutory forms have been filed.
Proces registracije kompanije poznat kao formiranje kompanije. Kompanija moe biti
formirana od strane pojedinca, specijalizovanih ageneta, advokata ili raunovoa. Danas
veina kompanija u V Britaniji i SAD se formiraju elektronskim putem. U Vbritaniji,
rjeenje o upisu u javni registar kompanija se izdaje kada kompanija preda svoje
osnivake dokumente u zakonskoj formi.

The constitution of a company consists of two documents. The memorandum of


assoclation states the principal object of the company. The second document, the articles
of association, regulates the companys internal management and administrative affairs,
including matters such as the rights and obligations of shareholders and directors,
conduct of meetings and corporate contracts.
Formiranje kompanije se sastoji od dva dokumenta. Osnivaki akt predoava glavne
ciljeve kompanije. Drugi dokument je statut koji regulie kompanijsko unutranje
ureenje i administrativne poslove, ukljuujui stvari kao to su prava i obaveze
dioniara i direktora, odravanje sastanaka i ugovore kompanije.

20

Company law
This module concentrates on UK company law in the context of modern capitalism and
the wider global economy. A series of introductory lectures and seminars will provide
students with an understanding of , inter alia, the rules governing incorporation, funding
an corporate finance, corporate governance and fundamental changes to the structure of a
company (including corporate insolvency and winding up).
Ova oblast je najvie usmjerena na kompanijsko pravo Velike Britanije u kontekstu
modernog kapitalizma i globalne ekonomije. Serija ovodnih predavanja i seminara
omoguie studentima da razumiju , izmeu ostalog, pravila po kojim posluju preduzea,
finansiranje i finansije preduzea, voenje preduzea i sutinske promjene u strukturi
kompanije (ukljuujui insolventnost i gaenje).

We will also consider the more general operationof this particular from of busniess
vehicle. During the second half of the course, we will examine the concepts of corporate
personality, corporate rights and members rights in more depth before turning to the
newly introduced directors duties under the Companies Act 2006.
Takoe emo razmotriti i optije forme poslovnih kretanja. Tokom druge polovine
semestra razmotriemo i koncepte karaktera preduzea, prava preduzea i prava lanova
preduzea detaljnije prije nego li se okrenemo novim pravilima koja odreuju
dunostidirektora koja su predstavljena u Aktu o Kompanijama iz 2006.

Finally, we will consider how progressive lawyers might work with businesses in order
to ensure that direcrots meet their responsibilities to their shareholders, non-affiliated
stakeholders, the environment, and the communities in which they operate. One way of
encouraging such a commitiment is trough the careful drafting of the memorandum and
articles, on which topic two optional half-day sessions are now offered as a supplement to
the company-law module.
Konano emo razmotriti I naine na koje advokati mogu raditi sa biznisom da bi
osigurali da direktori ispotuju svoje obaveze prema svojim akcionarima, sporednim
akcionarima, prema prirodnoj sredini I lokalnim zajednicama u kojima vode posao.
Nain na koji se obezbjeuje ovakva posveenost je kroz paljivo pravljenje
dokumenata i lanaka, n akoju e temu biti ponuena dva izborna poludnevna predavanja
kao dodatak oblasti kompanijskog prava.

21