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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

International Journal of Research and Innovation in


Thermal Engineering (IJRITE)
A PREDICTION OF THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EPOXY COMPOSITES FILLED WITH
PINE APPLE LEAF FIBER
Mallireddy Subramanya Pravallika1, Devadas Deepu2, Maddukuri Sarath Babu3.
1 Research Scholar, Department of Thermal Engineering, Aditya Engineering College, Surampalem, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aditya Engineering College, Surampalem, Andhra Pradesh, India.
3 PHD Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagpur, India.

Abstract
The present paper deals with the effect of volume fraction of fillers on the thermal Properties of polymer composites. This
work sees an opportunity of enhancement on insulation capability of a typical fiber reinforced polymer composite. To
validate this mathematical model, a set of epoxy based composites, with fiber content ranging 4.38 to 20.10% of volume
fractions have been prepared by simple hand lay-up technique. For preparing the composite, natural fiber i.e. Pine apple leaf fibers are incorporated in Epoxy Resin. Thermal conductivities of these composite samples are measured as per
ASTM standard E-1530 by using the Unitherm Model 2022 tester, which operates on the double guarded heat flow
principle at the temperature ranging from 30C to 150C. And also the Specific Heat of the powdered samples are measured by using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). By using the MATLAB the numerical analysis is carried out to
find the value of Thermal Diffusivity with varying temperatures. It was observed that the thermal diffusivity varies with
fiber concentration, but the variation of thermal diffusivity with varying temperature was not so significant.
KEYWORDS: Pine Apple Leaf fiber, Epoxy Composites, Volume Fraction, Thermal Properties.
*Corresponding Author:
Mallireddy Subramanya Pravallika,
Research Scholar,Department of Thermal Engineering,
Aditya Engineering College, Surampalem,
Andhra Pradesh, India.
Email: vallika.sairam@gmail.com
Year of publication: 2016
Review Type: peer reviewed
Volume: III, Issue : I
Citation:Mallireddy Subramanya Pravallika, Research
Scholar "A Prediction of Thermal Properties of Epoxy
Composites Filled With Pine Apple Leaf Fiber " International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science,
Engineering and Technology (IJRISET) (2016) 98-102.
INTRODUCTION
In general synthetic fibers like glass fibers, carbon fibers,
nylon, wool etc. are the most widely used fillers for various applications as the structural components and wear
resistance. In this Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP)
composites are the most important materials in the field
of Engineering, mainly because of their good specific stiffness, Strength along with their low density and also due to
its lower thermal conductivity. But Glass fiber reinforced
polymer composites have many disadvantages like they
are toxic in nature and corrosive, high cost, non-recyclable, and also not bio-degradable. In the recent decades,
due to the environmental responsiveness and Ecological
concern attention towards Natural Fiber Reinforced composites (NRFC) has increased. These natural composites
have many advantages including low cost, light weight,
non-toxic, bio degradable etc., and also these natural fibers possess very less thermal conductivity which is lower
than the synthetic fibers and used as filler material for
various insulation applications.

As Light weight is a Key in achieving national energy


goals. Natural Fiber reinforced polymer composites are
lightweight materials (33) having high strength, high stiffness when compared with the metal polymer composites.
In Generation (1940s-1970s) development and massive
use of carbon fiber as reinforcement in the composites are
used in load bearing structures which replace the metal composites. In generation (1980s-2010s), composites
brought about a great use in aerospace, military, sporting goods etc. Now in the present generation there is a
great use of Natural fiber reinforced composites (NFRC)
because of their superior advantages over the synthetic
fibers, i.e., there are relatively low weight, cost effective,
less damage to processing, good mechanical and physical
properties such as tensile strength and flexural strength,
abundant, biodegradability and minimal health hazards.
The present work is taken to investigate the effect of fiber
volume fraction on the thermal properties of the PALF reinforced polymer composites.
The main objective of the present work is to fabricate a
new class of less weight, low cost polymer composites in
which the pine apple leaf fiber is used as reinforcement to
improve the insulating capabilities of Epoxy resins. Pineapple leaf fiber is used as filler materials in the present
investigation reinforced in the Epoxy resin to fabricate a
new class of composite materials by using hand-layup
techniques.
The thermal conductivity values of the composites with
different volume fraction are calculated mathematically or
experimentally using UNITHERM 2022 named as Graduated Heat flow meter with varying temperature range from
30C to 150C. The Specific heat capacity values of the
Epoxy composites are evaluated using Differential scanning calorimeter. And finally by numerical calculations
the thermal diffusivity is evaluated and calculated.

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF)

MATERIALS

SL.NO

Characteristic Property

Inferences

Density

1.5gm/cc

Matrix material-1

Youngs modulus

34.582.51Gpa

Tensile Strength

4131627MPa

Thermal Conductivity

0.0273W/mK

The Matrix Material used is the Epoxy (LY 556). It provides a solvent free curing system when it is combined
with the hardener Tri-Ethylene Tetra mine (TETA) which
is an aliphatic primary amine with commercial designation HY 951 for the polymer composites.
Properties of Epoxy (LY 556) Resin
SL.NO

Characteristic Property

Inferences

Density

1.1gm/cc

Compressive Strength

90 MPa

Tensile Strength

58 MPa

Thermal Conductivity

0.363W/mK

Electrical conductivity

0.10 10-16 S/cm

Filler Material Extraction


The Extraction of Pine Apple Leaf Fiber (PALF) is obtained
by using decorticator machine. This machine is used to
separate the fiber from unwanted dirt particles present.
This machine is powered by a 20HP diesel Engine. This
extracted fiber is dried in a solar dryer to reduce the Moisture content in the fiber. Initially, the moisture content
present in the PALF after the extraction is about 60 to
70%. The fiber is dried in the solar house for 3 to 4 days
to attain 15% moisture content.

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS
Fabrication of Composites
Using the hand layup method, the Low temperature curing epoxy resin (LY 556) (commonly known as BisphenolA-Diglycidyl-Ether) and corresponding hardener (HY951)
are mixed in a ratio of 10:1 by weight as recommended.
Two identical specimens are prepared, which are used for
finding the Thermal Conductivity and other is grinded as
a fine powder using the grinding machine to find the Specific Heat. In the Similar way Six identical sets of Specimens are prepared for finding the thermal properties of
specimens with varying fiber Volume fraction as shown in
the following table .
For finding the Thermal Conductivity
Sample

Composition (Epoxy Resin)

Epoxy+ 0% of PALF

Epoxy+4.38% of PALF

Epoxy+ 9.50% of PALF

Epoxy+14.5% of PALF

Epoxy+18.7% of PALF

Epoxy+20.10% of PALF

Calculations of Densities and Volume Fractions of Fibers:


The important property of a light weight material is the
Density of the material. If the density of the material is
low then the weight of the material is less. To calculate
the densities of the material firstly we need to know the
volume fraction of the filler and the matrix.
For finding this we are using the formulae

Pine Apple leaf

Where, FVF = Fiber Volume Fraction


FWF = Fiber Weight Fraction
f = Density of Filler, kg/m3
m= Density of Matrix, kg/m3
And now the density of the composites are measured using the following equation
c=fVf+mVm

Pine Apple leaf Fiber (PALF)

Where, c = Density of Composite, kg/m3


f = Density of Filler(PALF Fiber), kg/m3
Vf= Volume of Filler, m3
m= Density of Matrix, kg/m3
Vm= Volume of Matrix, m3
Here Vf=FVF100, and Vm=MVF100
Where, MVF= Matric volume fraction

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

The following tables shows the values of Fiber Volume


fraction and densities of two set of PALF Reinforced composites
The following table shows the values of Fiber Volume
Fraction and Densities of PALF Reinforced Epoxy Composites.
Fiber Volume Fraction and Densities of PALF Reinforced
Epoxy Composites
Sample

Mass,
m (g)

Density of
Matrix,
m (g/
cm3)

Density of
Filler,
f (g/
cm3)

Fiber
Volume
Fraction,
FVF

Volume
of filler,
Vf %

Density,
c (g/
cm3)

20

1.1

1.5

1.1

22.85

1.1

1.5

0.0325

3.25

1.11

Specific Heat Capacity


The specific heat capacity of the PALF reinforced Epoxy
composites are measured using the Differential scanning
calorimeter. For finding these values we need to consider
the powdered form of the composites at the heating rate
of 5C/min.
Thermal Diffusivity
The value of thermal diffusivity of the PALF reinforced
epoxy composites are calculated using the following formula. It has the SI unit of m/s. Thermal diffusivity is
usually denoted . The formula is:
=k/(Cp)

21.5

1.1

1.5

0.0715

7.15

1.13

21.5

1.1

1.5

0.1106

11.06

1.14

21.35

1.1

1.5

0.1443

14.43

1.16

19.9

1.1

1.5

0.1557

15.57

1.16

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:


Thermal Conductivity of PALF Reinforced Epoxy composites with varying temperatures:
Thermal Conductivities of PALF reinforced Epoxy composites
with varying temperature change, W/mK
Sample

Volume
Fraction of
Fiber(Vf)%

k at
30C

k at
60C

k at
90C

k at
120C

k at
150C

0.246

0.243

0.265

0.28

0.3

3.25

0.223

0.235

0.246

0.266

0.274

7.15

0.212

0.222

0.231

0.249

0.262

11.06

0.206

0.219

0.221

0.234

0.248

14.43

0.188

0.201

0.213

0.224

0.231

15.57

0.179

0.192

0.201

0.216

0.223

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY CHARACTERIZATION


For finding the thermal conductivities of Unknown specimens the following formulas are used after getting the
readings from the Graduated heat flow meter.
At thermal equilibrium, the Fourier heat flow equation
applied to the test stack becomes

R=F[Tu-Ti]/Q -Rint
Where R = Thermal resistance of the sample
F= Heat flow transducer calibration factor (HFT)
Tu = Upper plate surface temperature
Ti = lower plate surface temperature
Q= Heat flow transducer output
Rint = Interface thermal resistance
The sample thermal conductivity (k) is calculated from
R x/k
Where, x= Sample thickness
q=T/R
Where, q= Heat flux, W/m2
T = Change in Temperature, K
Q=qA
Where, Q= Heat Flow, W
A= Area, m

By observing the Values of thermal conductivity of PALF


Reinforced Epoxy composites with varying fiber volume
fraction, it is clear that the thermal conductivity values
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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

decreases as the fiber volume increases. And also we can


observe that with the increase in temperature range the
thermal conductivity of the composites increases but
there is only a small change in those values. So as a result it can be used as an insulating material, and due to
its low density values it can used as a lightweight material
as a replacement for carbon fiber Reinforced Epoxy composites which are widely used in Military and Aerospace
applications.
Specific Heat Values of PALF Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Specific heat Capacities of PALF reinforced Epoxy composites with varying temperature change
Sample

Volume of
Fiber,
Vf %

Cp at 30C

Cp at 60C

Cp at 90C

Cp at
120C

Cp at
150C

2028.393

2003.6565

2185.0575

2308.74

2473.65

3.34

1609.406

1696.0109

1775.398

1919.74

1977.477

7.33

1626.089

1702.791

1771.8237

1909.887

2009.601

11.33

1580.067

1679.78

1695.1213

1794.8344

1902.218

14.88

1452.134

1552.5484

1645.2379

1730.203

1784.273

15.93

1483.361

1591.091

1665.672

1789.9778

1847.986

Thermal Diffusivity() of PALF reinforced Epoxy composites with varying Temperature


Sample

Volume of
Fiber,
Vf %

*10-7 at
30C

*10-7 at
60 C

*10-7 at
90 C

*10-7 at
120 C

*10-7 at
150 C

1.0936

1.0946

1.0966

1.0936

1.0976

3.25

1.248

1.249

1.247

1.2492

1.249

7.15

1.1533

1.1538

1.15275

1.15785

1.1523

11.06

1.1443

1.14563

1.14463

1.14163

1.14263

14.43

1.11507

1.11607

1.11707

1.116

1.1117

15.57

1.04027

1.04037

1.04127

1.04227

1.04127

By the above tables it is clearly observed that the variation in thermal diffusivity with respect to change in temperature is negligibly very small but increase as the temperature increases and with the increase in fiber content
the thermal diffusivity decreases.
CONCLUSION:
In this work, six sets of PALF reinforced Epoxy composites were successfully developed with varying fiber volume
fraction and their thermal properties such as Thermal
conductivity (k), Specific Heat Capacity (Cp), and Thermal
Diffusivity () were studied. From the above results it can
be concluded that.
As the fiber volume fraction increases the density of
the PALF Reinforced Epoxy composites increases. And the
density value varies from 1130 to 1160Kg/m3.
With the increases in fiber volume fraction, the thermal
conductivity of the composites decreases and the values
varies from; as a result we can use as insulating materials. At the maximum volume fraction of fiber, the thermal conductivity of the PALF reinforced epoxy composites
has varied from 0.179 Wm-1K-1 to 0.223 Wm-1K-1 in the
temperature range 30 C to 150C.
The values of specific heat capacity for PALF reinforced Epoxy composites varies from 1483.361 JKg-1K-1
to 1847.986 JKg-1K-1 in the temperature range 30 C to
150C.
The values of thermal diffusivity for PALF reinforced
Epoxy composites vary from 1.04027*10-7m2/sec to
1.04127*10-7m2/sec in the temperature range 30 C to
150C.

From the above figure, it is clearly observed that as the


temperature increases the specific heat value increases.
And with the increase in fiber volume fraction the specific
heat capacity decreases.
Thermal Diffusivity of PALF Reinforced Epoxy Composites
The thermal diffusivity of the PALF reinforced Epoxy Composites was determined by the temperature change from
30C to 150C with varying fiber concentration as shown
in the Table

From all these results, we can concludes that PALF reinforced Epoxy composites are light weight, cost effective
and possess good thermal insulating properties. Hence,
these newly developed composites can be used for the applications such as Aircraft and military, Space, automotive, Sporting Goods, Marine, and Infrastructure etc. as a
replacement for Carbon Fiber epoxy composites and other
metal Composites.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT & DECLARATIONS:
I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards my
projects advisor Mr. D Deepu Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aditya College of Engineering and Technology, Surampalem, AP, India, for his
continuous support, generous guidance, help and useful
suggestions.
I would like to place on record my deep sense of gratitude
to Mr. M Sarath Babu, PHD Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagpur, India, for his stimulating

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

guidance, continuous encouragement and supervision


throughout the course of present work.

2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 11, Issue 1 Ver.


IV (Feb. 2014), PP 48-52.

I also wish to extend my thanks to Mrs. A. Rama Vasantha, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and
Communication Engineering, Aditya College of Engineering and Technology, Surampalem, AP, India, for her help
in the numerical calculations and constructive suggestions to improve the quality of this work.

12. Nanthaya K, Taweechai A, A new approach to Greening plastic composites using pineapple leaf waste for performance and cost effectiveness, Materials and Design
55 (2014) 292299.

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Mallireddy Subramanya Pravallika,


Research Scholar,
Department of Thermal Engineering,
Aditya Engineering College, Surampalem,
Andhra Pradesh, India.

Devadas Deepu,
Assistant Professor,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Aditya Engineering College, Surampalem,
Andhra Pradesh, India.

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Maddukuri Sarath Babu.


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Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Nagpur, India.
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