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Permeability is a capability of a porous rock or sediment to permit the flow of fluids through

its

pore spaces. The rock permeability is important because it control the directional movement and

the flow rate of the reservoir fluids in the formation. Permeability is based on Darcys Law. The

objectives of this experiment is to determine of porous media using liquid parameter and to

compare the average permeability of a tested core sample for differential pressure.

INTRODUCTION

Permeability is a property of the porous medium that measures the capacity and ability of the

formation to transmit fluids. The rock permeability, k is a very important rock property because it

controls the directional movement and the flow rate of the reservoir fluids in the formation.

Darcy equation that defines permeability in terms of measurable quantities is called Darcys Law.

Darcy developed a fluid flow equation that has since become one of the standard mathematical

tools of the petroleum engineer. If a horizontal linear flow of an incompressible fluid is

established through a core sample of length L and a cross-section of area, A then the governing

fluid flow equation defined as :

v=

k dp

m dL

k = proportionality constant, or permeability, Darcys

= viscosity of the flowing fluid, cp

dp/dL = pressure drop per unit length, atm/cm

The permeability should be measured in presence of fluid therefore gas and liquid could be

used. If gas is used as the working liquid, at low flow rates correction is needed, whereas in case

of liquid no correction is needed. Liquid, in our case water, is pump through the sample at

various flow rates and pressure drop is recorded. The permeability can be calculated using darcy

formula and straight-line developed

AIMS/OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this experiment is to determine the permeability of porous media using

liquid parameter and to compare the average permeability of the tested core sample for

differential pressures.

THEORY

Permeability is a property of the porous medium that measures the capacity and ability of the

formation to transmit fluids. The rock permeability, k, is a very important rock property because

it controls the directional movement and the flow rate of the reservoir fluids in the formation.

Darcy equation that defines permeability in terms of measurable quantities is called Darcys Law.

Darcy developed a fluid flow equation that has since become one of the standard mathematical

tools of the petroleum engineer.

The fluid flow through a cylindrical tube is can be expressed by the Poiseuilles equation,

where it is the simplification to the Navier-Strokes equation for the particular geometry, laminar

flow and uncompressible fluids.

r 4 ( PiPo )

Q=

8 L

where

3

cm m

Q: the flow rate ( s s

R: is the radius of the tube (m or cm)

Po : the outlet fluid pressure (dynes/ cm 2 or Pa)

: the viscosity of fluid (centipoise or Pa.s)

The permeability should be measure in presence of fluid therefore gas and liquid could be

used. If a gas is used as the working liquid, at low flow rates correction is needed, whereas in

case of liquid no correction is needed. Liquid, in our case water, is pumped through the sample at

various flow rates and pressure drop is recorded. The permeability can be calculated using

darcys formula and straight-line developed.

In 1856, a French engineer Henry Darcy discover the Darcys Law to show the flow of

groundwater through a granular media or others fluids through permeable substance. Darcys

Law can be expressed as:

Q=

kA (PiPo )

L

Where,

cm3 m3

Q: the flow rate ( s s

R: is the radius of the tube (m or cm)

Po :outlet fluid pressure (dynes/ cm 2 or Pa)

Pi :inlet fluid pressure (dynes/ cm 2 or Pa)

:viscosity of fluid (centipoise or Pa.s)

2

K:permeability of the sample ( Darcy or m

APPARATUS

1. Liquid Permeameter (PMI)

MATERIALS

1. Distilled Water

2. Sandstone (sample)

Pressure tank

PC(nitrogen

screen gas)

Chamber

Liquid permeameter

Distilled water

Liquid Permeameter

PROCEDURE

1. The sample was prepared to be tested and the O-ring inside the chamber must be covered

thoroughly by the sample (all the samples must be large to cover the O-ring)

2. The sample that is used in this experiment, has 0.5cm thickness but were tested on

different pressure.

3. The chamber was closed by using the adapter after the sample was put inside.

4. The pressure valve at the nitrogen gas tank was turned slowly in clockwise direction so

that the nitrogen gas can flowed in the chamber.

5. 50 psi was set and the test result was being observed and analyzed by using CapWin

software.

6. The experiment was repeated with different pressure which is 60 psi and 70 psi.

RESULT

6

Pressure differential

50 psi

60 psi

70 psi

Average permeability

2.0665

2.0886

2.0814

Differential

Differential

pressure, P

pressure, P

(psi)

0.98982

(atm)

0.0674

1.0716

2.3172

2.6555

3.0215

3.3503

3.7529

4.0642

4.3294

4.6927

0.0729

0.1577

0.1807

0.2056

0.2280

0.2554

0.2766

0.2946

0.3193

Flow rate, q

q/A

P/L

(cc/s)

(cm/s)

(atm/cm)

0.0613

0.0087

0.1347

0.8995

0.8769

0.9635

1.116

1.540

1.902

1.886

1.973

2.199

0.1

0.11

0.158

0.235

0.302

0.35

0.355

0.484

0.554

6.3583

6.1986

6.8103

7.8891

10.643

13.442

13.328

13.949

15.544

Table 1: Sample at 50 psi

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.2

0.1

0

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

P/L (atm/cm)

Graph 1

y = mx + C

7

2.2

2.4

m=k/

Where, m

: Gradient

: fluid viscosity, 1 cP

y = 0.2922x - 0.1395

k = 0.2922 x 1 cP

k = 0.2922

Differential

Differential

pressure, P

pressure, P

(psi)

2.4085

2.4107

2.5639

2.7273

3.1038

3.4204

3.8237

4.1525

4.3814

4.7460

(atm)

0.1639

0.1640

0.1745

0.1856

0.2112

0.2327

0.2602

0.2826

0.2981

0.3229

Flow rate, q

q/A

P/L

(cc/s)

(cm/s)

(atm/cm)

5.8405

5.6284

5.4846

6.5014

8.6385

9.7173

12.236

13.360

14.768

16.709

0.8263

0.7963

0.7759

0.9198

1.222

1.375

1.731

1.890

2.089

2.364

0.3278

0.3280

0.3490

0.3712

0.4224

0.4654

0.5204

0.5652

0.5962

0.6458

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.2

0.1

0

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.2

2.4

2.6

P/L (atm/cm)

Graph 2

y = mx + C

m=k/

Where, m

: Gradient

: fluid viscosity, 1 cP

y = 0.1995x + 0.18

k = 0.1995 x 1 cP

k = 0.1995

Differential

Differential

Flow rate, q

q/A

P/L

pressure, P

pressure, P

(cc/s)

(cm/s)

(atm/cm)

(psi)

0.49974

1.5959

1.6369

2.0366

2.1366

2.3730

2.5461

2.6805

3.0853

3.4272

(atm)

0.034

0.109

0.111

0.139

0.145

0.161

0.173

0.182

0.210

0.233

0.096604

3.1013

2.9786

4.1234

0.87948

4.4534

4.9671

5.4267

7.3802

8.7598

0.014

0.439

0.421

0.583

0.124

0.630

0.703

0.768

1.044

1.239

0.068

0.218

0.222

0.278

0.290

0.322

0.346

0.364

0.420

0.466

0.5

f(x) = 0.27x + 0.14

0.4

0.3

q/A (cm/s)

0.2

0.1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

P/L (atm/cm)

Graph 3

y = mx + C

m=k/

Where, m

: Gradient

: fluid viscosity, 1 cP

10

1.2

1.4

y = 0.27x + 0.1384

k = 0.27 x 1 cP

k = 0.27

11

CALCULATION

Calculation for differential pressure 50psi

Length / thickness (cm)

Diameter (cm)

Fluid viscosity, (cP)

: 0.500

: 3.000

: 1.000

2

Area, A (cm )

D 3

=

= 7.069

4

4

Unit conversion

0.068046 atm

(a) 1 psi

0.98982 psi

= 0.0674 atm

(b)

q/A

0.0613 cc / sec

7.069 cm2

0.0087 cm/s

*The rest of the distilled water velocities are calculated by using the same method of calculation.

(c)

P/L

0.0674 atm

0.5 cm

0.1347 atm/cm

*The rest of the P/L is calculated by using the same method as shown.

12

DISCUSSION

In this experiment, the objectives are to determine the permeability of porous media by using

liquid parameter and hence to compare the average permeability of the tested cored sample for

differential pressures. By using prepared rock sample, the permeability of the rock was

determined with the aid of computer software Capwin.

From the differential pressure data monitored by Capwin software, its tell us that if there

are increasing in differential pressure, it will cause the flow rate of the gas to be increase, but the

permeability will decrease. This data was exactly obeyed Darcys equation from our previous

study.

The data that obtained from our experiment were tabulated and graphs of volumetric flux,

q/A against pressure gradient, P/L were plotted for each differential pressure. In order to

determine the permeability of each differential pressure, the gradient of each graph were

calculated as shown in our samples of calculation. From the chart, we know that the average

permeability for 50 psi, 60 psi and 70 psi are 2066.5 mD, 2088.6 mD, 2081.4 mD respectively.

To conclude, the average permeability will increase as the differential pressure increase,

however, it was different from the differential pressure data obtained for each pressure which is

the permeability decrease as the pressure difference increase.

This probably due to some error occurred in our experiment because of some problem

such as the accuracy of the data that we obtained and the effect are the permeability chart for

each pressure test show lots of fluctuation trend, which the flow rate does not increase linearly as

the differential pressure increase as we expected. Some error occurred affect the trend on chart

and thus affect the mean value for permeability.

13

CONSLUSIONS

For the conclusion, the average permeability for 50 psi, 60 psi and 70 psi are 2066.5 mD, 2088.6

mD, 2081.4 mD respectively. Plus, the differential in pressure does effect the permeability of the

rock. The higher the pressure different, the lower the permeability of porous media. The data

obtained obeyed Darcys Law and the objectives of the experiment were achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Make sure that there are nitrogen gas available in the tank or the water will not enter the

permeameter.

2. Repeat the experiment several times in order to get the accurate result.

3. Repeat the experiment with atleast three different pressure in a uniform gap such as 50,

60 and 70.

4. Keep the water level in the water container high.

5. Use a more flat and round-shape rock sample for constant rock thickness and diameter.

14

REFERENCES

1. J.GHelltrom&T.S. Lundstrom, (2006). Flow through Porous Media at Moderate Reynolds

Number. Modeling for material processing. Riga Journal

2. Honarpour, M. M., Koederitz, F., & Herbert, A. (1986). Relative permeability of

petroleum reservoirs

3. [1] Beliaev, A. Y., &Kozlov, S. M. (1996). Darcy equation for random porous

media. Communications on pure and applied mathematics, 49(1), 1-34.

4. [2] Honarpour, M. M., Koederitz, F., & Herbert, A. (1986). Relative permeability

of petroleum reservoirs

5. [3] N. H. Richard. (2014). Flow through pores. Retrieved October 8, 2015,

from

http://www.slb.com/resources/oilfield_review/~/media/Files/resources/oilfield_r

eview/ors14/aut14/define_perm.ashx.

6. [4] Tiab, D., & Donaldson, E. C. (2011). Petrophysics: theory and practice of

measuring reservoir rock and fluid transport properties. Gulf professional

publishing.

7. [5]C. Peach J. Chen, X. Yang, Q. Duan, & C. Peach. (2015). Integrated

measurements of permeability, effective porosity, and specific storage of core

samples using water as the pore fluid. [Thesis]. International Journal of Rock

Mechanic and Mining Science. 79, 56-62. Retrieved 13 th October 2015

fromwww.elsevier.com/locate/ijrmms

8. [6] R. H. Mills & N. Hearn, (1990). Simple Permeameter for water or gas flow.

[Thesis]. Department of Civil Engineering. Cement and Concreter Research.

Vol 21. Pp. 257-261.

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