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# ABSTRACT

Permeability is a capability of a porous rock or sediment to permit the flow of fluids through

its

pore spaces. The rock permeability is important because it control the directional movement and
the flow rate of the reservoir fluids in the formation. Permeability is based on Darcys Law. The
objectives of this experiment is to determine of porous media using liquid parameter and to
compare the average permeability of a tested core sample for differential pressure.
INTRODUCTION

Permeability is a property of the porous medium that measures the capacity and ability of the
formation to transmit fluids. The rock permeability, k is a very important rock property because it
controls the directional movement and the flow rate of the reservoir fluids in the formation.
Darcy equation that defines permeability in terms of measurable quantities is called Darcys Law.
Darcy developed a fluid flow equation that has since become one of the standard mathematical
tools of the petroleum engineer. If a horizontal linear flow of an incompressible fluid is
established through a core sample of length L and a cross-section of area, A then the governing
fluid flow equation defined as :
v=

k dp
m dL

## Where v = apparent fluid flowing velocity, cm/sec

k = proportionality constant, or permeability, Darcys
= viscosity of the flowing fluid, cp
dp/dL = pressure drop per unit length, atm/cm

The permeability should be measured in presence of fluid therefore gas and liquid could be
used. If gas is used as the working liquid, at low flow rates correction is needed, whereas in case
of liquid no correction is needed. Liquid, in our case water, is pump through the sample at

various flow rates and pressure drop is recorded. The permeability can be calculated using darcy
formula and straight-line developed
AIMS/OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this experiment is to determine the permeability of porous media using
liquid parameter and to compare the average permeability of the tested core sample for
differential pressures.

THEORY
Permeability is a property of the porous medium that measures the capacity and ability of the
formation to transmit fluids. The rock permeability, k, is a very important rock property because
it controls the directional movement and the flow rate of the reservoir fluids in the formation.
Darcy equation that defines permeability in terms of measurable quantities is called Darcys Law.
Darcy developed a fluid flow equation that has since become one of the standard mathematical
tools of the petroleum engineer.
The fluid flow through a cylindrical tube is can be expressed by the Poiseuilles equation,
where it is the simplification to the Navier-Strokes equation for the particular geometry, laminar
flow and uncompressible fluids.
r 4 ( PiPo )
Q=
8 L
where
3

cm m
Q: the flow rate ( s s
R: is the radius of the tube (m or cm)
Po : the outlet fluid pressure (dynes/ cm 2 or Pa)

## Pi : the inlet fluid pressure (dynes/ cm 2 or Pa)

: the viscosity of fluid (centipoise or Pa.s)

## L: the length of the tube (cm or m)

The permeability should be measure in presence of fluid therefore gas and liquid could be
used. If a gas is used as the working liquid, at low flow rates correction is needed, whereas in
case of liquid no correction is needed. Liquid, in our case water, is pumped through the sample at
various flow rates and pressure drop is recorded. The permeability can be calculated using
darcys formula and straight-line developed.
In 1856, a French engineer Henry Darcy discover the Darcys Law to show the flow of
groundwater through a granular media or others fluids through permeable substance. Darcys
Law can be expressed as:
Q=

kA (PiPo )
L

Where,
cm3 m3
Q: the flow rate ( s s
R: is the radius of the tube (m or cm)
Po :outlet fluid pressure (dynes/ cm 2 or Pa)
Pi :inlet fluid pressure (dynes/ cm 2 or Pa)
:viscosity of fluid (centipoise or Pa.s)

## L:length of the tube (cm or m)

2
K:permeability of the sample ( Darcy or m

## A: the area of the sample ( cm m

APPARATUS
1. Liquid Permeameter (PMI)
MATERIALS
1. Distilled Water
2. Sandstone (sample)

Pressure tank
PC(nitrogen
screen gas)
Chamber

Liquid permeameter
Distilled water

Liquid Permeameter

PROCEDURE
1. The sample was prepared to be tested and the O-ring inside the chamber must be covered
thoroughly by the sample (all the samples must be large to cover the O-ring)
2. The sample that is used in this experiment, has 0.5cm thickness but were tested on
different pressure.
3. The chamber was closed by using the adapter after the sample was put inside.
4. The pressure valve at the nitrogen gas tank was turned slowly in clockwise direction so
that the nitrogen gas can flowed in the chamber.
5. 50 psi was set and the test result was being observed and analyzed by using CapWin
software.
6. The experiment was repeated with different pressure which is 60 psi and 70 psi.

RESULT
6

Pressure differential
50 psi
60 psi
70 psi

Average permeability
2.0665
2.0886
2.0814

Differential

Differential

pressure, P

pressure, P

(psi)
0.98982

(atm)
0.0674

1.0716
2.3172
2.6555
3.0215
3.3503
3.7529
4.0642
4.3294
4.6927

0.0729
0.1577
0.1807
0.2056
0.2280
0.2554
0.2766
0.2946
0.3193

Flow rate, q

q/A

P/L

(cc/s)

(cm/s)

(atm/cm)

0.0613

0.0087

0.1347

0.8995
0.8769
0.9635
1.116
1.540
1.902
1.886
1.973
2.199

0.1
0.11
0.158
0.235
0.302
0.35
0.355
0.484
0.554

6.3583
6.1986
6.8103
7.8891
10.643
13.442
13.328
13.949
15.544
Table 1: Sample at 50 psi

0.6
0.5
0.4

0.2
0.1
0
0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

P/L (atm/cm)

Graph 1
y = mx + C
7

2.2

2.4

m=k/
Where, m

## : Average Darcy permeability constant

: fluid viscosity, 1 cP

## Therefore, from the graph (TUKAR)

y = 0.2922x - 0.1395
k = 0.2922 x 1 cP
k = 0.2922

Differential

Differential

pressure, P

pressure, P

(psi)
2.4085
2.4107
2.5639
2.7273
3.1038
3.4204
3.8237
4.1525
4.3814
4.7460

(atm)
0.1639
0.1640
0.1745
0.1856
0.2112
0.2327
0.2602
0.2826
0.2981
0.3229

Flow rate, q

q/A

P/L

(cc/s)

(cm/s)

(atm/cm)

5.8405
5.6284
5.4846
6.5014
8.6385
9.7173
12.236
13.360
14.768
16.709

0.8263
0.7963
0.7759
0.9198
1.222
1.375
1.731
1.890
2.089
2.364

0.3278
0.3280
0.3490
0.3712
0.4224
0.4654
0.5204
0.5652
0.5962
0.6458

0.7
0.6

0.5
0.4

0.2
0.1
0
0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.2

2.4

2.6

P/L (atm/cm)

Graph 2

y = mx + C
m=k/
Where, m

## : Average Darcy permeability constant

: fluid viscosity, 1 cP

## Therefore, from the graph

y = 0.1995x + 0.18
k = 0.1995 x 1 cP
k = 0.1995

Differential

Differential

Flow rate, q

q/A

P/L

pressure, P

pressure, P

(cc/s)

(cm/s)

(atm/cm)

(psi)
0.49974
1.5959
1.6369
2.0366
2.1366
2.3730
2.5461
2.6805
3.0853
3.4272

(atm)
0.034
0.109
0.111
0.139
0.145
0.161
0.173
0.182
0.210
0.233

0.096604
3.1013
2.9786
4.1234
0.87948
4.4534
4.9671
5.4267
7.3802
8.7598

0.014
0.439
0.421
0.583
0.124
0.630
0.703
0.768
1.044
1.239

0.068
0.218
0.222
0.278
0.290
0.322
0.346
0.364
0.420
0.466

## Graph q/A vs P/L (70 psi)

0.5
f(x) = 0.27x + 0.14

0.4
0.3

q/A (cm/s)

0.2
0.1
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

P/L (atm/cm)

Graph 3
y = mx + C
m=k/
Where, m

## : Average Darcy permeability constant

: fluid viscosity, 1 cP
10

1.2

1.4

## Therefore, from the graph

y = 0.27x + 0.1384
k = 0.27 x 1 cP
k = 0.27

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CALCULATION
Calculation for differential pressure 50psi
Length / thickness (cm)
Diameter (cm)
Fluid viscosity, (cP)

: 0.500
: 3.000
: 1.000
2

Area, A (cm )

D 3
=
= 7.069
4
4

Unit conversion
0.068046 atm

(a) 1 psi
0.98982 psi

= 0.0674 atm

## *The rest of differential pressures (psi) are converted into (atm)

(b)

q/A

0.0613 cc / sec
7.069 cm2

0.0087 cm/s
*The rest of the distilled water velocities are calculated by using the same method of calculation.
(c)

P/L

0.0674 atm
0.5 cm

0.1347 atm/cm
*The rest of the P/L is calculated by using the same method as shown.

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DISCUSSION

In this experiment, the objectives are to determine the permeability of porous media by using
liquid parameter and hence to compare the average permeability of the tested cored sample for
differential pressures. By using prepared rock sample, the permeability of the rock was
determined with the aid of computer software Capwin.
From the differential pressure data monitored by Capwin software, its tell us that if there
are increasing in differential pressure, it will cause the flow rate of the gas to be increase, but the
permeability will decrease. This data was exactly obeyed Darcys equation from our previous
study.
The data that obtained from our experiment were tabulated and graphs of volumetric flux,
q/A against pressure gradient, P/L were plotted for each differential pressure. In order to
determine the permeability of each differential pressure, the gradient of each graph were
calculated as shown in our samples of calculation. From the chart, we know that the average
permeability for 50 psi, 60 psi and 70 psi are 2066.5 mD, 2088.6 mD, 2081.4 mD respectively.
To conclude, the average permeability will increase as the differential pressure increase,
however, it was different from the differential pressure data obtained for each pressure which is
the permeability decrease as the pressure difference increase.
This probably due to some error occurred in our experiment because of some problem
such as the accuracy of the data that we obtained and the effect are the permeability chart for
each pressure test show lots of fluctuation trend, which the flow rate does not increase linearly as
the differential pressure increase as we expected. Some error occurred affect the trend on chart
and thus affect the mean value for permeability.

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CONSLUSIONS
For the conclusion, the average permeability for 50 psi, 60 psi and 70 psi are 2066.5 mD, 2088.6
mD, 2081.4 mD respectively. Plus, the differential in pressure does effect the permeability of the
rock. The higher the pressure different, the lower the permeability of porous media. The data
obtained obeyed Darcys Law and the objectives of the experiment were achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Make sure that there are nitrogen gas available in the tank or the water will not enter the
permeameter.
2. Repeat the experiment several times in order to get the accurate result.
3. Repeat the experiment with atleast three different pressure in a uniform gap such as 50,
60 and 70.
4. Keep the water level in the water container high.
5. Use a more flat and round-shape rock sample for constant rock thickness and diameter.

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REFERENCES
1. J.GHelltrom&T.S. Lundstrom, (2006). Flow through Porous Media at Moderate Reynolds
Number. Modeling for material processing. Riga Journal
2. Honarpour, M. M., Koederitz, F., & Herbert, A. (1986). Relative permeability of
petroleum reservoirs

3. [1] Beliaev, A. Y., &Kozlov, S. M. (1996). Darcy equation for random porous
media. Communications on pure and applied mathematics, 49(1), 1-34.
4. [2] Honarpour, M. M., Koederitz, F., & Herbert, A. (1986). Relative permeability
of petroleum reservoirs
5. [3] N. H. Richard. (2014). Flow through pores. Retrieved October 8, 2015,
from
http://www.slb.com/resources/oilfield_review/~/media/Files/resources/oilfield_r
eview/ors14/aut14/define_perm.ashx.
6. [4] Tiab, D., & Donaldson, E. C. (2011). Petrophysics: theory and practice of
measuring reservoir rock and fluid transport properties. Gulf professional
publishing.
7. [5]C. Peach J. Chen, X. Yang, Q. Duan, & C. Peach. (2015). Integrated
measurements of permeability, effective porosity, and specific storage of core
samples using water as the pore fluid. [Thesis]. International Journal of Rock
Mechanic and Mining Science. 79, 56-62. Retrieved 13 th October 2015
fromwww.elsevier.com/locate/ijrmms
8. [6] R. H. Mills & N. Hearn, (1990). Simple Permeameter for water or gas flow.
[Thesis]. Department of Civil Engineering. Cement and Concreter Research.
Vol 21. Pp. 257-261.

APPENDICES
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