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Republic of the Philippines

SUPREME COURT
Manila
EN BANC
CITIZEN J. ANTONIO M. CARPIO, petitioner,
vs.
THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, THE SECRETARY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, THE SECRETARY OF NATIONAL
DEFENSE and THE NATIONAL TREASURER, respondents.
G.R. No. 96409 February 14, 1992
TOPIC: ALTER-EGO PRINCIPLE OF QUALIFIED POLITICAL AGENCY
FACTS:
Pursuant to Article XVI, Section 6, Congress passed Republic Act No. 6975 entitled "AN ACT
ESTABLISHING THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE UNDER A REORGANIZED DEPARTMENT OF THE
INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES" as the consolidated version of
House Bill No. 23614 and Senate Bill No. 463.
Presently, however, petitioner as citizen, taxpayer and member of the Philippine Bar sworn to
defend the Constitution, filed the petition now at bar on December 20, 1990, seeking this Court's
declaration of unconstitutionality of RA 6975 on the ground that it violates Article XVI, Section 6 of the
1987 Constitution which provides that "one police force, national in scope, and civilian in character.
Petitioners contend that the set-up whereby the Integrated National Police (INP) was placed under the
command of the military component, which is the Philippine Constabulary (PC), severely eroded the
INP's civilian character and the multiplicity in the governance of the PC-INP resulted in inefficient police
service. 9 Moreover, the integration of the national police forces with the PC also resulted in inequities
since the military component had superior benefits and privileges.
ISSUE:
WON R.A 6975 is unconstitutional?
HELD:
NO. To begin with, one need only refer to the fundamentally accepted principle in
Constitutional Law that the President has control of all executive departments, bureaus, and offices to
lay at rest petitioner's contention on the matter. The power of [the President] to alter or modify or
nullify or set aside what a subordinate officer had done in the performance of his duties and to
substitute the judgment of the former with that of the latter." It is said to be at the very "heart of the
meaning of Chief Executive."
There is no usurpation of the power of control of the NAPOLCOM under Section 51 because
under this very same provision, it is clear that the local executives are only acting as representatives of
the NAPOLCOM. . . . As such deputies, they are answerable to the NAPOLCOM for their actions in the
exercise of their functions under that section. Thus, unless countermanded by the NAPOLCOM, their
acts are valid and binding as acts of the NAPOLCOM." The grant of disciplinary powers over PNP
members to the "People's Law Enforcement Boards" (or the PLEB) and city and municipal mayors is
also not in derogation of the commission's power of control over the PNP. Additionally, the
circumstance that the NAPOLCOM and the PNP are placed under the reorganized Department of
Interior and Local Government is merely an administrative realignment that would bolster a system of
coordination and cooperation among the citizenry, local executives and the integrated law
enforcement agencies and public safety agencies created under the assailed Act, funding of the PNP
being in large part subsidized by the national government. Such organizational set-up does not detract
from the mandate of the Constitution that the national police force shall be administered and
controlled by a national police commission as at any rate, and in fact, the Act in question adequately
provides for administration and control at the commission level.
The National Police Commission is not in the same category as the independent Constitutional
Commissions of Article IX and the other constitutionally created independent Office. In fact, it was
stressed during the CONCOM deliberations that this commission would be under the President, and
hence may be controlled by the President, thru his or her alter ego, the Secretary of the
Interior and Local Government. It thus becomes all too apparent then that the provision herein
assailed precisely gives muscle to and enforces the proposition that the national police force does not
fall under the Commander-in-Chief powers of the President. This is necessarily so since the police
force, not being integrated with the military, is not a part of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. As a
civilian agency of the government, it properly comes within, and is subject to, the exercise by the
President of the power of executive control.
Equally well accepted, as a corollary rule to the control powers of the President, is the
"Doctrine of Qualified Political Agency". As the President cannot be expected to exercise his
control powers all at the same time and in person, 20 he will have to delegate some of them to his
Cabinet members. Under this doctrine, which recognizes the establishment of a single executive, "all
executive and administrative organizations are adjuncts of the Executive Department, the heads of the
various executive departments are assistants and agents of the Chief Executive, and, except in cases
where the Chief Executive is required by the Constitution or law to act in person on the exigencies of
the situation demand that he act personally, the multifarious executive and administrative functions of
the Chief Executive are performed by and through the executive departments, and the acts of the
Secretaries of such departments, performed and promulgated in the regular course of business, unless
disapproved or reprobated by the Chief Executive presumptively the acts of the Chief Executive."