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FRASES VERBALES

Muchos verbos ingleses, como TAKE o GET, pueden tener una gran cantidad de
significados distintos. Algunos de ellos pueden ir seguidos de una palabra corta (una
preposicin como TO o FOR o un adverbio como AWAY o OUT) que da al verbo un
significado relativamente preciso. La combinacin de VERBO +
PREPOSICIN/ADVERBIO se llama FRASE VERBAL
EJEMPLO:
"I'm always putting clothes on and taking them off again."
Algunas FRASES VERBALES carecen de un equivalente en comn:
PUT ON or TAKE OFF clothes
LOOK UP words in a dictionary
Otras se utilizan en el ingls hablado informal en lugar de expresiones ms largas
y formales:
GO ON
CALL OFF
BLOW UP
TAKE IN

continue
cancele
destruya con explosiveo
engaar

FORMA:

La mayora de las frases verbales son transitivas, es decir, normalmente toman un objeto
directo. En muchos casos, el objeto va entre el verbo y la preposicin o adverbio. Tales
verbos reciben el nombre de FRASES VERBALES SEPARABLES. Tome nota de las dos
posibles construcciones siguientes:
[SUJETO + PREP/ADVERB + OBJETO...]
"The soldiers blew up the bridge yesterday."
[SUJETO + VERBO + OBJETO + PREP/ADVERB...]
"The soldiers blew the bridge up yesterday."
"Observe que si el objeto es un sustantivo, puede situarse antes o despus de la
preposicin/adverbio. Sin embargo, si el objeto es un pronombre, debe situarse
antes de la preposicin/adverbio::
"The soldiers blew it up yesterday."
La siguiente lista incluye frases verbales separables comunes que obedecen a esta
regla, seguidas por ejemplos de cmo utilizarlas.
BACK UP (give support to)
"He always backs up his employees. (...backs them up)."

BLOW OUT (extinguir)


"The wind blew out the candle (...la apag)."
BLOW UP (destruir con explosivos)
"The soldiers blew up the bridge (...volaron)."
BREAK UP (desmantelar, destruir)
"They're going to break up the company structure (...dvidirla)."
BREAK OFF (snap or interrupt)
"They decided to break off the negotiations (...romperlos)."
BRING UP (cuidar y educar a los nios)
"They brought up the boy (...le llevaron) very strictly."
CALL IN (invitar a alguien a que nos visite)
"We called in an engineer (...called him in) as soon as we discovered the fault."
CARRY OUT (realizar)
"I carried out his instructions (...hice) immediately."
CLEAR UP (eliminar el desorden, hacer orden)
"We cleared up the office (...limpiamos) after the Christmas party."
CUT OFF (remover parte de algo)
"He cut off the corner of the book (...la cort."
FILL OUT (completar una forma impresa)
"Please fill out this form (...llnelo) in ink."
FILL UP (llenar)
"She filled up my cup (...filled it up) with coffee."
FIND OUT (descubrir)
"He found out the cause of the fault (...found it out) by examining the wiring."
FIX UP (organizar, arreglar, reparar)
They fixed up a venue (...fixed it up) in time for the conference."
GET BACK (obtener a cambio)
"Mr. Holden never got back the stolen disks (...got them back)."
GIVE BACK (devolver)
"When are you going to give back the pen I lent you (...devolvera)?"
GIVE UP (detener, abandonar)
"I gave up smoking (...dej) five years ago."
HAND IN (dar)
"They handed in their questionnaires (...las d) at the end of the session."
HOLD UP (retrasar)
"The strike held up the project (...retrasela) for six months."

KEEP UP (continue, mantener)


"The audience kept up their applause (...mantuvo) for ten minutes."
KNOCK OUT (hacer inconsciente)
"The machinery knocked out the operator (...noqueala) when it malfunctioned."
LET DOWN (decepcionar)
"She forgot about the appointment and let down the client (...le decepcion)."
LET OUT (permitir salir)
"Don't forget to let out the cat (...lepermit salir) after dinner."
LOOK UP (encontrar en el diccionario, directorio telefonico, etc.)
"You must look up those words (...buscarlas) in the dictionary."
PAY BACK (repagar una deuda)
"They promised to pay back the money (...repagar) within three months."
PICK UP (levantar)
"I saw you pick up your glasses (...recogerlos) in the canteen."
PUT DOWN (sustituir en una superficie)
"Put down the computer (...put it down) here."
PUT OFF (posponer)
"We'll have to put off the meeting (...posponerlo) until next week."
PUT ON (vestirse)
"I pu on my coveralls (...me puse) this morning."
SET UP (comienzo, establecido)
"They set up the company (...la establecieron) in 1978."
SWITCH ON/OFF (comenzar/parar un aparato)
"Please switch off the radio (...apagula); it's distracting me."
TAKE OFF (desvestirse, etc.)
"He took off his shoes (...se sac) before going into the Japanese restaurant."
TAKE OVER (tomar el control de)
"The bank took over my farm (...se hizo cargo) in 1980."
TALK OVER (discutir)
"I want to talk over your proposal (...discutir) with my manager before we decide."
THINK OVER (pinselo)
"I thought over the plan (..lo pens) for several hours."
TRY OUT (prueba)
"We're going to try out the product (...lo probaremos) before we market it."
TURN ON/OFF (abrir/cerrar un suministroy de agua, gas, etc.)
"I forgot to turn off the machine (...apagar); the supervisor will be furious!"

WIPE OUT (destruir, aniquilar)


"This disastrous project has wiped out our profits for this quarter (...has wiped
them out)."

ERRORES MAS COMUNES:


PREPOSICIONES DESPUES DE VERBOS Y ADJETIVOS

Muchos verbos y adjetivos se utilizan normalmente con ciertas preposiciones. Un


tpico error de lxico consiste en utilizar la preposicin equivocada.

PREPOSICIONES DESPUES DE VERBOS


Para ver los Phrasal Verbs, (verbos que tienen un significado particular
dependiendo de la preposicin asociada) buscar en Intermediate 3. La lista que a
continuacin se presenta incluye otros verbos de uso frecuente con sus
preposiciones asociadas. Observa que algunos de estos verbos aceptan un
complemento antes de la preposicin.
.
ACCUSE + (OBJECT +) OF
"He was accused of stealing the necklace." OR
"They accused him of stealing the necklace."
APOLOGIZE + FOR
"Andrew apologized for his bad behavior."
ASK + FOR
"We asked for another plate of french fries."
BELIEVE + IN
"Some people don't believe in democracy."
BLAME + (OBJECT +) FOR
"Tom was blamed for starting the fire."
"I blame the weather for my failure to win the race."
BORROW + (OBJECT +) FROM
"Jane wants to borrow fifty dollars from me."
"Please return the book you borrowed from Dan."
COMPARE +(OBJECT +) WITH/TO
"It isn't fair to compare him with a professional athlete."
"The prices here are low, compared to the first place we tried."
CONSIST + OF
"A rugby team consists of fifteen players."
DEPEND + ON
"His success in the exams will depend on how hard he works."
FEEL + LIKE
"His handshake feels like a dead fish."
HOPE + FOR
"She hopes for better luck next year."
INSIST + ON
"The angry customer insisted on a complete refund."

LIVE + ON
"He found it hard to live on his salary as a teacher."
LOOK + AT
"Look at me when I speak to you!"
OBJECT + TO
"I strongly object to being called a liar."
PAY + FOR
"George never offers to pay for the meal."
PREFER +(OBJECT +) TO
"John prefers to eat meat when he's in a restaurant."
"John prefers meat to fish."
PREPARE + FOR
"Susan needed more time to prepare for the party."
QUARREL + ABOUT
"We often quarrel about stupid little things."
REFER + TO
"His last letter referred to his promotion at work."
RELY + ON
"You shouldn't rely on him; he's always late."
REMIND + (OBJECT +) OF
"Mike was reminded of his mother when he saw the photo."
"The photo reminded Sam of his old girlfriend."
SUCCEED + IN
"He finally succeeded in persuading her to marry him."
SUSPECT + (OBJECT +) OF
"I was suspected of being a spy."
"The police suspected me of being a spy."
THINK + OF/ABOUT
"I suddenly thought of the answer."
"We thought about the problem for hours."
WAIT + FOR
"I've been waiting for Joe for twenty minutes."
WARN + (OBJECT +) ABOUT
"I was warned about the dog."
"They warned me about the dog next door."
WISH + FOR
"Most people wish for health and happiness."

PREPOSICIONES DESPUES DE ADJETIVOS

Algunas de las combinaciones adjetivo + preposicin en ingls son:


OF se utiliza generalmente despus de: afraid, ashamed, aware, certain, (un)
conscious, jealous, proud, and sure.
EJEMPLOS:
"Michael is afraid of being alone."
"The teacher is aware of her students' individual needs."
"Susan is jealous of all the attention her new baby brother is getting from their
parents."
AT usually follows: clever, good, and talented.
EJEMPLO:
"Robert is very good at math."
OF or TO usually follow: kind, nice, (im)polite, and rude.
EJEMPLOS:
"How kind of you to make me dinner!"
"Please be nice to Aunt Fanny. She's a very sick woman."
Other common adjective/preposition combinations include: anxious ABOUT,
different FROM, bored
BY/WITH, and interested IN.
EJEMPLOS:
"I am very anxious about the exams. I'm worried I will fail everything."
"Gary is very different from his brother Frank."
"I'm interested in modern art. How about you?"

PRESENT PERFECT

USE:

Hablar sobre acciones o estados que comenzaron en el pasado y de alguna forma se


conectan con el presente. El presente perfecto a
menudo se utiliza con expresiones que comienzan con FOR o SINCE para hablar de
acciones o estados que comenzaron en el pasado y siguen vigentes en el momento actual.
Tambin se utiliza con los adverbios JUST, ALREADY y YET para hablar de acciones o
hechos que sucedieron en un momento indefinido del pasado. El presente perfecto se utiliza
adems para hablar sobre acciones o hechos recientes ("noticias").
EXAMPLES:
"Hi, Karla! I haven't seen you lately. Where have you been?"
"I've been really busy. I've been playing with a band called "Wild Thing." Have you heard of

us?"
"No, I haven't."
"Well, come and see us on Saturday night!"
FORM:

AFFIRMATIVE

Simple:
[SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS + (JUST/ALREADY) + PAST PARTICIPLE [V3] +
(FOR/SINCE...)]
Progressive:
[SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS + (JUST/ALREADY) + BEEN + VERB + ing +
(FOR/SINCE...)]
EXAMPLES:
"They've lived here for two years."
"She's been here since 4 p.m."
"I've already swept the floor."
"They've been working all night."
NEGATIVE

Simple:
[SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS NOT / HAVEN'T/HASN'T + PAST PARTICIPLE [V3]...]
Progressive:
[SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS NOT / HAVEN'T/HASN'T + BEEN + VERB + ing...]
EXAMPLES:
"We haven't met her yet."

"He hasn't made a sound."


"You haven't been doing your homework."
YES/NO QUESTIONS

Simple:
[HAVE/HAS + SUBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE [V3]...?]
Progressive:
[HAVE/HAS + SUBJECT + BEEN + VERB + ing...?]
EXAMPLES:
"Have you finished your work yet?"
"Has Peter come home yet?"
"Have they been living here long?"
WH-QUESTIONS
WH-QUESTIONS ABOUT THE SUBJECT

Simple:
[WH-WORD + HAVE/HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE[V3]...]
Progressive:
[WH-WORD + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + VERB + ing]
EXAMPLES:
"Who's eaten all the candy?"
"Who's been sleeping in my bed?"
WH-QUESTIONS ABOUT THE REST OF THE SENTENCE

Simple:
[WH-WORD + HAVE/HAS + SUBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE[V3]...]
Progressive:
[WH-WORD + HAVE/HAS + SUBJECT + BEEN + VERB + ing]
EXAMPLES:
"Where has he put my coat?"
"Why have you done that?"
"What have you been doing?"
TIME EXPRESSIONS

FOR o SINCE se utilizan al inicio de una expresin de tiempo. Para decir cunto dur la

accin o el estado, utilizamos FOR:"...for ten minutes." "...for twenty years." "...for two
centuries." "...for a very long time." etc.

Para decir cundo comenz la accin o el estado, utilizamos SINCE,:


"...since 2 o'clock." "...since last Monday." "...since 1975." "...since the end of the War."

HOW LONG se utiliza para comenzar una pregunta sobre duracin.


EXAMPLES:

" How long have you had that sweater?"


"About six months."
"How long have you been living here?"
"For two years."EVER
se utiliza antes del verbo para preguntar si algo
aconteci, pero no cundo.
EXAMPLE:

" Have you ever eaten octopus?"


"Yes, I have."
JUST, ALREADY y YET se utilizan para hablar sobre acciones o hechos sucedidos en un
momento indefinido del pasado, o acciones o hechos recientes ("noticias"). JUST (=hace
poco tiempo) y ALREADY (=antes de ahora) por lo general van inmediatamente antes del
participio pasado [V3] y YET (antes/hasta ahora) a menudo se utiliza al final de una
oracin o pregunta negativa.
EXAMPLES:
"I have already seen that movie. Let's stay home!"
"But I haven't seen it yet!"

MONEY MATTERS: FINANCE

affordable: not too expensive to buy

bargain: something that is sold at a reduced Price

brand-new: completely new


down payment: the first payment on an expensive purchase that is being bought
using several payments, for example, a house or a car.

get your money's worth: get a lot of value for the money you spent.

guarantee: a promise to do something, a promise made by a company to fix or


replace a product if it breaks (also a verb.

installments: a series of payments that a customer makes over time, usually for
an expensive item or tems.

limited budget: a small amount of money that you plan to spend over a time

purchase: to buy

satisfied: happy about how something turned out

short of cash: not having enough money.

wealthy: rich.

VOZ REPORTADA O INDIRECTA: FRASES Y PREGUNTAS


USO:

Informar de o describir afirmaciones/ideas o preguntas sin utilizar las palabras exactas del
hablante.

FORM:
La oracin principal contiene el "verbo informante o interrogativo":
VERBOS DE REPORTE : SAY, TELL, PROMISE, KNOW, BELIEVE, THINK, CLAIM, etc.
VERBOS DE PREGUNTA : ASK, WONDER, WANT/WOULD LIKE TO KNOW
La frase sustantiva contiene la aseveracin o pregunta de la cual se informa.

Para afirmaciones, utilizamos la conjuncin THAT, que se omite en el ingls informal.


[ORACION PRINCIPAL + (THAT) + ORACION SUSTANTIVA]
EJEMPLOS:
"Mr. Jones says (that) he'll call later."
"She said (that) she was leaving."
"I'm sorry, Mr. Jones says (that) he is too busy to talk to you."
"Everybody tells me (that) I should stop smoking."

En las preguntas utilizamos IF (Yes/No Questions) o WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHY,


WHERE, HOW, HOW
Observa que el verbo de la oracin sustantiva toma la forma afirmativa o negativa normal y
no la interrogativa.
A menudo utilizamos "preguntas dobles" con ASK, TELL o KNOW para solicitar de
forma corts una informacin.
"May I ask what your name is?" es ms corts que
"What's your name?"
[ORACION PRINCIPAL + IF or WH-WORD + ORACION SUSTANTIVA]
EJEMPLOS:
"He's asking you if you like chocolate."
"Please ask him who that boy is."
"I wonder why the President didn't go to Rome."
"Do you know how many windows were broken."
"Could you tell me where the station is?"