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Introduction

Mr. P. Velrajkumar, FET

Dr. Ajay Kumar Singh, Associate Professor, FET

Mr. Lee Gin Chong, Lecturer, FET

Dr. Zakarya Zyada, Specialist 3, FET

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

Importance

conditioning systems, temp of an iron, washing

machines, water heater, bread toasteretc.

In transportation: airplanes, automobiles,

trains.etc.

In Industry: boilers and power generation, robots

and CNC machines,..etc.

Without control (feedback), many achievements

in today's industry cannot be obtained

Most of those systems are feedback controlled

(sometimes with human high level supervision).

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

Introduction: 3 hrs

Mathematical modeling and models

manipulation: 7 hrs

Time response analysis: 7 hrs

System accuracy and Stability : 4 hrs

Methods in control: 10 hrs

Towards nonlinear systems: 5 hrs

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

Textbook:

th

K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 5

edition, Prentice Hall, 2010.

References:

R.C. Dorf and R.H. Bishop, Modern Control

Systems, 12th edition, Prentice Hall, 2010.

Norman S. Nise, Control Systems

Engineering, 6th edition, John Wiley and Sons

Inc., 2011.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

Course Objectives

Give students:

A basic understanding of feedback control system

theory.

Ability to perform analysis and design of linear

feedback systems, (in time and frequency

domains).

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

Evaluation Methods

Lab Experiments: 10 %

Assignments: 15 %

Mid-term Test/Quiz: 15 %

Final exam: 60 %

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

Course Requirements

and mathematics (differential

equations)

Familiarity with the application of

physical laws such as equilibrium

equation, Newtons laws of motion,

conservation of mass and energy,

Kirchhoff's laws,etc.

Laplace transformations

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

Course Contents - 1

Introduction

Feedback servomechanism, Block diagram.

Revision of Laplace Transform

Linear Systems

Concept of Transfer function

Transfer function representation of systems mechanical,

electrical, thermal and hydraulic.

Block diagram algebra

Signal flow graphs

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

Course Contents - 2

First order system: time constant

Second order systems: natural frequency, damping ration

Transient response specifications: rise time, overshot.etc.

Higher order systems

Digital computer solution of differential equations describing

control systems (MATLAB)

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

Course Contents - 3

Methods in Control

Analysis of system stability and factors affecting the stability

Frequency response method and applications

Design and compensation techniques

Introduction to modern and computer control systems

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

10

Let us start 1

Chapter 1: Introduction

Feedback servomechanism, Block diagram.

Revision of Laplace Transform

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

11

Videos

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

12

Definitions:

System

u(t)

y(t)

together and perform a certain objective. A system need

not be physical. The concept of the system can be applied

to abstract, dynamic phenomena such as those

encountered in economics. The word system should,

therefore, be interpreted to imply physical, biological,

economic, and the like, systems.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

13

Definitions:

Disturbances

Disturbance

n(t)

y(t)

u(t)

the value of the output of a system. If a disturbance is

generated within the system, it is called internal, while an

external disturbance is generated outside the system and is

an input.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

14

Definitions:

Control system

forming a system configuration that will provide a desired

system response.

Describes cause-effect relationship.

Process to be controlled

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

15

Definitions:

Plant, Process

of machine parts functioning together, the purpose of

which is to perform a particular operation. In this course,

we shall call any physical object to be controlled (such as

a mechanical device, a heating furnace, a chemical

reactor, or a spacecraft) a plant.

A process is an artificial or voluntary, progressively

continuing operation that consists of a series of controlled

actions or movements systematically directed toward a

particular result or end. In this course we shall call any

operation to be controlled a process. Examples are

chemical, economic, and biological processes.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

16

Open loop systems

Di st ur bance

( Noi se)

I nput r ( t )

Ref er ence

desi r ed out put

uk

Cont r ol l er

uact

Act uat or

Cont r ol

si gnal

Pr ocess

Out put c( t )

( act ual out put )

Act uat i ng

si gnal

Fi g. 1. 10

device to control the process directly without

using feedback.

Advantages: simple, cheap

Disadvantage: no error rejections

Example: electric water heater.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

17

Definitions:

Manipulated Variable

is measured and controlled.

The control signal or manipulated variable is the

quantity or condition that is varied by the controller so as to

affect the value of the controlled variable.

Normally, the controlled variable is the output of the

system. Control means measuring the value of the

controlled variable of the system and applying the control

signal to the system to correct or limit deviation of the

measured value from a desired value.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

18

Closed loop systems

Di st ur bance

( Noi se)

I nput r ( t )

Ref er ence

desi r ed out put

e( t ) =

r ( t ) - b( t )

Cont r ol l er

( +)

uk

uact

Act uat or

Cont r ol

si gnal

Pr ocess

Out put c( t )

( act ual out put )

Act uat i ng

si gnal

Feedback si gnal b( t )

measur ement

Fi g. 1. 11

A closed-loop control system uses

a measurement of the

output and feedback this signal to compare it with the

desired output (reference or command).

In general a system that is designed to control the output of a plant

must contain at least one sensor and controller

Advantage: can remove steady-state error (disturbance rejection)

Disadvantage: higher complexity and so more expensive

Example: a person steering an automobile

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

19

Definitions:

Controller

A controller:

is a device for controlling a source of power in

which the output is required to be some function

of input,

is designed to fulfil some design objectives

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

20

Definitions:

Feedback control

disturbances, tends to reduce the difference between the output of a

system and some reference input (desired value) and does so on the

basis of this difference. Here only unpredictable disturbances are so

specified, since predictable or known disturbances can always be

compensated for within the system.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

21

Is it open loop or closed loop?

What is the sensor?

What is the actuator?

What is the controller?

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

22

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

23

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

variable?

Is it open loop or closed

loop?

What is the sensor?

What is the actuator?

What is the controller?

24

HISTORY OF AUTOMATIC

CONTROL - 1

Europe - temperature regulator of Cornelis Drebbel

(15721633) from Holland.

Dennis Papin [16471712] invented the first pressure

regulator for steam boilers in 1681. A form of safety

regulator similar to a pressure-cooker valve.

The first automatic feedback controller used in an

industrial process is James Watts flyball governor,

developed in 1769 for controlling the speed of a

steam engine.

1868 J. C. Maxwell formulates a mathematical model

for a governor control of a steam engine.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

25

HISTORY OF AUTOMATIC

CONTROL - 2

introduced for automobile production.

1927 H.W. Bode analyses feedback amplifiers.

1932 H. Nyquist develops a method for analysing the

stability of systems.

1952 Numerical control (NC) developed at

Massachusetts Institute of Technology for control of

machine-tool axes.

1954 George Devol develops programmed article

transfer, considered to be the first industrial robot

design.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

26

HISTORY OF AUTOMATIC

CONTROL - 3

designs.

1961 Robots used for tending die-casting machines.

1970 State-variable models and optimal control

developed.

1980 Robust control system design widely studied.

1990 Export-oriented manufacturing companies

emphasise automation.

1994 Feedback control widely used in automobiles.

Reliable, robust systems demanded in manufacturing.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

27

Linear feedback control systems are idealized

models fabricated by the analyst purely for

simplicity of analysis and design.

Nonlinear Control Systems

All control systems are essentially nonlinear.

It is practical first to design the controller based

on the linear-system model by neglecting the

nonlinearities of the system.

The designed controller is then applied to the

nonlinear system model for evaluation or redesign

by computer simulation.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

28

Time-Invariant Systems

When the parameters of a control system are

stationary with respect to time during the

operation of the system, the system is called a

time-invariant system.

Time-Varying Systems

In practice, most physical systems contain

elements that drift or vary with time.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

29

Digital

A continuous-data system is one in which the

signals at various parts of the system are all

functions of the continuous time variable t.

Discrete Control Systems

The signals at one or more points

of the system

code.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

30

Control

single input - single output (SISO)

Multivariable Control

multiple inputs - multiple outputs (MIMO)

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

31

Examples

A manual level-regulating

control system

href (t )

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

e (t )

u (t )

Chapter 1

h (t )

32

(Automatic Control)

resistance comparator

Desired

water level

Input

amplifier

Error

Actuator

Motor

Gearing

Valve

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Output

Process

controller

Feedback signal

Water

tank

Actual

water level

Float

measurement (Sensor)

Chapter 1

33

system

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

34

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

35

Trimester 2, wafers with a highly sensitive camera

2016/2017

Chapter 1

36

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

37

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

38

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

39

Process

Controlled

variable

Controller

Actuator

Sensor

Tank system

Level of fluid

Operator

Valve

Visual system

Automobile

Direction of

travel

Driver

Steering

mechanism

Measurement,

visual and tactile

Three-axis

control system

x-y-z position

Computer

Motors

Position sensor

Power plant

Temperature,

pressure, oxygen

generation

Computer

Various valves

Temperature,

pressure, oxygen

concentration

sensors

Furnace

Temperature

Hardware

electronic circuit

Thermocouple

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

40

Control Design Example: Turntable Speed

Control

Applications: CD player, computer disk drive,

phonograph record player

Require a constant speed of rotation in spite of

motor wear and variation and other component

changes.

Goal: To control the actual speed of rotation to

within a specified percentage of the desired speed.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

41

(b) Block diagram model

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

42

(b) Block diagram model

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

43

Design requirements of a

control system

elements are required:

over what range of values.

Knowledge of the output or actual value: must be measured by a

feedback sensor, in a form suitable for a controller to understand. The

sensor must have the necessary resolution and dynamic response.

Knowledge of the controlling device: the controllers must be able to

accept measurements of desired and actual values and compute a control

signal in a suitable form to drive an actuating element. It includes

mechanical levers, pneumatic elements, analog or digital circuits or micro

computers.

knowledge of the actuating device: This unit amplifies the control

signal and provides the effort to move the output of the plant towards its

desired value.

Knowledge of the plant: some of the static and dynamic characteristics

of the plant. It can be obtained from measurements or from the application

of physical laws or both.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

44

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

45

MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATION

In this topic we present the

background material that

is needed for the topics

on the control system

discussed in this course.

Complex-Variable Concept

A complex variable s has two components: a real

component and imaginary component . Graphically,

the real component of s is represented by a -axis in

the horizontal direction, and the imaginary component

is measured along the vertical j-axis.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

46

Where G(s) is said to be function of complex

variable s.

Poles of a function:

Roots of the denominator polynomial are called

poles of the system.

Zeros of a function:

Roots of the numerator polynomial are called

Zeros of the system.

Example:

20 ( s 2)

G (s)

s ( s 4)

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

47

Differential Equations:

A wide range of systems in engineering is modeled

mathematically by differential equations. These equations

generally involve derivatives and integrals of the

dependent variables with respect to the independent

variable. For instance, a series electric RLC network can

be represented by the differential equation

di(t) 1

Ri(t) L

i(t)dt e(t)

d(t) C

In general, differential equation of an nth-order is written

d n y(t)

d n 1 y(t)

dy(t)

an 1 n 1 a1

a0 y(t) f(t)

n

dt

dt

dt

which is also known as a linear ordinary differential equation

if the coefficients a0, a1, ,an-1 are not function of y(t).

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

48

Laplace Transform:

equation into algebraic equation in s. It is

then possible to manipulate the algebraic

equation by simple algebraic rules to obtain

the solution in the s-domain. The final solution

is obtained by taking the inverse Laplace

transform.

Laplace transform

of a function f (t) is defined

as

F(s) f(t) e- st dt

0

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

49

defined as

obtained as

F ( s)

st

u

(

t

)

e

dt

s

1 st

e

s

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

st

(

1

)

e

dt

1

1

0

e

e

s

s

Chapter 1

50

f(t) e

Solution:

F ( s)

t 0

f (t )e st dt

t

st

e

e

dt

( s ) t

1

dt

e ( s ) t

s

1

1

e

e

s

s

and

cost.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

51

Laplace transform F(s), the operation of

obtaining f(t) is termed the inverse Laplace

Transformation and is denoted by:

f t L F s

1

Theorem 1. Multiplication by a constant

Let k be a constant and F(s) be the Laplace

transform of f(t). Then

L k f t kF (s )

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

52

L[f1(t) f2(t)] = F1(s) F2(s)

Theorem 3. Differentiation

L f (t ) F ( s)

df(t)

L

sF(s) lim f(t) sF(s) f(0)

t 0

dt

d 2 f (t )

df

2

L

s F ( s) sf (0) (0)

2

dt

dt

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

53

Theorem 4. Integration

L 0

t1 t 2

L 0

F(s)

f( )d

s

tn

0 f( )ddt1dt2 dtn 1

F(s)

n

s

The Laplace transform of f(t) delayed by time T

is equal to the Laplace transform f(t) multiplied

by e-Ts ; that is

that is shifted in time to the right by T.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

54

lim f (t ) lim sF (s )

t 0

If the Laplace transform of f(t) is F(s), and sF(s) is

analytic on the imaginary axis and in the right

half of the s-plane, then

lim f (t ) lim sF (s )

t

s 0

contains any pole whose real part is zero or

positive. This theory is very useful for analysis

and design of control systems, since it gives the

final value of a time function by knowing the

behavior

of its Laplace transformation at s = 0.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

55

F(s)

5

s(s2 s 2)

Since sF(s) is analytic on the imaginary axis and

in the right-half s-plane, the final theorem

may be applied. Thus

5

5

s 0 s 2

s 0

s2

F(s) 2

s 2

Since the function sF(s) has two poles on the

imaginary axis of the s-palne, the final-value

theorem cannot be applied in this case.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

56

t

L e f (t ) F (s )

Theorem 9. Real Convolution ( Complex

Multiplication)

Let F1(s) and F2(s) be the Laplace transform of

f1(t) and f2(t), respectively, and f1(t) = 0, f2(t)

= 0 for t < 0; then

F1 (s ) F2 (s ) L f 1 (t ) f 2 (t )

t

t

L f 1 ( ) f 2 (t )d L f 2 ( ) f 1 (t )d

theorem, called the complex convolution or

real multiplication.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

L f 1 (t )f 2 (t ) F1 (s ) F2 (s )

Chapter 1

57

Q(s)

Consider a rational function G(s)

P(s)

where Q(s) and P(s) are polynomials of s. It is

assumed that the order of P(s) in s is

greater than of Q(s). The polynomial P(s)

may be written

where a0, a1, ,an-1 are real coefficients. The

methods of partial-fraction expansion will

now be given for cases of simple poles,

multiple-order poles, and complex

conjugate poles of G(s).

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

58

If all the poles of G(s) are simple and real, then

G(s) can be written as

G (s )

Q (s )

Q (s )

P (s ) (s s 1 )(s s 2 ).......(s s n )

can be written as

G (s )

A1

A2

An

.....

s s1 s s 2

s sn

where

Q (s )

A n (s s n )

P (s ) s s

g (t ) A1e -s1t A 2e -s 2t A ne -s n t

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

59

If r of the n poles are identical, G(s) is written

Q (s )

Q (s )

G (s )

P (s ) s s1 s s 2 ... (s s n r ) s s i

K s1

Ks2

G (s )

s s 1 s s2

n r terms of

A1

A2

s si

s s i

r terms of

K s ( n -r )

s s n -r

simple poles

Ar

si

repeated poles

correspond to simple poles may be evaluated

as explained before. The coefficients Ai are

Trimester 2,

evaluated

as follows.

2016/2017

Chapter 1

60

A r (s s i ) r G (s )

s s

A r 1

A r 2

d

(s s i ) r G (s )

s s

ds

i

1 d2

(s s i ) r G (s )

2

s s

2! ds

i

1

d r 1

r

A1

(

s

s

)

G (s )

i

r 1

s s

( r 1)! ds

i

Suppose that G(s) contains a pair of complex poles:

S= - + j and s = - - j

The corresponding coefficients of these poles are

K j s j G (s ) s j

K j s j G (s ) s j

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

61

G (s )

5s 3

s 1 s 2 s 3

A

B

C

G (s )

s 1 s 2 s 3

5( 1) 3

A s 1G (s )

1

s 1

2 1 3 1

5( 2) 3

7

s 2

(1 2)(3 2)

5( 3) 3

C s 3G (s ) s 3

6

(1 3)(2 3)

1

7

6

G (s )

s 1 s 2 s 3

B s 2 G (s )

Thus

1

t

2t

3t

g

(

t

)

L

G

(

s

)

7

e

6

e

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

62

2

G (s )

(s 1)(s 2) 2

Solution:

G (s )

A

B

C

(s 1) (s 2) (s 2) 2

2

A

2

2

(s 2) s 1

G (s )

Time function is

2

2

2

s 1 s 2 (s 2) 2

g (t ) 2e

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

2

C

2

(

s

1)

s 2

2

d 2

B

2

ds (s 1) s 2 (s 1) 2 s 2

2e

2t

Chapter 1

2t

2te

63

the Solution of Linear Ordinary

Differential Equations.

1.

Transform the differential equation to

the s-domain by Laplace transform

technique.

2.

Manipulate the transformed algebraic

equation and solve for the output

variable.

3.

Perform partial-fraction expansion to

the transformed algebraic equation

4.

Obtain the inverse Laplace transform.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

64

d 2y

dy

4

3 y 2r (t )

2

dt

dt

, and r(t)=1, t 0.

The Laplace transform yields

dy

( 0) 0

dt

s Y (s ) sy (0) 4 sY (s ) y (0) 3Y (s ) 2R (s )

2

Y (s )

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

s 4

2

4s 3

2

s s 2 4s 3

Chapter 1

65

3 / 2 1/ 2 1

1/ 3 2 / 3

Y (s )

(s 1) (s 3) (s 1) (s 3) s

3 t 1 3t t 1 3t 2

y (t ) e e 1e e

2

3 3

2

2

lim y (t )

t

3

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

66

Summary

concepts of what a control system is and what it is

supposed to accomplish.

The basic components of a control system are

described by demonstrating the effects of feedback in

a simple way, the question of why most control

systems are closed loop systems also clarified.

Several typical control systems examples are given to

illustrate the points of emphasis in the analysis and

design of control systems.

We also presented in this chapter some of the

mathematical fundamentals required for the study of

linear control systems.

Specifically, the Laplace transform is used for the

solution of linear ordinary differential equations.

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

67

End of Chapter 1

Trimester 2,

2016/2017

Chapter 1

68

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