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Control Engineering:

Introduction
Mr. P. Velrajkumar, FET
Dr. Ajay Kumar Singh, Associate Professor, FET
Mr. Lee Gin Chong, Lecturer, FET
Dr. Zakarya Zyada, Specialist 3, FET

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Chapter 1

Importance

In daily life: temp and humidity in air


conditioning systems, temp of an iron, washing
machines, water heater, bread toasteretc.
In transportation: airplanes, automobiles,
trains.etc.
In Industry: boilers and power generation, robots
and CNC machines,..etc.
Without control (feedback), many achievements
in today's industry cannot be obtained
Most of those systems are feedback controlled
(sometimes with human high level supervision).

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Chapter 1

Brief Course Outline

Introduction: 3 hrs
Mathematical modeling and models
manipulation: 7 hrs
Time response analysis: 7 hrs
System accuracy and Stability : 4 hrs
Methods in control: 10 hrs
Towards nonlinear systems: 5 hrs

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Chapter 1

Brief Course Outline

Textbook:
th
K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 5
edition, Prentice Hall, 2010.
References:
R.C. Dorf and R.H. Bishop, Modern Control
Systems, 12th edition, Prentice Hall, 2010.
Norman S. Nise, Control Systems
Engineering, 6th edition, John Wiley and Sons
Inc., 2011.
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Course Objectives

Give students:
A basic understanding of feedback control system
theory.
Ability to perform analysis and design of linear
feedback systems, (in time and frequency
domains).

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Evaluation Methods

Lab Experiments: 10 %
Assignments: 15 %
Mid-term Test/Quiz: 15 %
Final exam: 60 %

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Course Requirements

Basic engineering courses in physics


and mathematics (differential
equations)
Familiarity with the application of
physical laws such as equilibrium
equation, Newtons laws of motion,
conservation of mass and energy,
Kirchhoff's laws,etc.
Laplace transformations
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Chapter 1

Course Contents - 1

Introduction

Control systems terminology: Open loop, Closed loop,


Feedback servomechanism, Block diagram.
Revision of Laplace Transform

Mathematical modeling of physical systems

Linear Systems
Concept of Transfer function
Transfer function representation of systems mechanical,
electrical, thermal and hydraulic.
Block diagram algebra
Signal flow graphs

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Course Contents - 2

Transient response analysis

Input signals: impulse, step, ramp, parabolic


First order system: time constant
Second order systems: natural frequency, damping ration
Transient response specifications: rise time, overshot.etc.
Higher order systems
Digital computer solution of differential equations describing
control systems (MATLAB)

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Course Contents - 3

System accuracy and stability

Methods in Control

Study of system accuracy


Analysis of system stability and factors affecting the stability

Root locus method and its applications


Frequency response method and applications
Design and compensation techniques

Topics in control engineering:

Introduction to nonlinear systems and state space analysis


Introduction to modern and computer control systems

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Let us start 1

Chapter 1: Introduction

Control systems terminology: Open loop, Closed loop,


Feedback servomechanism, Block diagram.
Revision of Laplace Transform

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Videos

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Definitions:
System
u(t)

y(t)

A system is a combination of components that act


together and perform a certain objective. A system need
not be physical. The concept of the system can be applied
to abstract, dynamic phenomena such as those
encountered in economics. The word system should,
therefore, be interpreted to imply physical, biological,
economic, and the like, systems.
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Definitions:
Disturbances
Disturbance

n(t)

y(t)

u(t)

A disturbance is a signal that tends to adversely affect


the value of the output of a system. If a disturbance is
generated within the system, it is called internal, while an
external disturbance is generated outside the system and is
an input.
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Definitions:
Control system

A control system is an interconnection of components


forming a system configuration that will provide a desired
system response.
Describes cause-effect relationship.

Process to be controlled
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Definitions:
Plant, Process

A plant may be a piece of equipment, perhaps just a set


of machine parts functioning together, the purpose of
which is to perform a particular operation. In this course,
we shall call any physical object to be controlled (such as
a mechanical device, a heating furnace, a chemical
reactor, or a spacecraft) a plant.
A process is an artificial or voluntary, progressively
continuing operation that consists of a series of controlled
actions or movements systematically directed toward a
particular result or end. In this course we shall call any
operation to be controlled a process. Examples are
chemical, economic, and biological processes.
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Control system fundamentals:


Open loop systems
Di st ur bance
( Noi se)
I nput r ( t )
Ref er ence
desi r ed out put

uk
Cont r ol l er

uact
Act uat or

Cont r ol
si gnal

Pr ocess

Out put c( t )
( act ual out put )

Act uat i ng
si gnal
Fi g. 1. 10

An open-loop control system utilizes an actuating


device to control the process directly without
using feedback.
Advantages: simple, cheap
Disadvantage: no error rejections
Example: electric water heater.
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Definitions:

Controlled Variable and Control Signal or


Manipulated Variable

The controlled variable is the quantity or condition that


is measured and controlled.
The control signal or manipulated variable is the
quantity or condition that is varied by the controller so as to
affect the value of the controlled variable.
Normally, the controlled variable is the output of the
system. Control means measuring the value of the
controlled variable of the system and applying the control
signal to the system to correct or limit deviation of the
measured value from a desired value.
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Control system fundamentals:


Closed loop systems
Di st ur bance
( Noi se)

I nput r ( t )
Ref er ence
desi r ed out put

e( t ) =
r ( t ) - b( t )
Cont r ol l er

( +)

uk

uact
Act uat or

Cont r ol
si gnal

Pr ocess

Out put c( t )
( act ual out put )

Act uat i ng
si gnal

Feedback si gnal b( t )

measur ement

Fi g. 1. 11
A closed-loop control system uses
a measurement of the
output and feedback this signal to compare it with the
desired output (reference or command).
In general a system that is designed to control the output of a plant
must contain at least one sensor and controller
Advantage: can remove steady-state error (disturbance rejection)
Disadvantage: higher complexity and so more expensive
Example: a person steering an automobile

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Definitions:
Controller

A controller:
is a device for controlling a source of power in
which the output is required to be some function
of input,
is designed to fulfil some design objectives

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Definitions:

Feedback control

Feedback control refers to an operation that, in the presence of


disturbances, tends to reduce the difference between the output of a
system and some reference input (desired value) and does so on the
basis of this difference. Here only unpredictable disturbances are so
specified, since predictable or known disturbances can always be
compensated for within the system.
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Water-level float regulator, 1765

What is the controlled variable?


Is it open loop or closed loop?
What is the sensor?
What is the actuator?
What is the controller?

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Historical control systems:

The Watt centrifugal speed governor, 1769

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The Watt centrifugal speed governor, 1769

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What is the controlled


variable?
Is it open loop or closed
loop?
What is the sensor?
What is the actuator?
What is the controller?

24

HISTORY OF AUTOMATIC
CONTROL - 1

First feedback system to be invented in modern


Europe - temperature regulator of Cornelis Drebbel
(15721633) from Holland.
Dennis Papin [16471712] invented the first pressure
regulator for steam boilers in 1681. A form of safety
regulator similar to a pressure-cooker valve.
The first automatic feedback controller used in an
industrial process is James Watts flyball governor,
developed in 1769 for controlling the speed of a
steam engine.
1868 J. C. Maxwell formulates a mathematical model
for a governor control of a steam engine.

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HISTORY OF AUTOMATIC
CONTROL - 2

1913 Henry Fords mechanised assembly machine


introduced for automobile production.
1927 H.W. Bode analyses feedback amplifiers.
1932 H. Nyquist develops a method for analysing the
stability of systems.
1952 Numerical control (NC) developed at
Massachusetts Institute of Technology for control of
machine-tool axes.
1954 George Devol develops programmed article
transfer, considered to be the first industrial robot
design.

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HISTORY OF AUTOMATIC
CONTROL - 3

1960 First robot introduced, based on Devols


designs.
1961 Robots used for tending die-casting machines.
1970 State-variable models and optimal control
developed.
1980 Robust control system design widely studied.
1990 Export-oriented manufacturing companies
emphasise automation.
1994 Feedback control widely used in automobiles.
Reliable, robust systems demanded in manufacturing.

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Linear & Nonlinear Systems

Linear Control Systems


Linear feedback control systems are idealized
models fabricated by the analyst purely for
simplicity of analysis and design.
Nonlinear Control Systems
All control systems are essentially nonlinear.
It is practical first to design the controller based
on the linear-system model by neglecting the
nonlinearities of the system.
The designed controller is then applied to the
nonlinear system model for evaluation or redesign
by computer simulation.
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Time invariant & Time varying

Time-Invariant Systems
When the parameters of a control system are
stationary with respect to time during the
operation of the system, the system is called a
time-invariant system.
Time-Varying Systems
In practice, most physical systems contain
elements that drift or vary with time.

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Continuous, Discrete and


Digital

Continuous (Analogue) Control Systems


A continuous-data system is one in which the
signals at various parts of the system are all
functions of the continuous time variable t.
Discrete Control Systems
The signals at one or more points
of the system

are in form of either a pulse train or a digital


code.

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Single variable & Multi-variable


Control

Single Variable Control


single input - single output (SISO)
Multivariable Control
multiple inputs - multiple outputs (MIMO)

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Examples
A manual level-regulating
control system

href (t )

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e (t )

u (t )

Chapter 1

h (t )

32

Level control system


(Automatic Control)

resistance comparator
Desired
water level
Input

amplifier
Error

Actuator

Motor

Gearing

Valve

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Output

Process

controller
Feedback signal

Water
tank

Actual
water level

Float
measurement (Sensor)
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Room temperature control


system

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Aircraft elevator control

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A three-axis control system for inspecting individual semiconductor


Trimester 2, wafers with a highly sensitive camera
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Coordinated control system for a boiler generator

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Automobile steering control system

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Insulin delivery control system

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Process

Controlled
variable

Controller

Actuator

Sensor

Tank system

Level of fluid

Operator

Valve

Visual system

Automobile

Direction of
travel

Driver

Steering
mechanism

Measurement,
visual and tactile

Three-axis
control system

x-y-z position

Computer

Motors

Position sensor

Power plant

Temperature,
pressure, oxygen
generation

Computer

Various valves

Temperature,
pressure, oxygen
concentration
sensors

Furnace

Temperature

Hardware
electronic circuit

Solid state relay

Thermocouple

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Comparison of Open-loop and Closed-loop


Control Design Example: Turntable Speed
Control
Applications: CD player, computer disk drive,
phonograph record player
Require a constant speed of rotation in spite of
motor wear and variation and other component
changes.
Goal: To control the actual speed of rotation to
within a specified percentage of the desired speed.
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(a) Open-loop control (without feedback) of the speed of a turntable


(b) Block diagram model
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(a) Closed-loop control (with feedback) of the speed of a turntable


(b) Block diagram model
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Design requirements of a
control system

In order to design and implement a control system, the following


elements are required:

Knowledge of the desired value: what to control, to what accuracy,


over what range of values.
Knowledge of the output or actual value: must be measured by a
feedback sensor, in a form suitable for a controller to understand. The
sensor must have the necessary resolution and dynamic response.
Knowledge of the controlling device: the controllers must be able to
accept measurements of desired and actual values and compute a control
signal in a suitable form to drive an actuating element. It includes
mechanical levers, pneumatic elements, analog or digital circuits or micro
computers.
knowledge of the actuating device: This unit amplifies the control
signal and provides the effort to move the output of the plant towards its
desired value.
Knowledge of the plant: some of the static and dynamic characteristics
of the plant. It can be obtained from measurements or from the application
of physical laws or both.

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Control system design

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MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATION
In this topic we present the
background material that
is needed for the topics
on the control system
discussed in this course.
Complex-Variable Concept
A complex variable s has two components: a real
component and imaginary component . Graphically,
the real component of s is represented by a -axis in
the horizontal direction, and the imaginary component
is measured along the vertical j-axis.
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G(s) = Re G(s) + Im G(s)


Where G(s) is said to be function of complex
variable s.
Poles of a function:
Roots of the denominator polynomial are called
poles of the system.
Zeros of a function:
Roots of the numerator polynomial are called
Zeros of the system.
Example:
20 ( s 2)
G (s)

s ( s 4)

Poles are s = 0, s = -4 and Zeros are s = -2


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Differential Equations:
A wide range of systems in engineering is modeled
mathematically by differential equations. These equations
generally involve derivatives and integrals of the
dependent variables with respect to the independent
variable. For instance, a series electric RLC network can
be represented by the differential equation
di(t) 1
Ri(t) L
i(t)dt e(t)
d(t) C
In general, differential equation of an nth-order is written
d n y(t)
d n 1 y(t)
dy(t)
an 1 n 1 a1
a0 y(t) f(t)
n
dt
dt
dt
which is also known as a linear ordinary differential equation
if the coefficients a0, a1, ,an-1 are not function of y(t).
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Laplace Transform:

The Laplace transform converts the differential


equation into algebraic equation in s. It is
then possible to manipulate the algebraic
equation by simple algebraic rules to obtain
the solution in the s-domain. The final solution
is obtained by taking the inverse Laplace
transform.
Laplace transform
of a function f (t) is defined

as
F(s) f(t) e- st dt
0

or F(s) = Laplace transform of f(t) = L[f(t)].


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Example 1: Let f(t) be a unit-step function that is


defined as

Solution: The Laplace transform of f(t) is


obtained as
F ( s)

st
u
(
t
)
e
dt
s

1 st

e
s
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st
(
1
)
e
dt

1
1
0

e
e
s
s
Chapter 1

50

Example 2: Consider the exponential function

f(t) e
Solution:

F ( s)

t 0

f (t )e st dt

t
st
e
e
dt

( s ) t

1
dt
e ( s ) t
s

1
1

e
e
s
s

Example 3: Find the Laplace transform of sint


and
cost.
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Inverse Laplace Transformation: Given the


Laplace transform F(s), the operation of
obtaining f(t) is termed the inverse Laplace
Transformation and is denoted by:

f t L F s
1

Important Theorems of the Laplace Transform


Theorem 1. Multiplication by a constant
Let k be a constant and F(s) be the Laplace
transform of f(t). Then

L k f t kF (s )

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Theorem 2. Sum and difference


L[f1(t) f2(t)] = F1(s) F2(s)
Theorem 3. Differentiation

L f (t ) F ( s)
df(t)
L
sF(s) lim f(t) sF(s) f(0)

t 0
dt
d 2 f (t )
df
2
L
s F ( s) sf (0) (0)
2
dt
dt

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Theorem 4. Integration

L 0

For nth-order integration

t1 t 2

L 0

F(s)
f( )d
s

tn

0 f( )ddt1dt2 dtn 1

F(s)
n
s

Theorem 5. Shift in time


The Laplace transform of f(t) delayed by time T
is equal to the Laplace transform f(t) multiplied
by e-Ts ; that is

L f(t T)us (t T) eTs F(s)

where us(t - T) denotes the unit-step function


that is shifted in time to the right by T.
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Theorem 6. Initial-Value Theorem


lim f (t ) lim sF (s )
t 0

Theorem 7. Final-Value Theorem


If the Laplace transform of f(t) is F(s), and sF(s) is
analytic on the imaginary axis and in the right
half of the s-plane, then
lim f (t ) lim sF (s )
t

s 0

The final-value theorem is not valid if sF(s)


contains any pole whose real part is zero or
positive. This theory is very useful for analysis
and design of control systems, since it gives the
final value of a time function by knowing the
behavior
of its Laplace transformation at s = 0.
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Example 1: Consider the function


F(s)

5
s(s2 s 2)
Since sF(s) is analytic on the imaginary axis and
in the right-half s-plane, the final theorem
may be applied. Thus
5
5

lim f(t) lim sF(s) lim

s 0 s 2

s 0

Example 2: Consider the function

s2

F(s) 2
s 2

which is the Laplace transform of f(t) = sint.


Since the function sF(s) has two poles on the
imaginary axis of the s-palne, the final-value
theorem cannot be applied in this case.
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Theorem 8. Complex Shifting


t

L e f (t ) F (s )
Theorem 9. Real Convolution ( Complex
Multiplication)
Let F1(s) and F2(s) be the Laplace transform of
f1(t) and f2(t), respectively, and f1(t) = 0, f2(t)
= 0 for t < 0; then

F1 (s ) F2 (s ) L f 1 (t ) f 2 (t )
t
t
L f 1 ( ) f 2 (t )d L f 2 ( ) f 1 (t )d

There is also a dual to the real convolution


theorem, called the complex convolution or

real multiplication.
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L f 1 (t )f 2 (t ) F1 (s ) F2 (s )
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Inverse Laplace Transform by PartialFraction Expansion


Q(s)
Consider a rational function G(s)
P(s)
where Q(s) and P(s) are polynomials of s. It is
assumed that the order of P(s) in s is
greater than of Q(s). The polynomial P(s)
may be written

P(s) s n an 1s n 1 ... a1s a0


where a0, a1, ,an-1 are real coefficients. The
methods of partial-fraction expansion will
now be given for cases of simple poles,
multiple-order poles, and complex
conjugate poles of G(s).
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G(s) has Simple Poles:


If all the poles of G(s) are simple and real, then
G(s) can be written as
G (s )

Q (s )
Q (s )

P (s ) (s s 1 )(s s 2 ).......(s s n )

Applying partial-fraction expansion, Eq. (1.21)


can be written as
G (s )

A1
A2
An

.....
s s1 s s 2
s sn

where

Q (s )
A n (s s n )
P (s ) s s

The inverse transform is then written as

g (t ) A1e -s1t A 2e -s 2t A ne -s n t

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G(s) Has Multiple Order Poles


If r of the n poles are identical, G(s) is written
Q (s )
Q (s )
G (s )

P (s ) s s1 s s 2 ... (s s n r ) s s i

Then G(s) can be expanded as


K s1
Ks2
G (s )

s s 1 s s2
n r terms of

A1
A2

s si
s s i

r terms of

K s ( n -r )
s s n -r

simple poles

Ar
si

repeated poles

The (n - r) coefficients Ks1, Ks2, .., Ks(n-r) which


correspond to simple poles may be evaluated
as explained before. The coefficients Ai are
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evaluated
as follows.
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60

A r (s s i ) r G (s )
s s
A r 1
A r 2

d
(s s i ) r G (s )
s s
ds
i

1 d2
(s s i ) r G (s )

2
s s
2! ds
i

1
d r 1
r

A1
(
s

s
)
G (s )
i
r 1
s s
( r 1)! ds
i

G(s) Has Simple Complex -Conjugate Poles


Suppose that G(s) contains a pair of complex poles:
S= - + j and s = - - j
The corresponding coefficients of these poles are
K j s j G (s ) s j
K j s j G (s ) s j
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Example: Find the Inverse Laplace transform of


G (s )

5s 3
s 1 s 2 s 3

Solution: By partial fraction expansion


A
B
C
G (s )

s 1 s 2 s 3
5( 1) 3
A s 1G (s )

1
s 1
2 1 3 1
5( 2) 3
7
s 2
(1 2)(3 2)
5( 3) 3
C s 3G (s ) s 3
6
(1 3)(2 3)
1
7
6
G (s )

s 1 s 2 s 3
B s 2 G (s )

Thus

1
t
2t
3t

g
(
t
)

L
G
(
s
)

7
e

6
e

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Example: Find the Inverse Laplace transform of


2
G (s )
(s 1)(s 2) 2

Solution:

G (s )

A
B
C

(s 1) (s 2) (s 2) 2

2
A
2
2
(s 2) s 1

G (s )

Time function is

2
2
2

s 1 s 2 (s 2) 2

g (t ) 2e

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2
C
2

(
s

1)

s 2
2
d 2
B

2
ds (s 1) s 2 (s 1) 2 s 2

2e

2t

Chapter 1

2t

2te

63

Application of Laplace Transform to


the Solution of Linear Ordinary
Differential Equations.
1.
Transform the differential equation to
the s-domain by Laplace transform
technique.
2.
Manipulate the transformed algebraic
equation and solve for the output
variable.
3.
Perform partial-fraction expansion to
the transformed algebraic equation
4.
Obtain the inverse Laplace transform.
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Example: Consider the differential equation


d 2y
dy
4
3 y 2r (t )
2
dt
dt

where the initial conditions are y(0) = 1,


, and r(t)=1, t 0.
The Laplace transform yields

dy
( 0) 0
dt

s Y (s ) sy (0) 4 sY (s ) y (0) 3Y (s ) 2R (s )
2

Since R(s)=1/s and y(0) = 1, we obtain


Y (s )
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s 4
2

4s 3

2
s s 2 4s 3

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65

The partial fraction yields


3 / 2 1/ 2 1
1/ 3 2 / 3
Y (s )

(s 1) (s 3) (s 1) (s 3) s

Hence the response is


3 t 1 3t t 1 3t 2
y (t ) e e 1e e
2
3 3
2

and the steady-state response is

2
lim y (t )
t
3
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Summary

In this chapter we introduced some of the basic


concepts of what a control system is and what it is
supposed to accomplish.
The basic components of a control system are
described by demonstrating the effects of feedback in
a simple way, the question of why most control
systems are closed loop systems also clarified.
Several typical control systems examples are given to
illustrate the points of emphasis in the analysis and
design of control systems.
We also presented in this chapter some of the
mathematical fundamentals required for the study of
linear control systems.
Specifically, the Laplace transform is used for the
solution of linear ordinary differential equations.
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2016/2017

Chapter 1

67

End of Chapter 1

Trimester 2,
2016/2017

Chapter 1

68