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Dynamics

What you can learn about

Momentum of inertia

Torque

Angular momentum

Precession

Nutation

Principle:

The momentum of inertia of the

gyroscope is investigated by measuring the angular acceleration caused

by torques of different known values.

In this experiment, two of the axes of

the gyroscope are fixed.

The relationship between the precession frequency and the gyro-frequency of the gyroscope with 3 free

axes is examined for torques of different values applied to the axis of

rotation.

If the axis of rotation of the forcefree gyroscope is slightly displaced, a

nutation is induced. The nutation

frequency will be investigated as a

function of gyro-frequency.

Gyroscope with 3 axis

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Laws of gyroscopes / 3-axis gyroscope

P2131900

tR-1 = f(tP).

Tasks:

of inertia of the gyroscope by

measurement of the angular

acceleration.

between precession and gyro-frequency and its dependence from

torque.

of inertia by measurement of the

gyro-frequency and precession

frequency.

between nutation frequency and

gyro-frequency.

LEP

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Related topics

Momentum of inertia, torque, angular momentum, precession,

nutation

Principle

The momentum of inertia of the gyroscope is investigated by

measuring the angular acceleration caused by torques of different known values. In this experiment, two of the axes of the

gyroscope are fixed.

The relationship between the precession frequency and the

gyro-frequency of the gyroscope with 3 free axes is examined

for torques of different values applied to the axis of rotation.

If the axis of rotation of the force-free gyroscope is slightly displaced, a nutation is induced. The nutation frequency will be

investigated as a function of gyro-frequency.

Equipment

Gyroscope with 3 axes

Light barrier with Counter

Power supply 5 V DC/2.4 A

Additional gyro-disc w. counter-weight

Stopwatch, digital, 1/100 sec.

Barrel base -PASSSlotted weight,10 g, black

Slotted weight, 50 g, black

Holder for slotted weights

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Tasks

1. Determination of the momentum of inertia of the gyroscope

by measurement of the angular acceleration.

2. Determination of the momentum of inertia by measurement

of the gyro-frequency and precession frequency.

Investigation of the relationship between precession and

gyro-frequency and its dependence from torque.

3. Investigation of the relationship between nutation frequency and gyro-frequency.

Set-up and procedure

1. To start with, the polar momentum of inertia Ip of the gyroscope disk must be determined.

For this, the gyroscope is fixed with its axis directed horizontally and positioned on the experimenting table in such a way

that the thread drum projects over the edge of the table

(Fig. 2). The thread is wound around the drum and the accelerating mass m (m = 60 g; plate with 5 slotted weights) is fastened to the free end of the thread.

Several experiments are carried out for different drop heights

h of the accelerating mass, from which the corresponding

average falling time tF from the moment the gyroscope disk is

released until the mass touches the floor is determined. The

diagram of t 2F versus h is plotted and the moment of inertia of

the gyroscope disk is determined from the slope of the

straight line (Fig. 3).

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen

P2131900

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move freely around its 3 axes, is wound up and the duration

tR of one revolution (rotation frequency) is determined by

means of the forked light barrier, with the axis of the gyroscope lying horizontally. Immediately after this, a mass

m* = 30 g is hung at a distance r* = 27 cm into the groove at

the longer end of the gyroscope axis. The duration of half a

precession rotation tP /2 must now be determined with a manual stopwatch (this value must be multiplied by two for the

evaluation). The mass is then removed, so the gyroscope axis

can regain immobility, and tR can be determined again. The

inverse of the average value from both measurements of tR is

entered into a diagram above precession time tp. In the same

way, the other measurement points are recorded for decreasing number of gyroscope rotations. The slope of the resulting

straight line allows to calculate the momentum of inertia of the

gyroscope disk (Fig. 6).

3. If a slight lateral blow is given against the axis of the rotating gyroscope on which no forces are acting, the gyroscope

starts describing a nutation movement. The duration of one

nutation tN is determined with the manual stopwatch and this

is plotted against the duration of one revolution tR, which is

again determined by means of the forked light barrier (Fig. 7).

1. Determination of the momentum of inertia of the gyroscope disk

If the gyroscope disk is set to rotate by means of a falling

mass m (Fig. 2), the following relation is valid for the angular

acceleration:

dvR

M

a

dt

IP

(1)

momentum of inertia; M = F r = torque).

determine the momentum of inertia of the gyroscope

disk.

P2131900

causes the torque is given by the following relation:

F = m (g a)

(2)

The following relations are true for the trajectory acceleration

a and the angular acceleration a:

a

a

2h

;a

r

t 2F

(3)

r = radius of the thread drum).

Introducing (2) and (3) into (1), one obtains:

t 2F

2 IP 2 mr 2

mgr 2

(4)

obtains the following value for the momentum of inertia of the

gyroscope disk:

IP = (8,83 0,15 ) 10-3 kg m2

In general, the following is valid for the momentum of inertia of

a disk:

IP

1

p

MR2 R4 dr

2

2

(5)

thickness d of the circular disk, and the specific weight of

plastic r = 0,9 g/cm3, one obtains from (4):

IP = 8,91.10-3 kg m2.

2. Determination of the precession frequency

Let the symmetrical gyroscope G in Fig. 4, which is suspended so as to be able to rotate around the 3 main axes, be in

equilibrium in horizontal position with counterweight C. If the

gyroscope is set to rotate around the x-axis, with an angular

slope of straight line t 2F = f(h).

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen

LEP

1.3.19

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to forces.

slope of straight line tR-1 = f(tP).

which is constant in space and in time:

L = Ip R

(6)

support point induces a supplementary torque M*, which is

equal to the variation in time of the angular momentum and

parallel to it.

dL

M* = m* gr* =

(7)

dt

Due to the influence of the supplementary torque (which acts

perpendicularly in this particular case), after a lapse of time dt,

the angular momentum L will rotate by an angle d from its

initial position (Fig. 5).

dL = L d

m*gr*

dw

1 dL

1 dL

L dt

IpvR dt

IpvR

dt

The double value of the torque (double value of m*) causes the

doubling of the precession frequency.

If m* is hung into the forward groove of the gyroscope axis, or

if the direction of rotation of the disk is inverted, the direction

of rotation of the precession is also inverted.

If the supplementary disk identical to the gyroscope disk is

used too, and both are caused to rotate in opposite directions, no precession will occur when a torque is applied.

(8)

The gyroscope does not topple under the influence of the supplementary torque, but reacts perpendicularly to the force generated by this torque. The gyroscope, which now is submitted

to gravitation, describes a so-called precession movement.

The angular velocity P of the precession fulfils the relation:

vp

IP = (8,89 0,15) kgm2 for m* = 0,03 kg and IP = (9,29 0,17)

kgm2 for m* = 0,06 kg.

(9)

Fig. 7 represents the relation

N = kR ; tR = ktN

(11)

The constant k depends on the different moments of inertia

relative to the principal axes of rotation.

m*gr* 1

1

tP

tR

4p 2 IP

(10)

inverse of the duration of a revolution tR of the gyroscope disk

and the duration of a precession revolution tP for two different

masses m*. The slopes of the straight lines allow to calculate

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen

P2131900

LEP

1.3.19

-00

P2131900

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