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Project Management

Dr(Prof) M Ambashankar

Your Mentor
Dr (Prof) Mysore Ambashankar
30+ Years of combined experience in Corporate and Academia. A
Technocrat by Profession, a Teacher with Passion!

profamba@gmail.com
mysoreambashankar@facebook.com
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Mobile: 09341414242 ( ONLY between 8pm-9pm on weekdays)

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

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Pedagogy

Lectures
Business Videos
Case Method Approach
Critical Skills Presentations
Discussions and debates
Research Reports
Projects
Innovative thoughts that can add value to our
Existing Knowledge
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

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A Dream is one that will never allow you to


sleepDream BIG.

Business Strategy Dr(Prof) M


Ambashankar

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Plan
Introduction
Project planning

Project planning
Resource analysis

Gantt chart and WBS

Project planning
Network analysis I

Project planning
Network analysis II

Risk management
Quality
Budgets and cost
control
Project teams

Review
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

This Lecture
Introduction
What is a project?
The project management process
Project management information systems

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

A Project
A unique process, consisting of a set of
coordinated and controlled activities with start
and finish dates, undertaken to achieve an
objective conforming to specific requirements
including constraints of time, cost and
resources

(Lockyer and Gordon, 1996)


Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

A Project

Unique process
Coordinated and controlled activities
Start and finish dates
To achieve an objective
Specific requirements
Constraints of time, cost and resources

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Project Characteristics
Organisation is temporary
Often forms part of a larger project
Objectives and product characteristics may be
defined and achieved progressively
Result may be the creation of one or several
units of a project
Interrelation between activities may be
complex
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Project Characteristics
Project management is principally concerned
with the management of change
(Lockyer & Gordon, 1996)

Change management in IS development


Change management in organisations
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Project Factors
Size of the project
Budget/costs, Size of team, Size of product

Complexity
Industry in which it is carried out
Civil engineering
Manufacturing
IS/IT

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Classifying Projects (Lock, 1996)


Civil Engineering
Realisation phase is outdoors, large capital = many
contractors = communication headaches

Manufacturing Projects
Development of specialised hardware, physical design

Management Projects
Projects that do not result in a produced piece of hardware
(including software projects?)

Research Projects
Include a higher element of risk (including software
projects?)
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Project Funding
Revenue projects
Carried out within the normal organisational structure
Normally within a single accounting period

Capital projects
May extend over a number of accounting periods
Occupy considerable time employ considerable capital
Not carried out within the normal organisational structure
(Lockyer & Gordon, 1996)

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Capital Projects
Cross functional and time boundaries
Cannot be accommodated within the normal
running of an organisation
A special organisational structure is set up the
project team
This structure usually only exists for the duration
of the project

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Organisation Structures
Hierarchical
Matrix
Project Management Structure

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Hierarchical

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

http://www.slc.co.uk/noframe/corpinfo/orgchart.html
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Large Corporation

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

http://www.baesystems.com/aboutus/ovdiagra.htm
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Project Teams
Revenue Projects
Teams taken from within functions
All report to function manager

Capital Projects
Teams taken from various functions
Who do they report to?

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Matrix Structure

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Example 1 Car Manufacture


Manufacture of a
production car
No Clear Finish
Not unique for each
product
Standard Organisational
Structure

The design, launch and


initial production for a
new car
Defined start/finish
Unique for each product
Temporary
organisational structure

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Example 2 A New Course


Existing Course
Course Team

Course Leader
Module Leaders
Administrator
Year Tutors

Team members may


change but team still
exists

New Course
Working Group
Chair
Committee
Administrator

Team set up for course


development but then hands
course over to course team.

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

All Projects Should Have:

Project plan
Time frame
Product specification
Statement of required quality
Budget
Cost plan
Identification of areas of uncertainty
Risk evaluation and responses
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Introduction
What is a project?

The project management


process
Project management information
systems

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Process Overview
A project is broken down into stages
Each stage in turn will be broken down into
smaller and more manageable tasks
It important to include planning as part of the
project management process

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Four Phase Model


Lockyer (1996) describes a four phase model
of the project process
Conception - assess the feasibility of the project
Development - prepare the project plan
Realisation - carry out the plan
Termination - close the project

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Conception Reports On
The capability of the organisation to
Produce the product in the time required
Support capital outlay
Procure external items or services

Conception
Development
Realisation
Termination
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Conception Reports On
The acceptability of
Geographical requirements on procurement or
ecology specified in the project enquiry
Contract conditions specified in enquiry

Conception
Development
Realisation
Termination
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Conception Reports On

The final price for the product


The cost involved in development
The project budget
Specification of the product including quality
and reliability requirements

Conception
Development
Realisation
Termination
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Conception
Can it be done?

Yes or No?

Conception
Development
Realisation
Termination
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Conception Feasibility
It is possible that we will
reject the project!

What are the


consequences of:
Too much detail?
Insufficient detail?

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Development
As the organisation is now committed to the
project it must:
Appoint a project manager
Assemble project team
Draw up a detailed plan of work

Conception
Development
Realisation
Termination
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Realisation
A reporting system is required to keep
everyone informed:
Team, top management, customers etc.

A log is also kept of problems and how they


were resolved

Conception
evelopment
Realisation
Termination
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Termination
Uses the project log to evaluate the
project and the process and indicate:
The success/failure of methods used
How team members performed
How reliable suppliers were

Conception
evelopment
Realisation
Termination
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Termination
Capital equipment that was used for the
project is now likely to be redundant
Termination also involves getting rid of such
equipment as profitably as possible

Conception
evelopment
Realisation
Termination
Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Observations
Often the phases of the project will overlap
There is often a pause between conception
and the other phases
It is possible that each phase may be treated
as a project in its own right
This might affect continuity of the project

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Introduction
What is a project?
The project management process

Project management
information systems

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

PM Information Systems
Projects need systems that can collect data in
real time concerning the project progress and
costs
Data analysis and distribution of information
must be carried out as rapidly as possible

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

MS Project Gantt Chart

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

MS Project Pert Chart

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Resource Analysis

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Other Software Tools


Project Management Tools
Accounting tools
e.g. spreadsheets, invoice generators

Documentation tools
Word processors, report generators

Group work tools


Discussion forums, GDSS

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Questions
Is the development of an information system a
project?
Explain your answer using information from this
lecture

How does the four phase model compare to


the waterfall model of software development?

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management

Useful Links
The OGC Project Management Web Site
http://www.ogc.gov.uk/sdtoolkit/reference/deliverylifecycle/impplans/pr
oj_mgmt.html

Project Management Software Tools


http://www.project-management-software.org/
http://www.startwright.com/project1.htm

Example Project Definition Document


http://www.surreycc.gov.uk/sccwebsite/sccwspublications.nsf/f2d920e0
15d1183d80256c670041a50b/547330bbc5c2e99f80256c2a0059f4c7/$
FILE/Project%20Definition%20Document.pdf

Dr (Prof) M Ambashankar - Project Management