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WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

Shah et al.

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

SJIF Impact Factor 5.210

Volume 4, Issue 11, 595-611

Review Article

ISSN 2278 4357

A REVIEW ON ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINATION


OF CEPHALOSPORINS AND OXAZOLIDINONES BULK AND IN
DIFFERENT DOSAGE FORMS
Kinjal A. Patel1, Dr. Jignesh S. Shah2*, Dr. Dilip G. Maheshwari3
1

Department of Quality Assurance, L.J Institute of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad

2*

Assistant Professor, Department of Quality Assurance, L.J Institute of Pharmacy,


Ahmedabad.

Head of Department, Department of Quality Assurance, L.J Institute of Pharmacy,


Ahmedabad.
ABSTRACT

Article Received on
26 Aug 2015,
Revised on 17 Sept 2015,
Accepted on 08 Oct 2015

Cephalosporins and oxazolidinones are very effectively used as antimicrobials. They very potent in nature and used in complex infections
cephalosporins work by interfering with cell wall synthesis while
oxazolidinone act as potent anti bacterial. They used to treat

*Correspondence for

pneumonia, strep throat, staph infections, tonsillitis, bronchitis, otitis

Author

media, various types of skin infections, gonorrhea; urinary tract

Dr. Jignesh S. Shah

infections cephalosporin antibiotics are also commonly used for

Assistant Professor,

surgical prophylaxis. They are generally administered as tablets as well

Department of Quality
Assurance, L.J Institute of
Pharmacy, Ahmedabad.

as through intravenously. This review entails different methods


developed for determination of the combination of cephalosporins and
oxazolidinones like UV-spectroscopy and liquid chromatography.

KEYWORDS: Cephalosporins, Oxazolidinones, UV-Spectroscopy, High Performance


Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
INTRODUCTION
Cephalosporins have a beta-lactam ring structure that interferes with synthesis of the bacterial
cell wall and so are bactericidal. Cephalosporins are derived from cephalosporin c which is
produced from cephalosporium acremonium.

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Cephalosporins are among the most diverse classes of antibiotics, they are grouped into
"generations" by their antimicrobial properties. Each newer generation has a broader
spectrum of activity than the one before.

The first generation cephalosporins include: their spectrums of activity are quite similar.
They possess generally excellent coverage against most gram-positive pathogens and
variable to poor coverage against most gram negative pathogens. The first generation
includes: cephalothin, cefazolin, cephapirin ,cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil.

The second generation cephalosporins in addition to the gram positive spectrum of the
first generation cephalosporins, these agents have expanded gram negative spectrum.
Cefoxitin and cefotetan. Also have good activity against bacteroides fragilis. Enough
variation exists between the second generation cephalosporins in regard to their
spectrums of activity against most species of gram negative bacteria, that susceptibility
testing is generally required to determine sensitivity. The second generation includes:
cefaclor, cefamandole, cefonicid, ceforanide, and cefuroxime.

The third generation cephalosporins have much expanded gram negative activity.
However, some members of this group have decreased activity against gram-positive
organisms. They have the advantage of convenient administration, but they are expensive.
The third generation includes: cefcapene, cefdaloxime, cefditoren, cefetamet, cefixime,
cefmenoxime,

cefodizime,

cefoperazone,

cefotaxime,

cefpimizole,

cefpodoxime,

ceftibuten, ceftriaxone.

The fourth generation cephalosporins are extended-spectrum agents with similar


activity against gram-positive organisms as first-generation cephalosporins. They also
have a greater resistance to beta-lactamases than the third generation cephalosporins.
Many fourth generation cephalosporins can cross blood brain barrier and are effective in
meningitis. The fourth generation includes: cefclidine, cefepime, cefluprenam,
cefozopran, cefpirome, cefquinome[1]

Oxazolidinones are mainly used as antimicrobials. The antibacterial effect of oxazolidinones


is by working as protein synthesis inhibitors, targeting an early step in volumeing the binding
of n-formylmethionyl-trna to the ribosome. Some of the most important oxazolidinones are
the last generation of antibiotics used against gram-positive pathogens, including superbugs
such as methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. These antibiotics are considered as a
choice of last resort where every other antibiotic therapy has failed [2]

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Cephalosporins and oxazolidinones are commonly used,


Cephalosporins and oxazolidinones are used to treat pneumonia, strep throat, staph infections,
tonsillitis, bronchitis, otitis media, various types of skin infections, gonorrhea, urinary tract
infections cephalosporin antibiotics are also commonly used for surgical prophylaxis.
Cephalexin can also be used to treat bone. Different methods have been developed for
determination of like UV-spectroscopy, liquid chromatography (HPTLC and HPLC)
Reported methods are categorized depending on the following considerations.
1. Single component analyzed by UV-spectroscopy methods and chromatographic method.
2. Analysis of cephalosporin and oxazolidinones from combination formulation by UVspectroscopy methods and chromatographic method.
Table: 1. Analysis of single component cephalosporin and oxazolidinones by UVspectroscopy methods.
SR.
NO
1

DRUG

METHOD

DESCRIPTION

Linezolid in tablets Ultraviolet spectroscopy


Cefuroxime axetil
in bulk and
pharmaceutical
formulation
Ceftriaxone
sodium in bulk and
sterile formulation

Ultraviolet spectroscopy
A simple
spectrophotometric
estimation

Cefixime
trihydrate

Ultraviolet spectroscopy

Cefditoren
Pivoxil

Spectrophotometric
estimation

Cefpodoxime

UVvisible

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Wavelengths: 590nm
Solvent: Distilled Water
Linearity range: 5-70 g/ml
Correlation Coefficient: 0.9998
Wavelengths: 281 nm
Solvent: 0.1N HCl
Linearity Range: 0.4 2 mg/ml
Correlation Coefficient: 0.998.
Wavelength: 490.4 nm
Linearity Range: 5-25 g/ml
Correlation Co-Efficient: 0.998
Wavelength: 287 nm.
Linearity Range: 2-20 g/ml
Correlation Coefficient: 0.999.
LOD: 0.053 g/ml
LOQ: 0.159 g/ml
Wavelengths: Method-I : 450nm
Method-II : 510 nm
Solvent: Method-I: Hydrochloric
acid and Sodium nitrite and
Method- II: Ferric
chlorideand1,10phenanthroline
Linearity Range: Method-I: 50500 g/ml and Method-II: 5-50
g/ml
Correlation Coefficient: MethodI : 0.9986 and method-II: 0.998
Wavelength: 235nm

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proxetil

Cephalexin in
tablet

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

spectrophotometric
method
Method-I: estimation of
cefpodoxime proxetil in
methanol
Method-II: ion pair
complex between
cefpodoxime and
bromocresol purple in
acidic medium and
subsequent extraction of
ion pair chloroform
Method-III: ion pair
complex between
cefpodoxime and
bromocresol yellow in
acidic medium and
subsequent extraction of
ion pair chloroform
Spectrophotometric
method
Method-I: based on
reaction of cephalexin
with folin-ciocalteu
reagent in presence of
29% sodium carbonate\
Method-II: estimation of
cephalexin in distilled
water

Linearity range: 5-25 g/ml for


all 3 method
Correlation coefficients : 0.999
for all three method

Wavelength: 753nm for Method-I


and 263 nm for Method-II
Solvent: 0.1m NAOH
Linearity Range: 10-60g/ml for
Method-I and 5-50 g/ml for
Method-II
Correlation Coefficients : 0.9991
for Method-I and 0.9968for
Method-II

20

Table: 2. Analysis of cephalosporin and oxazolidinones in combined dosage form by


UV-spectroscopy.
SR.
DRUG
NO.

METHOD

DESCRIPTION

Cefixime and
linezolid in bulk
and tablet dosage
form

Simultaneous estimation

Cefuroxime axetil
and potassium
clavulanate

Simultaneous estimation

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REF.
NO.

Wavelength: 289 nm for Cefixime


and 257 nm for Linezolid
Solvent: Methanol
Linearity Range: 12 g/ml for
Cefixime and 5-30 g/ml for
Linezolid
Wavelengths: 284 nm for
Cefuroxime axetil And271 nm for
Potassium clavulanate
Solvent: Methanol
Linearity Range:5-50 g/ml for
Cefuroxime axetil and 1-30 g/ml
for Potassium clavulanate
Correlation Coefficient: 0.999
for Cefuroxime axetil and 0.99 for

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Potassium clavulanate

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12

Cefuroxime
sodium and
Sulbactam sodium
in injecton

Method-I: simultaneous
equation method
Method-II: Q-absorptions
ratio method

Cefpodoxime
Proxetil and
ofloxacin in tablet
dosage

Spectrophotometric method

Ceftriaxone
sodium
and
sulbactam sodium

Simultaneous estimation

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Method-I:
Wavelengths: 279 nm for
Cefuroxime and 259 nm for
Sulbactam
Solvent: 0.01 N NAOH
Method-II
Wavelengths:
279nm for Cefuroxime and
272nm for Sulbactam sodium
Solvent: 0.01 N NAOH
Linearity Range: 8-32 g/ml for
Cefuroxime Sodium and 4-16
g/ml for Sulbactam Sodium
Correlation Coefficient:
Method-I: 0.999 for Cefuroxime
sodium and 0.999. for Sulbactam
sodium Method-II: 0.999 for
Cefuroxime sodium
And 0.999 for Sulbactam sodium
LOD:
Method-I: 0.17 for Cefuroxime
sodium and 0.097 for Sulbactam
sodium
Method-II: 0.072 for Cefuroxime
sodium
and l0.115 for Sulbactam sodium
LOQ:
Method-I: 0.072 for Cefuroxime
sodium and 0.115 for Sulbactam
sodium
Method-II: 0.253 for Cefuroxime
sodium and 0.33 for Sulbactam
sodium
Wavelength: 235 nm for
cefpodoxime Proxetiln and 298.0
nm for ofloxacin.
Solvent: methanol: water (70:30)
Linearity range: 4 24 mg/ml for
cefpodoxime
Proxetil and 4 - 20 mg/ml for
ofloxacin.
Correlation coefficient: 0.9999
for cefpodoxime Proxetil and
0.9999 for ofloxacin.
Wavelengths: 251 nm for
ceftriaxone sodium and 259 nm for
sulbactam sodium
Solvent: 0.1m sodium hydroxide

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Ceftriaxone
sodium
and sulbactam
sodium

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Simultaneous equation
method

Cefuroxime axetil
and potassium
clavulanate in
pharmaceutical
dosage form

Simultaneous estimation

Levofloxacin
hemihydrates
cefpodoxime
proxetil in tablet

Spectrophotometric
estimation

Cefepime and
Tazobactam in
pharmaceutical
dosage form

Method-I: simultaneous
equation method
Method-II: multi
component
mode
method

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Linearity range : 4-20 g/ml and


2-10 mg/ml
Correlation coefficient: 0.9998
for ceftriaxone sodium and 0.9999
for sulbactam sodium
LOD(mg/ml): 0.5 for ceftriaxone
sodium and 0.25 for sulbactam
sodium
LOQ(mg/ml): 1.5 for ceftriaxone
sodium and 2.5 for sulbactam
sodium
Wavelength: 251 nm for
ceftriaxone sodium and 259 nm for
sulbactam sodium
Solvent: 0.1m sodium hydroxide
Linearity range: 4-20 g/ml
ceftriaxone sodium
and 2-10 mg/ml sulbactam sodium
Wavelengths: 284 nm for
cefuroxime axetil and 271 nm for
potassium clavulanate
Solvent: methanol
Linearity range: 55-50 mg/ml for
cefuroxime axetil and 1-30 mg/ml
for potassium clavulanate
Correlation coefficient: 0.999 for
cefuroxime axetil and 0.998 for
potassium clavulanate
Wavelength: 266 nm for
levofloxacin hemihydrates and
295.4 nm for cefpodoxime proxetil
Solvent: methanol
Linearity range: 2.5-15 mg/ml
for levofloxacin hemihydratesand
4-24 mg/ml for cefpodoxime
proxetil
Correlation coefficient 0.9999 for
levofloxacin hemihydrates and
0.9999 for cefpodoxime proxetil
Wavelength:
Method-I: 232 nm and 262 nm for
cefepime
Method-II: 232 nm for cefepime
and 262 nm for Tazobactam
Solvent: 0.1m NAOH.
Linearity range:
Method-I : 5-50 mg/ml for
cefepime and 2.5-17.5 mg/ml for
Tazobactam
Method-II : 5-50 mg/ml for

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Cefetamet pivoxil
hydrochloride and
pitavastatin
calcium

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Spectrophotometric
determination

cefepime and 2.5-17.5 mg/ml for


Tazobactam
Wavelength: 221 nm for
cefetamet pivoxil and 240 nm for
pitavastatin calcium
Solvent: methanol
Linearity range: 1-35 mg/ml for
cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride
and 1-25 mg/ml pitavastatin
calcium,
Molar absorptivities:1.3104 lit
mol1 cm1 for cefetamet pivoxil
hydrochloride and 2.4104 lit
mol1 cm1 for pitavastatin calcium

Table: 3. Analysis of single component cephalosporin and oxazolidinones by


chromatographic method.
Sr.
Drug
No.

18

19

20

21

Cefuroxime axetil

Cephalexin

Cefetamet

Method

HPTLC method

HPTLC

HPTLC method

Cefotaxime sodium RP-HPLC method

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Description
Stationary Phase: Precoated
Silica Gel 60F 254
Mobile Phase: Chloroform:
Methanol: Toluene (4:2:2V/V)
Wavelength: 290 nm
Linearity Range: 300 To 800
ng/Spot
Stationary Phase: Aluminum
Backed Layer Of Silica Gel 60
F254
Mobile Phase: Toluene:
Methanol: Tri ethyl amine
(6:4:0.1 V/V/V)
Wavelength: 254 nm
Linearity Range: 500 to 3000
ng/band
Stationary Phase: Precoated
Silica Gel 60 F254
Mobile Phase: Chloroform:
Methanol: Toluene (6:1:3
V/V/V)
Wavelength: 236 nm
Linearity Range:1 -5 g/Spot
Rf Values = 0.35 0.05
Stationary Phase: SS Wakosil
II- C8 Column (250 mm 4.6
mm I.D., 5 mm)
Mobile Phase: Ammonium

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Ceftriaxone
sodium in
pharmaceutical
formulations

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

HPLC method

23

Ceftibuten

RP-HPLC

24

Cefpirome sulfate

RP-HPLC

25

Linezolid

HPLC
(in vivo in-vitro
study)

26

Linezolid in
pharmaceutical
dosage form

RP-HPLC

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Acetate Buffer (Ph 6.8) :


Acetonitrile (85:15 V/V)
Wavelength: 252 nm
Flow Rate: 0.8 ml/min
Linearity Range: 10-70 mg/ml.
% Recovery Range: 97-102 %.
Stationary Phase:18 Inert sil
Column (150 mm 4.6 mm, 3
mm)
Mobile Phase: Degassed
Mixture Of Buffer: Methanol
(74:26 v/v)
Wavelength: 241.5 nm
Linearity Range: 80-120 g/ml
Injection Volume: 20 l
Flow Rate:1 ml/min
Stationary Phase: YMC ODS
C18 Column
Mobile Phase: Acetonitrile and
Ammonium acetate Buffer
(Ph:6.8) (10:90 V/V)
Wavelength: 262 nm
Linearity Range: 0.05-0.15
g/ml
% Recovery: 99.94%
Flow Rate: 1 ml/min
Stationary Phase: Lichrocart
Lichrospere 100 C18, (250 mm
X 4 mm, 5)
Mobile Phase: Methanol :
Water (50:50 V/V)
Wavelength: 270 nm.
Linearity Range: 0.5-200
mcg/ml
Flow Rate: 1.0 ml/min
% Recovery:99.46%
Stationary Phase: Reversed
Phase C8 Column
Mobile Phase: Water : Acetone
(80:20V/V)
Wavelength: 251nm
Linearity Range: 0.5-40 g/ml
Stationary Phase: C-18 Column
Mobile Phase: Water :
Methanol (50:50V/V)
Wavelength: 254 nm
Linearity Range: 001-3.4
mg/ml
Flow Rate: 1.0 ml/min

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Cefquinome
sulphate in
suspension

RP-HPLC

28

29

Cefuroxime axetil
in human plasma

HPLC

Ceftibuten

RP -HPLC

Stationary Phase: An
XTERRA9(R) analytical column
C18 column(250 X 4.6mm X 5
m)
Mobile Phase : Buffer 0.02M
Ammonium Acetate in Water :
Acetonitrile Mixture (50:50V/V)
Wavelength: 234 nm
Linearity Range: 4-48 g/ml
Flow Rate: 1.0 ml/Min
Retention Time: 6.06 min
Solvent: Acetonitrile and Water
(50:50)
Stationary Phase : Guard
Column C18 (4.0 *2 mm,4)
Mobile Phase: 8.5%
Acetonitrile in 0.07M Potassium
Di hydrogen Phosphate Solution
(PH=3.0) Wavelength: 275 nm
Linearity Range: 0.2 -12 g/ml
Stationary Phase: YMC ODSA-C18 Column
Mobile Phase: Acetonitrile and
Ammonium Acetate Buffer (Ph
6.8) (10:90 V/V)
Wavelength:262 nm
Linearity Range: 0.05-0.15
mg/ml
Flow Rate: 1.0 ml/min
Solvent: Water

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Table: 4. Analysis of cephalosporin and oxazolidinones in combined dosage form by


chromatographic methods.
SR.
DRUG
NO.

METHOD

Cefixime and
Azithromycin

RP-HPLC

Cefepime
hydrochloride and
Tazobactam

RP-HPLC

30

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DESCRIPTION
Stationary Phase: RP-C18 Column
Mobile Phase: 0.02M Potassium Di
hydrogen Phosphate (KH2PO4):
Acetonitrile ( 65:35V/V)
Wavelength: 227 nm.
Linearity Range: 40-60 mg/ml for
Cefixime and 50-70 g/ml for
Azithromycin
Coefficient Correlation: 0.998 for
Cefixime and 0.999 for Azithromycin
Injection Volume: 20 ml
Stationary Phase: Princetonspher-100 C18 Column (250mm4.6Mm I.D., 5m)
Mobile Phase: 25 mm Potassium Di

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sodium
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Sulbactam and
cefoperazone in
RP-HPLC
dosage form and in
plasma

Cefpodoxime
proxetil and
dicloxacillin
sodium in tablets

Cefpodoxime
proxetil and
clavulanic acid in
tablets

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RP- HPLC

RP-HPLC

hydrogen Phosphate Buffer( Ph 6) :


Acetonitrile (94:6 V/V)
Wavelength: 210nm.
Linearity Range: 424g/ml for
Cefepime hydrochloride and 0.53.0
g/ml for Tazobactam sodium
Coefficient Correlation: 0.9977 for
Cefepime hydrochloride and 0.9974 for
Tazobactam sodium
Stationary Phase: Phenomenex Phenyl
Hexyl Column (250mmx4.6mm,5m)
Mobile Phase:
Acetonitrile : Phosphate Buffer
(SodiumPhosphate-20mm) (65:35V/V)
Wavelength: 190 nm. Linearity Range:
0-50 mg/ml for Sulbactam and 10-50
mg/ml for Cefoperazone
Flow Rate: 1 ml/min
Stationary Phase:
Kromasil C 18 Analytical Column
(2504.6 mm, 5 mm)
Mobile Phase: Acetonitrile: Methanol:
Tri floro acetic acid (0.001%) With PH 6.5
(30:50:20V/V/V)
Wavelength: 235 nm
Linearity Range: 0.5-20 mg/ml for
Cefpodoxime Proxetil and 5-50 mg/ml for
Dicloxacillin Sodium
Correlation Coefficient: 0.996 for
Cefpodoxime Proxetil and 0.9987 for
Dicloxacillin Sodium
LOD(mg/ml): 0.0726 for Cefpodoxime
Proxetil and 0.3685 for Dicloxacillin
Sodium
LOQ(mg/ml): 0.220 for Cefpodoxime
Proxetil and 1.116 for Dicloxacillin
Sodium
Stationary Phase: Pursuit C-18 Column
(250 Mm X 4.6 mm I.D., 5 mm) Zorbax
Eclipse XDB 5 M C18 (1504.6 mm)
Column
Mobile Phase: Acetonitrile : 50 mm
Potassium Di hydrogen Phosphate Buffer
(Ph 3.0) (70:30 V/V)
Wavelength: 228 nm.
Linearity Range: 70-350 mg/ml for
Cefpodoxime Proxetil and 20-100 mg/ml
for Clavulanic Acid
Coefficient Correlation: 0.998 for
Cefpodoxime Proxetil and 0.999 for

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Ceftriaxone
sodium and
sulbactam sodium
in injection dosage
form

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

RP-HPLC

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35

Ceftriaxone
sodium and
Tazobactam
sodium

Cefoperazone and
sulbactam in
parenteral
preparation

RPHPTLC

RP-HPLC

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37

Cefepime
Hydrochloride and
Tazobactam
RP-HPLC
sodium in bulk and
Pharmaceuticals

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Clavulanic Acid
Stationary Phase: Hyper Chrom ODS-BP
C18 Column (200 mm 4.6 mm, 5.0 m)
Mobile Phase: Potassium Di hydrogen
Orthophosphate and Acetonitrile
(90:10 V/V)
Wavelength: 230 nm
Linearity Range: 140250 g/ml
for Ceftriaxone Sodium
and 75 To 160 mg/ml for Sulbactam
Sodium
Flow Rate: 1.0ml/min
Coefficient Correlation: 09978
for Ceftriaxone sodium and 0.9999 for
Sulbactam Sodium
Stationary Phase: Silica Gel F254
Mobile Phase: Methanol, Chloroform, Tri
ethyl amine, And Distilled Water
(5:5:0.2:0.4 V/V/V/V)
Wavelength: 245 nm
Linearity Range: 800-2800ng/spot for
Ceftriaxone Sodium and 100-300 ng/Spot
for Tazobactam Sodium
Flow Rate: 1.0 ml/min
RF VALUE: 0.53 for Ceftriaxone Sodium
and 0.71 for Tazobactam Sodium
Stationary Phase: Kromasil C8 (15 Cm
4.6 mm , 5)
Mobile Phase: Phosphate Buffer Ph 3.5
Adjusted With Ortho Phosphoric Acid and
Acetonitrile(35:65)
Wavelength: 215 nm
Linearity Range: 50 - 250
mg/ml for Cefoperazone and 100 - 500
mg/ml for Sulbactam
Solvent: Methanol
Flow Rate: 1 ml / min
Stationary Phase: Princeton Spher-100
C-18 Column (250 mm 4.6 mm I.D.,5
mm)
Mobile Phase: Potassium Di hydrogen
Phosphate Buffer, Ph 6.2 And Acetonitrile
(94:6, V/V)
Flow Rate: 1 ml/min
Solvent : Distilled Water
Wavelength: 210 nm
Linearity Range: 4-24 mg/ml for
Cefepime Hydrochloride and 0.5-3.0
mg/ml for Tazobactam Sodium
Correlation Coefficient: 0.9977 for

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Cefepime HCl and


Tazobactam
sodium in
Injection dosage
Form

Cefuroxime axetil
and potassium
clavulanate in
pharmaceutical
dosage form

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

RP-HPLC

RP-HPLC

40

Linezolid and
cefixime trihydrate RP-HPLC
in tablet

41

Cefuroxime axetil
and its impurities

42

Cefoperazone and
Tazobactam in
marketed
formulation

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RP-HPLC

RP-HPLC

Cefepime Hydrochloride and 0.9974 for


Tazobactam Sodium
Stationary Phase: Nertsil-Ods C18
Column (250mm4.6mm, I.D.5 )
Wavelength: 207 nm
Linearity Range: 0-140 g/ml for
Cefepime HCl and 7.5-17.5 mg/ml for
Tazobactam Sodium.
Solvent : Water
Flow Rate: 1ml/min
Correlation Coefficient: 0.998 for
Cefepime HCl and 0.991 for Tazobactam
Sodium
Stationary Phase : Micros orb MV 100-5
C-18 Column ( 250mm4.6mm,5m)
Mobile Phase : Methanol: Water (90 :10
V/V)
Wavelength: 230 nm
Injection Time: 20 l
Solvent: Methanol
Stationary phase: ACE5 C18
(150ml4.6ml,5mcm)
Mobile phase: buffer and methanol with
pH 2.5(70:30v/v)
Wavelength : 230nm
Linearity Range: 23.33-40 mg/ml for
Linezolid and 70 120 mg/ml for
Cefixime Trihydrate
Flow rate: 1.2ml/min
Retention Time:3.30 min For Linezolid
8.07 min For Cefixime Tri hydrate
Stationary phase : Lunn c-18 column
Mobile phase : water and methanol
Wavelength: 278 nm
Linearity Range: 50-500 g/ml
Stationary Phase : 0.02 Mm Potassium
Di hydrogen Phosphate Buffer, PH 4.0
and Methanol (80:20, V/V)
Mobile Phase :Thermo BDS Hypersil
C18 Column (250 4.6 Mm I.D.5 mm)
Wavelength: 250 nm.
Linearity Range: 20-60 mg/ml for
Cefoperazone (CEFO) and 2.5-7.5 mg/ml
for Tazobactam
Flow Rate: 1.Oml/Min
Correlation Coefficient: 0.9987 for
Cefoperazone and 0.9998 for Tazobactam

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CONCLUSION
This review represents the reported spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods
developed and validated for determination of cephalosporin and oxazolidinones. According
to the literature review it can be concluded that for cephalosporin and oxazolidinones in
single component and its combination with other drug spectroscopy and chromatography
methods available. This all methods are found to be simple, accurate, economic, precise, and
reproducible in nature. Comparing various validation parameters of already reported
methods, it can be concluded that different analytical methods like spectrophotometric,
HPTLC and HPLC can be developed for cephalosporin and oxazolidinones showing its
simplicity, sensitivity (low LOD and LOQ values) linearity and accuracy. Most of the
researchers have used the reversed-phase HPLC and UV absorbance detection because this
provided with best available reliability, repeatability, analysis time and sensitivity. Most
common combination of cefpodoxime proxetil and ofloxacin but there is no reported method
for cefuroxime axetil and linezolid combination. There is a great scope for development of
newer analytical methods for latest drugs such as cefuroxime axetil and linezolid
combination.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are thankful to Dr. K. Pundarikakshudu, Director of L. J. Institute of Pharmacy,
Ahmedabad, India for providing valuable guidance, all the facilities and encouragement to
carry out the work.
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