Int. J. Heat Mass
Transfer.
Vol. 8, pp. 905914.
Pergamon
Press 1965.
Printed in Great Britain
THE MECHANISM
OF HEAT TRANSFER
IN NUCLEATE
POOL BOILINGPART
II
THE HEAT 
FLUXTEMPERATURE 
DIFFERENCE 
RELATION 

CHIYEH HAN* 
and PETER 
GRIFFITHT 

(Received 22 September 1964 and in revised form 14 January 1965) 

AbstractThe individual 
processes 
of bubble 
nucleation, 
growth and 
departure described 
in detail 

in Part I of this paper 
are used to predict the heat fluxtemperature difference 
relation for one particu 

lar boiling experiment. 
The geometric idealizations 
made 
to evaluate the heat 
flux apply 
only 
in the 

isolated bubble regime. With only these idealizations, 
a knowledge of the surface nucleation 
properties, 

the bubble contact 
angle and the fluid properties is sufficient 
to predict 
the boiling 
of 

a surface. The comparison 
between the predicted 
and measured performance performance is quite good. 

NOMENCLATURE 
T, 
temperature, 
[ 01; 

Dimensions in H, M, 
L, 
T, 
0; The Heat 
Tb, 
temperature 
of vapor 
in 
the 
bubble, 

Energy, 
Mass, Length, 
Time, and Temperature. 
[@I; 

T sat, 
saturation 
temperature 
of 
fluid at 

A 
area of heating surface, [Ls]; 
system pressure, [O]; 

D, 
surface characteristic 
length for natural 
T W, 
wall temperature, [O]; 

convection, [L]; 
^{T} =J, 
temperature of main body of fluid, [O]; frequency of bubble generation, [Tl]; gravity acceleration, [LT21; 

latent heat of 
of fluid, 
a, 
radius of a solid sphere, [L]; 

[HMf]; 
^{2} ^{g}^{,} h, 
specific heat of fluid, [HM1 Or]; 

N, 
total number of nucleate centers on heating surface ; 

NlZ, 
total number 
of active nucleate centers 
coefficient of heat transfer from wall 

on heating surface; 
to the fluid, [HT1 Ls O11; 

N, 
total number 
of 
initiated 
nucleate 
^{h} 2)) 
from wall to 

p, 
centers on heating surface; pressure in the fluid outside the bubble, 
a, 
coefficient of heat transfer vapor, [HTl L2 Ol]; thermal diffusivity of fluid, [L2 Tl]; 

[MLl Ts]; 
n, 
number of 
nucleate 
centers 
per 
unit 

QR, 
heat flux received by heating surface, 
area, [L2] ; 

[HT11; 
nap 
number unit area 
of active nucleate 
centers per 

QP, 
heat flux predicted by theory, [HTI] 
; 
[L2] ; 

K 
radius of bubble, 
[Ll ; _. 
number of 
initiative 
nucleate 
centers 

RC, 
radius of cavity, 
[Ll ; 
per unit area, [L2]; 

Rd, 
departure radius of bubble, [L]; 
PV 
pressure inside the bubble, [MLr T3; 

S, 
bubble surface, [L2]; 


t, 
time, [T]; 

* Senior Engineer, Research & Development Division, 
td, tub, 
departure period, [T]; unbinding period, [T] ; 

Royal McBee Corporation, of 
West Hartford, 
Connecticut. 

t Associate Professor 
Mechanical 
Engineering, 
tw, 
waiting period, [Tl; 

Massachusetts 
Institute of 
Technology, 
Cambridge, 
Y, 
volumetric thermal expansion co 

Massachusetts. 
efficient of fluid, [O]; 
905

HAN 
and 
PETER 
GRIFFITH 

_{6}_{,} 
thermal layer thickness, [L]; 
studied 
and 
expressions 
obtained 
for 
these 

_{0}_{,} 
T  Tsat angle, [O]; 
quantities. 
These expressions will be combined 

_{t}_{4} 
coefficient of viscosity, 
[MTl 
Ll]; 
with simple geometric 
idealizations 
of the flow 

_{V}_{,} 
kinematic viscosity, [L2 Tl] ; 
problem 
in the 
vicinity 
of the 
surface 
to give 

_{P}_{5} 
density of fluid, [MLs]; 
a prediction 
of 
the 
heat 
fluxtemperature 

_{P}_{O}_{,} 
density of vapor, 
[MLS]; 
difference relationship. 

_{G}_{,} 
surface tension 
of fluid, [MT“]; 

_{%} _{P}_{}_{9} 
angle of contact dynamic contact 
in static condition; angle at the instant 
of 
a. 
1. HEATTRANSFER Explanation of boiling 
CORRELATION curve 

bubble departure; 
Boiling 
curve 
can 
be best explained 
by 
the 

_{@}_{,} 
base factor ; 
theory of 
“bulk 
convection of 
the transient 

_{V}_{C}_{,} 
curvature factor; 
thermal 
layer”. 
Observations 
show 
that 
when 

_{p}_{s}_{,} 
surface factor; 
the 
wall 
temperature 
exceeds 
the 
saturation 

_{Y}_{v}_{,} 
volume factor; 
temperature 
of 
the 
fluid, the 
heat 
transfer 

_{N}_{u}_{,} 
Nusselt number; 
increases very rapidly with the wall temperature. 

_{&} 
Rayleigh number. 
Many 
researchers 
have 
tried 
to 
explain why 

this occurs. The following study explains 
these 

Subscripts 
observations 
by 
means 
of a socalled 
theory 

b _{c}_{,} 
bulk convection; 
of 
bulk 
convection 
of 
the transient 
thermal 

_{C}_{P}_{,} 
close packed condition; 
layer, 
or simply bulk convection 
theory. 
When 

_{d}_{,} 
departure ; 
the boiling 
starts, 
the bubbles 
depart from 
the 

_{n}_{c}_{,} 
natural convection; 
heating surface. 
In departing, the bubbles 
oring 

sat, 
saturation; 
part of the layer of superheated 
liquid adjoining 

_{u}_{b}_{,} 
unbinding; 
the bubble 
into the main 
body 
of fluid. 
At 
the 

H’, 
wall, waiting. 
same time, 
the 
cold fluid flows on to the 
heating 

surface. The heattransfer 
rate 
for 
the first few 

moments 
after 
this process is very 
high 
due 
to 

the 
very 
high 
temperature gradient 
near 
the 

INTRODUCTION 
wall. After 
a certain 
time, a new thermal 
layer 

IT HAS 
NOT yet b,en found possible, 
to 
date, 
is built up, and 
a new 
bubble 
starts to grow. 

to 
relate the individual 
processes of 
bubble 
When 
this 
bubble 
grows 
to a certain 
size, 
it 

initiation, growth 
and departure 
to the 
boiling 
departs 
from 
the 
heating 
surface 
and 
a new 

heattransfer performance 
of 
a 
boiling 
surface. 
thermal layer 
is brought 
to the 
main body 
of 

This paper is an account 
of an effort to 
do this. 
fluid again. By this kind of repeated 
transporta 

The 
primary purpose 
of 
any 
such effort 
is 
to 
tion 
of 
thermal 
layer 
(which 
is technically 

show 
what information 
needs 
to be 
specified 
called 
bulk convection), 
heat 
is transferred 
to 

in order to make a boiling heattransfer 
problem 
the 
fluid from 
the wall. The heattransfer 
rate 

determinate. It will also show how the individual 
by 
this process 
is nearly proportional 
to 
the 

physical 
processes, 
on which 
the gross 
boiling 
square 
root 
of bubble 
generation 
frequency. 

phenomenon depends, 
combine 
to 
give 
the 
In Fig. 1 one can see that from A to B, heat 

observed 
performance. 
The 
procedure 
which 
transfer rate 
increases 
very rapidly 
due 
to 
the 

is 
used is obviously 
too 
involved to 
give 
an 
increase in Tw 
 
Tsat which increases the bubble 

_{e}_{n}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} answer 
in 
a practical 
boiling 
generating 
frequency, 
the enthalpy 
content 
of 

problem, 
but it can 
be 
said 
at 
this 
time 
that 
the 
transient 
thermal 
layer and 
the 
density 
of 

sufficient correlation 
between 
computed 
and 
active cavity population. 
At B the 
active 
cavity 

measured results has been obtained, so that 
no 
population 
has been increased 
to 
a saturation 

hidden 
physics now 
remains 
in 
the process 
of 
state such that the influence circle of each bubble 

nucleate boiling. 
touches 
one 
another. 
A further 
increase 
of 

In Part I of this paper the individual processes 
Tw 
 
Tsat does not increase area of production 

of bubble initiation 
growth and departure 
were 
of 
transient 
thermal 
layer, 
but 
the 
bubble 
HEAT 
TRANSFER IN NUCLEATE 
POOL 
BOILINGPART 
II 
^{9}^{0}^{7} 

drops. At point D, the effective area of produc 

tion of transient thermal 
layer has been reduced 

to 
zero, 
a 
steady 
and 
continuous 
blanket 
of 

vapor 
exists 
between 
the 
heating 
surface and 

main fluid. The fluid gets essentially no chance 

to touch the heating surface; therefore no 

transient 
thermal layer can 
be built up on the 

heating 
surface and 
the heattransfer rate 

Water, 
nickel wire 
reaches 
to 
a minimum value. Bulk convection 

_{0}_{.}_{0}_{1} 
&,= 
T,+= 
212’F 
process 
is completely 
stopped 
at 
D. A further 

increase 
of 
Tw  
Tsat will 
increase heat flnx 

again by radiation 
and 
conduction 
across the 

O.OOll1 
gap. 

cr,, 
_{d}_{e}_{g} _{F} 
b. 
Mechanism of heat transfer 

FIG. 1. Boilingcurve. 
The heating surface in pool boiling is divided 

into two 
parts, the 
bulk 
convection area and 

frequency 
and 
enthalpy 
content of 
thermal 
the natural 
convection area. 
In 
the 
area of bulk 

layer 
continue 
to 
increase. 
Therefore 
after B 
convection, 
heat is assumed 
to 
be transferred 

the rate of increase 
of 4 is reduced. 
into the 
fluid by transient 
conduction process. 

of inflexion. 
From 
B to 
B is a point frequency C the bubble 
Following 
the departure 
of 
a bubble from the 

increases 
until 
to 
a 
certain 
stage such 
that 
heating 
surface, a piece 
of superheated liquid 

unstable 
and 
shaky 
vapor 
jets are 
formed. 
is brought 
into the 
main 
body 
of the fluid. 

These 
continuous 
vapor 
columns reduce 
the 
By this 
kind 
of repeated 
process, 
heat is trans 

effective area of production 
of transient 
thermal 
ferred 
from 
the heating 
surface 
to the main 

layer, such downward. 
that From 
the C 
curve to D, 
becomes concave the effective area 
body of the convection, 
fluid. heat In the area to be transferred of the natural is supposed 

of production 
of 
transient 
thermal 
layer 
de 
from heating 
surface into 
the 
main body 
of 

creases 
more 
rapidly 
than increase 
of 
the 
fluid by 
the usual 
convection 
process in 
a 

enthalpy 
content 
in 
the 
thermal layer 
due 
to 
continuous 
manner. 
A physical 
model of bulk 

increase 
of Tw  
Tsat, therefore the 
curve 
convection 
mechanism is shown in Fig. 2. 

Boundory 
of oreos 
of 

,,noturol 
convection 
and 

,;.,,/ 
bulk convecfion 

Wnitinn 
... r nrrind,' = _..__ 
Cpicking u ‘Departure thermal Poyer I 
period 

__: __ 
FIG. 2. Physical model of bulk convection mechanism.

HAN 
and 
PETER 
GRIFFITH 

At stage 
1, 
a 
piece of superheated transient 
This correlation 
was 
first 
studied 
experi 

thermal 
layer 
is 
torn 
off from heating 
surface 
mentally by Cryder and Finalborgo and was 

by the departing 
bubble, 
and at 
the 
same time, 
summarized by Fishenden 
and Saunders 
[4]. 

the cold fluid from the main body of the fluid 
Substituting 
equation 
(I) 
into 
equation 
(2), 

flows on 
to 
the 
heating 
surface; 
after 
a 
time 
and making use of the definition 
of heattransfer 

interval, 
tw, this 
cold liquid layer 
is heated 
to 
coefficient yield 

a condition 
such that 
the 
tiny 
bubble 
in 
that 
For laminar 
range 

cavity 
is able 
to 
grow laterally with 
a very high 

rate, such 
that 
a 
very 
large piece 
of thermal 
IO5 < 
Ra < 
2 
X IO7 

layer is picked 
up in 
a very 
short 
time interval. 
qnc = k (Tw  
To3) = 
O54 pc 

At 
stage 
4, 
the bubble 
is going 
to depart 
from 

the heating surface which will bring the situation immediately to stage 1 again. This cyclic process 
[ 
rg 
(T,  
T,)5 Dv 
cc3 114 1 
(3) 

furnishes 
a 
way 
to 
transfer 
the 
heat from 
the 
For turbulent 
range 

heating surface to the main body of the ffuid. Ideas similar to these have been expressed 
2 x 
10s < Ra 
< 
3 
x IO’O 

in several 
other 
places, 
too[I, 
2, 
31. In 
this 
_{4} _{%}_{e}_{}  h (T,>  
T,) = 
0.14 pc 

work, however, the assumptions have been 
yg (T,  Tw)4 a’2 
1’3 

made 
tangible 
and 
numerical values assigned 
(4) 

[ V 
1 

to the various process occurring. the heat 
The thickness 
of the thermal 
layer of natural 

The system which is used to evaluate transfer per bubble cycle is as follows: 
convection is 

c. 
Formulation 
hm= qz(T, 
 
Tbo) 

(i) Natural 
convection 
component. 
The 
study 

of natural 
pool convection 
yields the result that 
(ii) Bulk convection component. From equation 

natural convection 
heat 
transfer 
can be corre 
I, one 
can obtain 
the heat transferred 

lated 
by 
using 
two 
dimensionless 
groups, 
(2) of Part through unit 
area 
of heating 
surface 
to 
the 

namely 
fluid during time 
t as 

The Nusselt number 
$(TT,)cpdx=cp(TwTT,) 

co 

x 
du~2~c(Twm~~ 

erfc ~ 

s 
_ 

2 
vw> 
T 

The Rayleigh number 
0 

‘yg (Tw  
T’) o3 
For 
this case, 
6 
is 
not 
a 
constant 
throughout 

Ra 
= 
the bubble base where the transient 
conduction 

av 
thermal layer 
is developing. 
Such a doughnut 

For laminar 
range 
_{s}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{d} layer is illustrated in Fig. 3. 
 

105 < 
Ra 
< 
2 
x 
lo7 

Nu = 
054 
Rali4 
^{(}^{a}^{)} 

For turbulent 
range 
_{(}_{2}_{)} 

d 

2 
x 
107 < 
Ra 
< 
3 
x 
lore 
7 
(b) 

Nu = 
0.14 Ra1j3 
_{I} 

Where 
D 
= 
2/(A) 

Fro. 
3. Sectional 
view 
of a doughnut 
shaped 
transient 

A 
= 
area of heating surface. 
thermal 
layer of a bulk convection 
cell. 
HEAT TRANSFER 
IN 
NUCLEATE 
POOL 
BOILINGPART 
II 
^{9}^{0}^{9} 

For 
convenience 
in inte~ation, 
the 
initial 
q=q+qbe=(l 
KiR:) 

state 
is taken 
at 
the end 
of waiting period, 
so 

that 
Nu(pca/l)) 
(Tw Tm)+ 2 pc (Tw Tw) 

6 
= 
%&a (tw + 
01 
1 

 
(R;/3)6%  WI 
w 

6, 
= 
I 
= 
&.I 
_{’} 
_{(}_{6}_{>} 
The population 
density 
of bubbles 
at 
the close 

packed 
condition is 
such that 
the 
bubbles 
are 

&I 
= 
+a (tw + 
tdl 
_{i} 
so densely 
packed 
that 
the 
influence 
circle 
of 

Making use of equation (5), the heat transferred 
one nucleate 
cell 
touches 
its neighbors; 
con 

into transient 
thermal layer, 
as 
well as 
in 
the 
sidering 
one 
half 
cell 
as 
indicated 
in Fig. 
4 

main body of fiuid beyond the 
transient 
layer 
by shaded 
area, 
one has 

during one bubble fo~ation cycle is 
1 

$ (2Rz 4(3)Rg)=2 y'(3)Rf(I') 

Ra2fX(TwT*)6 

AQ= 
J 
ir 
(27~ dr) 
where 

RI 
Ri=2Rd 
_{(}_{1}_{2}_{)} 

_{+}_{n}_{(}_{R}_{;}_{}_{R}_{;}_{)} 2 pc (Tw Tm) 7r 
&l 
_{i} (7) 
,. 
_{\} 
J 
Nucleatecenter 

_{.}_{I}_{n}_{l} :Iuence 
circle 
where .Ri is influence radius
Rt = Ri < 
2 Ra for case 2 Rd for the close packed case the isolated bubble 
FIG. 4. Nucleate cells at close packed condition. 

Since 
R, < Rd, and 6 is nearly linear in 
Equation 
(12) was justified 
by 
some rough 

r, 
so 
experiments 
in which a 
ball 
of radius 
a was 

equation (6) can be approximated 
to 
pulled up from the bottom of water tank which 

yield 
had 
a 
layer 
of 
chalk 
powder 
on 
the bottom. 

Observations 
showed 
that the 
chalk powder 

within a circle of radius RZ + 
2 a moved toward 

AQ = 2 pc (T, Tm)[Rf82  $R;(&  ii,)] @I the 
center forming a vortex 
ring 
in 
the 
wake 

If 
n 
is 
the 
number of active cavities of radius 
part 
of 
the 
ball. 
This 
vortex 
ring 
is 
a method 

Re per 
unit 
area of heating surface, and 
f 
is 
of 
scavenging 
away the 
thermal 
layer 
within 

the 
frequency 
of bubble generation, then 
the 
this influence 
circle and putting 
a new layer 
of 

heattransfer 
rate per unit area due to 
bulk 
cold liquid on the heating surface 
bounded 
by 

convection of 
the transient thermal layer 
is 
the influence 
circle. A sketch 
of this process 
is 

approximately 
shown 
in Fig. 
5. 

2. EXPEIUMRNTALRESULTS 

Experiments 
were run 
on the same apparatus 

described in the first part of this paper. Measure 

(iii) 
General 
expression for the heat 
transfer. 
ments 
of heat 
flux, 
bulk temperature, 
wall 

Combining 
equation (3) or (4) and equation 
(9) 
superheat 
and 
nmber 
of active 
sites 
were 

leads to 
made. The number of sites was determined 
910 
CHIYEH 
HAN 
and 

FIG. 5. Scavenging 
effect of a departing 
bubble. 
by eye and the heat 
flux kept low enough 
so 

that counting was not 
difficult. As the fluid and 

surface were the same 
as 
in 
the 
other experi 

ments, it was assumed 
the contact 
angles were 

the same also. The 
basic information that 
had 

to be obtained in order 
to allow a comparison 

of the calculated and experimental 
heat transfer 

temperature difference relation 
is as follows: 

(a) 
The number of active 
sites 
as 
a function 
of 

wall superheat. 

(b) 
The contact angle 
as 
a function of mean 

bubble growth velocity. 

(c) 
Fluid properties. 
In calculating the heat fluxtemperature
dif
ference relationship, the number of bubbles
was measured experimentally. The cavity size
for each bubble was computed from the relation
given as equation 
(13) in Part I. This equation 
is 

R 
6 VW 
Tsat) 

c 
_ 
3 (Tw 
 
Tm) 

1 
_ 
_{1}_{2}_{(}_{T}_{w}  
Tm)Tsat u 

VW  
Tsat)2 8 pv L _{)}_{I} (13) 

and 
it 
has 
two 
roots. 
The 
smaller root 
was 

chosen 
because 
the greater 
root 
would necessi 

tate 
having 
a cavity so large that 
it coutd 
not 

exist 
on 
a surface 
as smooth 
as 
the diamond 

polished 
surface 
we used. In this equation 
6 is 

a,, 
[equation 
(5)]; and 
(T. 
 
TSat) is 
the 

temperature 
difference 
at 
which 
the site just 

becomes 
active. 
For this site the R, determined 

in 
this 
way 
is 
a constant with 
increasing 
wall 

superheat. At this, 
the incipient 
condition, 
the 

waiting 
time 
tw 
as given 
by 
equation (6) 
is 

infinite. 

The frequency 
for a given cavity is determined 

from equation 
(40) of Part I which is reproduced 

below. 
PETER
GRIFFITH
in this equation, tw is determined from equation
(12) of Part I and reproduced 
below as equation 

(15). tl*, 17 
_{;}_{;} 
82 
. 
 
9 
(Tw 
R, [l + (WRcpvL)] _{I}  Tm) ~ 
2 

4na Tw  
Tsat 

(15) 

The 
time 
it 
takes 
for a 
bubble 
to 
grow 
to 

departure 
size, td, is given 
by the bubble 
growth 

equation 
from Part 
I. This equation 
is (37) there 

and (16) here. 

Rd 
 R, = ysvc ?;>poi UCP 
2(Tw 
Tsat) 

 

d(7TQj. 
~ 
v’(ta) 

Tu 
 
Tc 8” 
4atd _~ farf 
6 

__ 
 _ .. 
. 
~~~_ 

6 
4a 
i a2 
v’(4atd) 

+ 
2 
 
d/(4&) 
exp [ _ 
a2!4afd] 

. 
_ 
___ 

2/(r) 
f3 

vb h,(Tm 
 &t) 

+ prt’cpv 
tcz (16) 

This 
must 
be soIved 
by 
trial and 
error 
as 
ta 

is 
not 
yet 
explicitly 
expressed. The departure 

size is obtained from the 
Fritz relation, also 

reproduced 
from Part I equation (39) and called 

equation (17) here. 

Rs=O~4251~&(p~p~)) 
(17) 

The dynamic contact 
angIe in this 
equation 
is 

obtained from Fig. 16 of Part 1. 

The 
geometric 
idealizations used 
in this 

calculation 
are embodied in 
equation 
(12) and 

illustrated 
in Fig. 3. From the 
Rd calculated from 

equation 
(17) above 
and these idealizations, 
Ra 

and the various 6’s given in equation 
(6) can 
all 

be evaluated. When substituting in equation (10). 

it must 
be kept in mind that 
each different sized 

cavity must be computed separately, as they 

each have different frequencies. Using 
this 
set of 

equations, a comparison of the measured and 

calculated 
heattransfer rates was made 
for one 
set of data. The calculated points are given
below and the comparison given in Fig. 6. The
comparison is satisfactory.
HEAT 
TRANSFER 
IN 
NUCLEATE 
POOL 
BOILINGPART 
11 
911 

Fluid: Distilled, degassed 
water 

aurfoce: 
Gold, No.8 
diamond 
compound 
polished 

System 
pressure: 1atm. 

&:different 
for each 
point 

O25 

0 
Experimental 
results 

FIG. 6. Verification 
of bulk 
convection 
theory 
by 
Han’s 
data. 
_{F}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} _{u}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{:} 
Distilled degassed water 

_{S}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{:} 
Gold layer plated on copper 
base, polished 
with No. 8 diamond 
compound 

System pressure: Pa 
= 
1 atm 

_{D}_{a}_{t}_{a} 
_{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{1}_{:} 
QR 
= 
O0620 Btujs 

Tw 
= 218*73”F 

T,,t 
= 
21240°F 

T, 
= 
17856°F 

N 
=t2 

IV6= 
12 of Re = 
34460 
x 
10G ft from (13), (I&) min was taken 
as the cavity 

radius, since (RJmax is nearly a hundred 
times larger than the surface texture 

dimension. 

i lNcs==O 

QP 
= 
0.0620 Btujs from (10) 

Data 
point 2: 
QR 
= 
O1202 Btu/s 

T, 
= 
235.09°F 

Tsat = 2124W’F 

HAN 
and 
PETER 
GRIFFITH 

T, 
= 
199.72”F 

N 
=18 

Na 
= 
12 of 
R, 
= 
3.0460 
x lo5 
ft 

i 
f 
= 
69*151/s from 
(13), 
(15), 
(17), (16) and (14) 

1 Ni 
= 
6 
of 
Re 
= 
0.7859 
x 105 
ft 

_{R}_{d} 
= 
4.15 
x 
103 
ft from 
(17), (16) 

QP 
= 
O1142 Btu/s 
from 
(10) 

Data 
point 
3 : 
QR 
= 
0.1433 
Btu/s 

_{T}_{W} 
= 
237.11”F 

Tsat 
= 
212°F 

_{T}_{,} 
= 
201.87”F 

N 
20 

Na 
= 
18 
12 of Rc 
= 
3.046 x 
105 ft 

r 
f = 
78.46 l/s 

6 
of 
R, 
= 
0.7859 
x 10j 
ft 

I 
‘I 
f 
= 
53.08 l/s 

I 
Nf 
= 
2 
of 
Re 
= 
0.7240 
x lo5 
ft 

Rci 
= 
4.215 
x 
103 
ft 

QP 
= 
0.1412 
Btu/s 

D lata point 
4: 
QR 
= 
0.1866 
Btu/s 

_{T}_{W} 
= 
237.61 “F 

Tsat 
= 
212°F 

Tm, 
= 
201.38”F 

N 
=20 

_{1} 
_{N}_{a} 
_{=} 
_{2}_{0} 
_{1}_{2} _{o}_{f} R,j= = 
3.046 80.72 
l/sx 105 
ft 

6 
of 
Re 
= 
0.7859 
x lo5 
ft 

1 
I 
f 
= 
61.56 
l/s 

( 2 of 
Rc 
= 
0.7240 
x 10S ft 

_{I} 
_{N}_{i} 
_{=} 
_{0} 
_{1} 
.f = 
6.44 
l/s 

_{&} 
= 
4.231 
x 
lo3 
ft 

QP 
= 
0.1584 
Btu/s 

Data 
point 
5: 
QR 
= 
0.2157 
Btu/s 

_{T}_{W} 
= 240.65”F 

T sat 
= 
212.OO”F 

_{T}_{C}_{l}_{J} = 200.53”F 

N 
=20 

f 
= 
88.03 
l/s 

I 1 
Na 
= 
20 
i 
1 
612 of of Rc Rc == 2 of Rc f= = 
0.7859 3.046 0.7240 87.06 
x x 105 ft ft 105 l/sx lo5ft 

1 
f 
= 
78.60 
l/s 

[Ni 
==0 

_{R}_{c}_{z} 
= 
4.322 
x 
10S ft 

QP 
= 
0.2056 
Btu/s 
HEAT 
TRANSFER 
IN 
NUCLEATE 
POOL 
BOILINGPART 
II 
_{9}_{1}_{3} 

3. 
DISCUSSION 
4. CONCLUSIONS 

In 
the preceding 
paper 
it 
has been 
shown 
(a) 
Viscosity 
does not 
enter 
directly into 
the 

possible 
to predict 
the q vs 
Tw  
Tsat relation 
boiling process 
but 
only 
in its effect 
on 

for 
one 
particular 
geometry 
in the 
isolated 
bubble departure 
and contact 
angle varia 

bubble region. An extraordinary 
amount 
of 
tions. 

information 
about 
the surface was needed 
to 
do 
(b) 
Surface 
conditions, 
through 
nucleation 

this. 
In 
a 
practical 
problem 
this information 
properties 
and contact angles, explicitly 

hardly exists, so where do we go from here? 
affect the boiling process. 

First we can now design meaningful experiments 
(c) 
The 
complications 
of the 
boiling process 

as we 
know 
all 
the 
variables. 
Second, 
these 
are 
reflected 
in 
the 
complications in 
the 

experiments show the following: 
boiling data. 

(a) More systematic experimentation 
needs 
(d) 
A bubble departure criterion must be specified in order that the boiling process 

to 
be done 
to determine 
how invariant 
the 

surface 
variables 
of 
contact angle 
and 
be determinate. 

nucleation 
properties 
are. This should 
be 
(e) 
The heattransfer geometry, as affected by bubble packing, size and shape must be 

done 
on industrial type apparatus 
rather 

than on laboratory size experiments. (b) It should be possible to develop highly 
specified to make the boiling heattransfer process determinate. 

simplified 
q 
vs 
(Tw  
Tsat) relations 
in 

which 
the 
invariant 
surface properties 

appeared 
as 
a 
curve 
of arbitrary 
shape. 

This would be an improvement over 

assuming a constant power 