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CDM-SSC-PDD (version 02)

CDM Executive Board

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CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM


SIMPLIFIED PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT
FOR SMALL-SCALE PROJECT ACTIVITIES (SSC-CDM-PDD)
Version 02
CONTENTS
A.

General description of the small-scale project activity

B.

Baseline methodology

C.

Duration of the project activity / Crediting period

D.

Monitoring methodology and plan

E.

Calculation of GHG emission reductions by sources

F.

Environmental impacts

G.

Stakeholders comments

Annexes
Annex 1: Information on participants in the project activity
Annex 2: Information regarding public funding
Annex 3: Baseline Information

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SECTION A. General description of the small-scale project activity


A.1. Title of the small-scale project activity:
>>
Rice husk based cogeneration power plant-II at SBPML
Version 03
Date 07 December 2006

A.2. Description of the small-scale project activity:


>>
Purpose
Shree Bhawani Paper Mills Limited (SBPML) is putting up a 3 MW rice husk based cogeneration facility
to meet the heat and power requirement of the paper mill expansion. In absence of this project activity the
heat and power requirement of the paper manufacturing facility expansion could have been met from rice
husk fired low pressure boilers and grid based power respectively. SBPML has already got one similar
project, operating at the same location, registered as a CDM project for which CERs have been issued upto
31st December 2005. This has prompted SBPML to opt for another high pressure rice husk based
cogeneration system alongwith the expansion of the paper manufacturing facility.
Biomass Availability
SBPML would be procuring rice husk from the neighboring districts. The latest available statistics
summary of district wise rice crop production (in tonnes) in the catchment region was as follows1:
District / Year

Rae Bareli

Allahabad

Sultanpur

Pratapgarh

2000-01

209,971

385,279

329,125

172,170

2001-02

299,278

364,115

358,477

231,694

2002-03

223,545

315,023

263,269

179,042

Average

244,264

354,805

316,957

194,302

Rice husk (28% of the rice crop)

68,394

99,345

88,748

54,404

Thus it can be seen that on an average the total rice husk available from the neighboring regions is of the
order of 310,891 tonnes per annum (tpa). The requirement of rice husk for this project is around 40,000
1

http://upgov.up.nic.in/engspatrika/zspmenu.asp?state=V2

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tpa. This is besides about 55,000 tpa of rice husk being presently consumed by SBPML. Thus it is ensured
that sufficient quantity of rice husk is available for the project.
Project Activitys contribution to Sustainable Development
The contributions of the project activity towards sustainable development are as follows:
Social well being The project activity results in generation of employment. The employment generation
would be during the time of construction of the project activity and also during the operational phase
wherein people would be employed for running the cogeneration facility once it gets commissioned.
Economic well being The project activity would require rice husk which would be procured from the
nearby areas. This would lead to additional income generation for the local farmers who would be able to
sell the rice husk for effective utilization in the project activity.
Environmental well being The project activity helps in sustainable usage of natural resources. By
replacing the fossil fuel based power generation with rice husk fired boilers for power generation the
project activity results in reduction in GHG emissions.
Technological well being The technology being used in the project activity represents the best available
environmentally safe and sound technology for the application. The equipments being supplied for the
project activity are from well established equipment manufacturers in the Indian market.
Thus it is ensured that the project activity contributes positively to the stipulated sustainable development
indicators.
A.3. Project participants:
>>
Name of Party involved (*)
((host) indicates a host
party)

Private and/or public entity(ies)


Project participants(*)
(as applicable)

India (host)

Shree Bhawani Paper Mills Limited

Party involved wishes to be


considered as project
participant
(Yes/No)
No

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A.4. Technical description of the small-scale project activity:


>>
A.4.1. Location of the small-scale project activity:
A.4.1.1. Host Party(ies):
>>
India
A.4.1.2. Region/State/Province etc.:
>>
Uttar Pradesh
A.4.1.3. City/Town/Community etc:
>>
Industrial area one, Sultanpur road, Rae Bareli
A.4.1.4. Detail of physical location, including information allowing the unique identification of this
small-scale project activity(ies):
>>
The project activity is located at industrial area No. 1, Sultanpur road, Rae Bareli in the premises of
SBPML. It is located on the Lucknow Allahabad highway at a distance of about 80 kms from Lucknow.

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Location of the Project Activity (map not to scale)

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A.4.2. Type and category(ies) and technology of the small-scale project activity:
>>
Main Category :
Type I Renewable energy projects
Sub Category :
D Grid connected renewable electricity generation
The basic criteria for a small scale CDM project activity of Type (i) renewable energy project activities is
that maximum output capacity of project activity should not exceed 15 MW. Since the proposed project
activity is biomass (Renewable energy) based cogeneration power plant of capacity 3 MW, it clearly
satisfies the required criteria. Hence, the project falls under the Type I - Renewable energy projects of
indicative simplified baseline and monitoring methodologies for selected small-scale CDM project activity
categories. Further, this project displaces grid based power supply hence it falls under the Category D Grid connected renewable electricity generation.
And further to qualify under this category, the sum of all forms of energy output shall not exceed 45
MWthermal. E.g., for a biomass based co-generating system the rating for all the boilers combined shall not
exceed 45 MWthermal. The project activity clearly qualifies the said criteria since the rating of the boiler is
less than the stipulated limit as shown below:
Boiler Capacity:

24 TPH
6.67 kg/s (= 24 *1000/3600)

Energy of steam:

3300 kJ/kg (at 45 Kg/cm2 pressure and 440 C temperature)


3.3 MJ/kg

Energy of water (at 100 C)

418 kJ/kg
0.418 MJ/kg

Boiler rating:

6.67*(3.3 0.418)
19.22 MWthermal

Technology of project activity


The project activity is a rice husk based cogeneration plant wherein high-pressure steam turbine
configuration will be used. Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technology will be used for generating steam,
which represents the best available technology as compared to pile burning and stoker fired boilers2. Since
2

http://www.nrdcindia.com/pages/fbc.htm

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there is requirement of steam as well as power at the manufacturing set-up, so extraction cum condensing
turbine is the best option for the project. The project activity will also have an electrostatic precipitator to
control the emissions arising due to the combustions. The specifications of the systems in the project
activity are as follows:
Boiler
Type:

Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) Boiler

Pressure:

44 kg/cm2

Temperature:

440 C

Capacity:

24 tph

Fuel:

Rice Husk

Efficiency:

82 %

Turbine
Type:

Multistage, Extraction cum condensing turbine, Horizontal, Impulse type

Capacity:

3 MW

Inlet steam pressure:

42 kg/cm2

Temperature:

430 C

Rated speed:

8250 RPM

Gearbox output speed:

1500 RPM

Alternator
Rating:

3 MW, 3750 kVA

Type:

Brushless Excitation

Generation Voltage:

400/440 Volts

Frequency:

50 Hz

Speed:

1500 RPM

Condensor
Capacity:

11 tph

Cooling water inlet temp.:

32 C

Cooling water outlet temp.:

40 C

Total cooling water flow-rate:

785 m3/Hr

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A.4.3. Brief explanation of how the anthropogenic emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gas
(GHGs) by sources are to be reduced by the proposed small-scale project activity, including why the
emission reductions would not occur in the absence of the proposed small-scale project activity,
taking into account national and/or sectoral policies and circumstances:
>>
The project activity will be displacing grid based power with a carbon neutral fuel (rice husk) for power
generation. Thus the GHG emissions which would have been produced due to the combustion of fossil fuels
(coal, gas) in the grid based power plants will be avoided.
The Uttar Pradesh State Power Policy 2003 as given by the Government of Uttar Pradesh (GOUP) states
that it would encourage and support power generation through renewable energy sources such as solar,
wind etc. GOUP will come up with special policy framework to support such projects3, as of now no such
framework is existent. The New and Renewable Energy Policy Statement 20054 as given by Ministry of
Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES), Government of India also does not talk of such kind of project
activities. The project activity being carried out by SBPML is a voluntary initiative to reduce the GHG
emissions.
A.4.3.1 Estimated amount of emission reductions over the chosen crediting period:
>>
Years
Annual Estimation of emission reduction in
tonnes of CO2e
2007-08
13,993
2008-09
13,993
2009-10
13,993
2010-11
13,993
2011-12
13,993
2012-13
13,993
2013-14
13,993
2014-15
13,993
2015-16
13,993
2016-17
13,993
Total estimated reductions
139,930
(tonnes of CO2e)
Total number of crediting years
10 years
Annual Average over the crediting
period of estimated reduction (tonnes
of CO2e)

http://upgov.nic.in/

http://mnes.nic.in/Rene%202005_new.pdf

13,993

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A.4.4. Public funding of the small-scale project activity:


>>
No public funding as part of project financing from parties included in Annex I of the convention is
involved in the project activity.
A.4.5. Confirmation that the small-scale project activity is not a debundled component of a larger
project activity:
>>
The guideline for de-bundling mentioned in paragraph 2 of appendix C of the Simplified Modalities and

Procedures for Small-Scale CDM project activities is given as follows:


A proposed small scale project activity shall be deemed to be a de-bundled component of a large project
activity, if there is a registered small-scale CDM project activity or an application to register another
small-scale CDM project activity.

With the same project participants;

In the same project category and technology/measure; and

Registered within the previous 2 years

Whose project boundary is within 1 km of the project boundary of the proposed small-scale
activity at the closest point.

The project proponent has already got a registered CDM project in same project category at the same
location5. Since the total size of both the projects combined with the proposed project activity will be
equivalent to 38.44 MWthermal

(2x19.22), it is below the limits specified for the small-scale CDM

project activities which is 45 MWthermal

Thus the project activity qualifies for the use of simplified

modalities and procedures for small-scale CDM project activities.

http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/DB/TUEV-SUED1135237103.39/view.html

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SECTION B. Application of a baseline methodology:

B.1. Title and reference of the approved baseline methodology applied to the small-scale project
activity:
>>
As mentioned in A.4.2, the project activity satisfies the eligibility criteria to use Simplified modalities and
procedures for small-scale CDM project facilities.
The approved baseline methodology has been referred from the Indicative simplified baseline and
monitoring methodologies for selected small-scale CDM project activity categories - version 09 28 July 2006. From this reference, the following category is selected for the project activity:
Type I Renewable energy projects
Category D Grid connected renewable electricity generation.

Project category applicable to the small-scale project activity:

B.2
>>

As explained in A4.2, the proposed project activity falls under the Type I Category D Grid connected
renewable electricity generation.
Baseline for projects under Category I.D has been detailed in paragraphs 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 of Indicative
simplified baseline and monitoring methodologies for selected small-scale CDM project activity categories
- version 09 - 28 July 2006. Due to the following reasons, the paragraphs 7, 8 and 11 are not applicable to
this project activity:

the project activity is not a landfill gas, waste gas, waste water treatment and agro industries
project

power generation through diesel generators is economically prohibitive

the project activity does not seek to retrofit or modify an existing facility for renewable energy
generation.

The baseline of the project activity would be based on the paragraph 9, which is given as follows.
Paragraph 9 The baseline is the kWh produced by the renewable generating unit multiplied by an
emission coefficient (measured in kg CO2equ/kWh) calculated in a transparent and conservative manner
as:

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(a) A combined margin (CM), consisting of the combination of operating margin (OM) and build margin
(BM) according to the procedures prescribed in the approved methodology ACM0002. Any of the four
procedures to calculate the operating margin can be chosen, but the restrictions to use the Simple OM and
the Average OM calculations must be considered
OR
(b) The weighted average emissions (in kg CO2equ/kWh) of the current generation mix. The data of the year
in which project generation occurs must be used.
Calculations must be based on data from an official source (where available) and made publicly available.
The project activity would displace the electricity which would have been drawn from the grid. The
baseline is calculated according to the procedures prescribed in the approved methodology ACM0002. The
first step to estimate the baseline emission coefficient is selection of grid boundary. There are five regions
in India with respect to electrical transmission systems namely Northern Region, North Eastern Region,
Eastern Region, Southern Region and Western Region. Northern region grid comprises of Delhi, Punjab,
Haryana, Chandigarh, Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttranchal, Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.
The project activity is located in Uttar Pradesh state, which falls under Northern region. Hence, Northern
region grid is selected as grid boundary to estimate the baseline emission factor.
The baseline emissions are calculated using the average of the approximate operating margin and the build
margin, which takes into consideration the trends of future capacity additions. Hence, it would represent the
realistic anthropogenic emissions by sources that would occur in absence of the project activity. The details
of baseline emission estimation are given in Annex 3.
B.3. Description of how the anthropogenic emissions of GHG by sources are reduced below those
that would have occurred in the absence of the registered small-scale CDM project activity:
>>
The implementation of the project activity faces the following barriers:
Investment barrier
SBPML has got one similar project operating at the same location registered as a CDM project for which
CERs have been issued upto 31st December 2005. This prompted SBPML to undertake the next project
activity also as a CDM project. The carbon credit revenues that would accrue from the project activity
were informed to the various investors. Financial closure for the project activity has been achieved due to
the consideration of CDM revenues. The loan component of the project has been financed by the same two
bankers who funded the earlier CDM project. For raising the equity component, the existing shareholders

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were offered fresh equity shares on Rights basis. This was the first Rights Issue of equity shares by a
Company in India, which had a registered CDM project and the proceeds from the issue were used to fund
the next CDM project.
In the letter of offer for Rights issue mailed to all the shareholders on 1st April 2006, detailed information
about the CDM projects being carried out by SBPML was given. Subsequently, on 21st April 2006,
individual letters were mailed to shareholders informing them about the earlier CDM project of SBPML
which got registered on 3rd February 2006. Other details of communication with the shareholders will be
shared with the DOE. The CDM consideration has led to achieving the financial closure of the project
activity. Also, subsequently CDM revenues would help in overcoming the increase in the rice husk prices
as is being seen in other parts of the country.
Technological barrier
There are primarily two types of combustion technologies available for biomass combustion grate firing
and fluidised bed combustion. The first is a traditional technology whilst the second is a fairly recent
innovation6. SBPML has opted for the more advanced fluidised bed combustion technology for the high
pressure boiler of the project activity. As compared to the less technologically intensive stepped grate
furnace which has a lower efficiency of around 55-60%, the fluidised bed combustion technology gives
higher efficiencies of the order of 75-80%7. The FBC also results in reduced NOx emissions because of the
lower temperatures involved and in process capture of SO2. As per the available statistics the penetration of
FBC boilers in the pulp & paper industry in India is only around ten percent8.
Rice husk ash contains high percentage of silica which leads to rapid erosion of the equipments. Due to
high silica content and the shape of rice husk, equipments like ID fan, cone portion of air pre-heater and top
portion of the stack get eroded which leads to high maintenance cost, frequent breakdown and increased
downtime. Presence of silica in rice husk ash also corrodes boiler tubes which require frequent maintenance
of the boiler. Further, in rice husk fired boilers, escape of fluidized media along with flue gas is a common
problem. To compensate this and to maintain fluidized bed thickness, fluidizing media is required to be
added at regular intervals. This leads to variation in the air requirement; also the fuel flow control with
respect to the steam output is difficult in biomass fired boilers. Hence, the operation & control of biomass
fired boiler requires skilled boiler operators.
6

http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/atlas/htmlu/bioeint.html

http://www.nrdcindia.com/pages/fbc.htm

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SBPML had perceived above-mentioned technological risks associated with biomass utilization based on
their experience in running the boilers. For overcoming the problem of corrosion of equipments, an Electro
Static Precipitator (ESP) has been installed although the air pollution norms could have been met by
installing Mechanical Dust Collectors (MDC), which is much cheaper. The CDM revenues would
compensate this additional investment and costs involved in overcoming the other technical problems.
Barriers due to prevailing practices
The Uttar Pradesh State Power Policy 2003 as given by the Government of Uttar Pradesh (GOUP) states
that it would encourage and support power generation through renewable energy sources such as solar,
wind etc. GOUP will come up with special policy framework to support such projects9. The project activity
being carried out by SBPML is a voluntary initiative to reduce the GHG emissions. Thus due to lack of
government policy the paper industry sector has little or no incentive to move towards implementation of
technologies which would lead to lower emissions.
There are around 82 paper mills existent in the state of Uttar Pradesh10 and they are meeting their power
requirement by one of the following modes as listed below:
S.No

Mode of Power Supply

.
1

Power through state grid

Power through captive DG sets

Power through Coal based cogeneration


system
Power through biomass based cogeneration
system

Investment

GHG

No. of

%age of

(per MW)

Emissions

Units

Units

Low

High

Moderate

High

High

Very High

High

Nil

11

13

82

100

Total

70
87

From the above figures it is clearly demonstrated that the prevailing practice in the region is power
generation through GHG emitting sources whether it is grid based supply or diesel or coal based captive

http://www.cleantechindia.com/eicnew/bhup.htm

http://upgov.nic.in/

10

Indian Agro and Recycled Paper Mills Association, New Delhi

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power generation. Only few paper mills have registered rice husk fired FBC type high pressure boilers11
installed at their premises for steam and power generation in the state. Presently of these paper mills only
12 units (including SBPML) have high pressure boilers at their manufacturing facilities. Of these one is a
coal fired boiler and the rest are based on biomass with provision of firing coal during shortage of biomass.
The SBPML project activity is fully based on rice husk with no provision of coal firing.
Further, as per information in public domain, the following four paper mills in the state of Uttar Pradesh
are in the process of availing carbon benefits through CDM for similar biomass based cogeneration
projects:
1. K. R. Pulp & Papers Pvt. Ltd.12
2. Garg Duplex & Papers Pvt. Ltd.13
3. Yash Papers ltd.14
4. Siddeshwari Industries Pvt. Ltd.15
This clearly demonstrates that rice husk based cogeneration activity in paper mills is not a prevailing
practice in the region.
Other barriers
Assured supply of fuel
Continuous and uninterrupted supply of grid supply or fuel (diesel for generators) from nearby depots of
the oil companies at Kanpur/Lucknow does not require SBPML to deploy manpower. On the other hand,
rice husk being an agricultural produce is dependent on the vagaries of the nature, has to be sourced from a
large number of suppliers and is seasonal in nature. Getting assured supply of biomass is dependent on
many uncontrolled parameters thereby increasing the risks in the project activity.
Although so many barriers are associated with the project activity still SBPML has gone ahead with the
implementation of the project activity taking CDM into consideration. CDM funding to SBPML would also
encourage other paper industries to follow suit and thereby contribute towards GHG emission reduction.

11

Boiler Directorate of Uttar Pradesh

12

http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/Validation/DB/PTLZA11EUGT9OTMV2HKNYYJUH0HBTY/view.html

13

http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/Validation/DB/PTLZA11EUGT9OTMV2HKNYYJUH0HBTY/view.html

14

http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/Validation/DB/ZLWQKJSXMQI3EUQ04OBFRAK5N3ZD4G/view.html

15

http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/Validation/DB/4K382Z6OP1U3O84O8505L1BXY0PKCK/view.html

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B.4. Description of how the definition of the project boundary related to the baseline methodology
selected is applied to the small-scale project activity:
>>
As per the guidelines provided in the approved methodology, project boundary encompasses the physical
and geographical site of the renewable generation source. The project boundary covers the biomass based
cogeneration power plant, which starts from the biomass storage to the point of power supply to paper mill
where the project proponent has a full control. Thus, project boundary includes biomass storage, biomass
fired boiler, electricity and steam generation from the cogeneration system, auxiliary consumption and
electricity supplied to paper mill. However, for the purpose of calculation of baseline emissions, northern
grid is included in the system boundary. The project boundary is illustrated in the following diagram:

Emissions
sequesterd

Rice husk source

Rice husk storage

Rice husk fired


boiler

Electricity & steam


generation

Emissions
generated

Auxiliary
consumption

Electricity & steam


to paper mill

Project Boundary

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B.5. Details of the baseline and its development:


>>
B.5.1. The baseline for the proposed project activity has been estimated by using the methodology specified
in the applicable project category for small-scale CDM project activities. The baseline is the product of
annual electricity (in GWh) generated by the project activity and northern grid emission factor of 750.87
tCO2/GWh detailed in Annex 3.
B.5.2. Date of completion of the baseline in DD/MM/YYYY
06/12/2006
B.5.3. Name of person/entity determining the baseline:
Shree Bhawani Paper Mills Limited. The entity is also a project participant listed in Annex 1 of this
document.

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SECTION C. Duration of the project activity / Crediting period:


C.1. Duration of the small-scale project activity:
C.1.1. Starting date of the small-scale project activity:
>>
03/02/2006
C.1.2. Expected operational lifetime of the small-scale project activity:
>>
25 years
C.2. Choice of crediting period and related information:
>>
The project activity will use the fixed crediting period.
C.2.1. Renewable crediting period:
C.2.1.1. Starting date of the first crediting period:
>>
Not selected
C.2.1.2. Length of the first crediting period:
>>
Not selected
C.2.2. Fixed crediting period:
>>
10 years
C.2.2.1. Starting date:
>>
15/01/2007
C.2.2.2. Length:
>>
10 years

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SECTION D. Application of a monitoring methodology and plan:


D.1. Name and reference of approved monitoring methodology applied to the small-scale project
activity:
>>
The project activity uses the approved monitoring methodology as follows:
Type I Renewable energy projects
Category D Grid connected renewable electricity generation.
Reference: The monitoring methodology of the project activity is referred from Paragraph 13 of Type I Category D of indicative simplified baseline and monitoring methodologies for selected small-scale CDM
project activity categories - version 09 28 July 2006.

D.2. Justification of the choice of the methodology and why it is applicable to the small-scale project
activity:
>>
As per the paragraph 12 of Simplified Modalities and Procedures for Small Scale CDM Project activities,
a proposed project activity shall,
(a) Meet the eligibility criteria for small-scale CDM project activities set out in paragraph 6 (c) of decision
17/CP.7;
(b Conform to one of the project categories in appendix B to this annex;
(c) Not be a de-bundled component of a larger project activity, as determined through appendix C to this
annex.
As explained earlier in A4.2, the project activity meets the eligibility criteria for small-scale CDM project
activities set out in paragraph 6 (c) of decision 17/CP.7, falls under small-scale CDM project of Type I.
Category D and is not a de-bundled component of a larger project activity.
The monitoring plan has been drawn as per the guidance provided in paragraph 13 of Indicative simplified
baseline and monitoring methodologies for selected small-scale CDM project activity categories Type I Category 1.D - version 09 28 July 2006
Description of monitoring plan
The project activity will have two separate meters to record the gross power produced and auxiliary power
consumed. The monitoring and verification system would mainly comprise of these meters as far as power

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supplied to the manufacturing facility is concerned. The rice husk input is also to be monitored. All
monitoring and control functions will be done as per the internally accepted standards of SBPML. All
instruments will be calibrated and marked at regular intervals so that the accuracy of measurement can be
ensured all the time.
GHG Sources
Direct On-Site Emissions
Direct on-site emissions of the project activity arise from the combustion of rice husk in the boiler. These
emissions mainly include CO2. However, the CO2 released is very less as compared to the amount of CO2
sequestered during the growth of the rice, thereby making it a carbon neutral fuel.
Direct Off-Site Emissions
Direct off-site emissions in the project activity arise from the rice husk transport.
Indirect On-Site Emissions
The indirect on site GHG source is the consumption of energy and the emission of GHGs involved in the
construction of rice husk based power plant. Considering the life of the cogeneration plant and the
emissions to be avoided in the life span, emissions from the above-mentioned source are too small and
hence neglected. No other indirect on-site emissions are anticipated from the project activity.
Project Parameters affecting Emission Reduction
Fuel related parameters:
Quantity of rice husk used in the boiler as fuel
The rice husk received is stored in the plants storage area. The amount of rice husk entering the plant will
be measured and records of the same will be maintained. The weighing system needs to be calibrated
regularly to ensure the accuracy of the measurement. The data will be recorded for further verification. The
amount of rice husk purchased will be based on invoices / receipts from fuel contractors.
Quality of rice husk used in the boiler
The properties of the rice husk used as fuel in the boiler would be determined from ultimate analysis.

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Operational Parameters of the power generating Unit


Total Electricity Generated
The total electricity generated by the cogeneration project will be measured in the plant premises to the best
accuracy and will be monitored and recorded, on a continuous basis by the electronic power and energy
meter. The integrated readings are recorded on manual log book for every 8 hour shift.
Auxiliary Consumption
The electricity consumed by plant auxiliaries will be recorded in the plant premises to the best accuracy.
This will be monitored and recorded on a continuous basis by the electronic power and energy meter. The
integrated readings are recorded on manual log book for every 8 hour shift. The total quantum of electricity
consumed by the auxiliaries would affect the total electricity supplied to the manufacturing facility and
therefore the amount of GHG reductions.
Power exported to the manufacturing facility
It will be calculated based on deduction of auxiliary consumption from the total electricity generated.
Verification
The performance of the rice husk based cogeneration project leads to CO2 emission reductions. In other
words, the longer the power plant runs and supplies power to the manufacturing facility, more would be the
emission reductions. The major activities to be verified are as under

Verification of various measurement and monitoring methods

Verification of instrument calibration methods

Verification of measurement accuracy

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D.3
Data to be monitored:
>>
a) Parameters affecting the emission reduction potential of the project activity
ID
No.

Data
Variable

Data unit

Total
electricity
generated

kWh

Electroni
c Power
and
Energy
meter,
Daily log
books

Auxiliary
consumption

kWh

Power
supplied
plant

Electroni
c meter,
Daily log
books
Daily log
books

kWh
to

Source of
data

Measured (m),
calculated (c)
or estimated
(e)
m

Recordin
g
frequency

Proportion
of data to be
monitored

For how long is


archived data to
be kept?

Comment

Total

How will the data


be archived?
(electronic/
paper)
Paper

Every 8
hours

Crediting Period
(CP)+2 years

Every 8
hours

Total

Paper

CP + 2 years

Measured in plant
premises and monitored
and recorded every shift
(8 hours). Along with the
energy meter recording
the kW, Ampere and
power factor will also be
monitored on an hourly
basis. This will help in
cross-checking the gross
generated figure.
Measured in plant
premises and monitored
and recorded
continuously.

Every 8
hours

Total

Paper

CP+2 years

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b) Fuel related parameters affecting the project activity


ID No.

Data
Data
variable unit

Source
of data

Rice
husk
quantity

MT

Invoice

Rice
husk
calorific
value

Kcal/kg

Test
reports

Measured (m),
calculated (c)
or estimated (e)
M

Recording
frequency

Daily

Proportion
of data to be
monitored
100%

How will the data


be archived?
(electronic/ paper)
paper

For how long is


archived data to
be kept?
CP+2 years

Sample
testing

paper

CP+2 years

Comment

To be monitored at
purchase, storage and
usage.
Obtained through sample
testing

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D.4. Qualitative explanation of how quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) procedures are
undertaken:
>>
Quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) procedures are being undertaken for data monitored.
(Data items in tables contained in section D.3 (a to b) above, as applicable)

Data

Uncertainty level of

Are QA/QC

Explain QA/QC procedures planned for these data, or why

data

procedures

such procedures are not necessary.

(High/Medium/Low)

planned for
these data?

D.3.(a)1

Low

Yes

This data will be used for calculation of emission reductions


by project activity. The gross generation figure can be cross
checked by the voltage meter, ammeter and power factor meter
readings which are recorded on an hourly basis. A spare
master meter is also in place in case the power meter goes out
of order or the calibration is disturbed. The energy meters
installed to measure the total power generated would be
tamper proof and would retain the last recorded reading even
under power failure conditions. They will have class 1.0
accuracy conforming to IS 13779 standards. For digital read
outs the error is computed in counts:
Class 1.0 = 1% of the full scale + 1 counts.
Calibration of the meters from external certified agencies
would be carried out annually.

D.3.(a)2

Low

Yes

This data will be used for calculation of emission reductions


by project activity. The auxiliary consumption figure can be
cross checked by the voltage meter, ammeter and power factor
meter readings which are recorded on an hourly basis. A spare
master meter is also in place in case the auxiliary meter goes
out of order or the calibration is disturbed. The energy meters
installed to measure the auxiliary power consumption would
be tamper proof and would retain the last recorded reading
even under power failure conditions. They will have class 1.0
accuracy conforming to IS 13779 standards. For digital read
outs the error is computed in counts:

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Uncertainty level of

Are QA/QC

Explain QA/QC procedures planned for these data, or why

data

procedures

such procedures are not necessary.

(High/Medium/Low)

planned for
these data?
Class 1.0 = 1% of the full scale + 1 counts
Calibration of the meters from external certified agencies
would be carried out annually.

D.3.(a)3

Low

Yes

This is a calculated value

D.3.(b)1

Medium

No

This data will be used as supporting information.

D.3.(b)2

Low

No

The calorific value of the rice husk is fairly constant and thus
no QA/QC procedures are required

D.5. Please describe briefly the operational and management structure that the project participant(s)
will implement in order to monitor emission reductions and any leakage effects generated by the
project activity:
>>
SBPML would ensure accuracy of the measurement system as follows:

The shift in-charges will be responsible for the hourly data recording of the relevant parameters
and also the recording of the total energy generated for every 8 hour shift. Any discrepancy
observed in the readings (based on the past data) is addressed promptly. The mechanical and
electrical managers will ensure that the data is properly archived.

The managers will be qualified technical personnel with more than 20 years experience in relevant
field. All the shift in-charges will be diploma holders.

D.6. Name of person/entity determining the monitoring methodology:


>>
Shree Bhawani Paper Mills Limited
The entity is also a project participant as listed in Annex 1 of this document.

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SECTION E.: Estimation of GHG emissions by sources:

E.1. Formulae used:


E.1.1
>>

Selected formulae as provided in appendix B:

Not applicable
E.1.2
>>

Description of formulae when not provided in appendix B:

E.1.2.1 Describe the formulae used to estimate anthropogenic emissions by sources of GHGs due to
the project activity within the project boundary:
>>
Essentially there would be no GHG emissions due to the project activity within the project boundary
because the fuel being used is rice husk. The GHG emission due to the burning of rice husk is negated by
the sequestration done during the growth of rice, thereby making it a carbon neutral fuel. Thus there are no
anthropogenic emissions due to the project activity within the project boundary.

E.1.2.2 Describe the formulae used to estimate leakage due to the project activity, where required,
for the applicable project category in appendix B of the simplified modalities and procedures for
small-scale CDM project activities
>>
As per the methodology leakage estimation is only required if renewable energy technology is equipment
transferred from another activity. This does not apply to the project case. However, the only source of
considerable GHG emissions, which are attributable to the project activity lying outside the project
boundary will be the emissions arising during the transportation of rice husk. The same have been
estimated below.
Emissions due to the transportation of Rice husk
Total rice husk required

40,000

tonnes/year

Rice husk transported by truck

40,000

tonnes/year

Rice husk load per truck

tonnes

Total number of Trips

5,000

Max distance between the

60

km

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Project site and collection centers


Consumption of diesel per trip (to and fro)

30

Liters

Total Diesel Consumption

150,000

Liters

Calorific Value of Diesel

0.0000283

TJ/lit

Emission Factor for Diesel

74.1

tonnes of CO2/TJ

Total Emissions due to transportation of Rice husk

315

tCO2

(@ 4 km/ lit)

Since these emissions are less than 2% of the total emission reductions by the project activity, they have not
been considered in the calculation of emission reductions.
E.1.2.3 The sum of E.1.2.1 and E.1.2.2 represents the small-scale project activity emissions:
>>
There are no emissions due to the small-scale project activity.

E.1.2.4 Describe the formulae used to estimate the anthropogenic emissions by sources of GHGs in
the baseline using the baseline methodology for the applicable project category in appendix B of the
simplified modalities and procedures for small-scale CDM project activities:
>>
The baseline emission is due the electricity displaced from the northern grid. The present power
generation mix of northern region grid has been used to estimate the net baseline emission factor. It is
estimated as per the guidelines given in the paragraph 9 of Indicative simplified baseline and
monitoring methodology for selected small-scale CDM project activity - Type I - Category D - version
09 28 July 2006.
The emission coefficient has been calculated as the average of the approximate operating margin and
the build margin.
The step-by-step calculation of base line emission is as follows:
STEP 1. Calculation of Operating Margin emission factor (EFOM)
EF OM

,y

i, j

Where

F i , j COEF

i, j

GEN

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COEFi, j - the CO2 emission coefficient of fuel i (t CO2 / mass or volume unit of the fuel),
GENj,

- the electricity (GWh) delivered to the grid by source j

Fi, j
-the amount of fuel i (in a mass or volume unit) consumed by relevant power sources j, calculated
as given below
j
- the power sources delivering electricity to the grid, not including low-operating cost and must-run
power plants
The CO2 emission coefficient COEFi is estimated as

COEF

= NCV

EF CO 2 , i OXID

Where
NCVi - the net calorific value (energy content) per mass or volume unit of a fuel i
EFCO2,i - the CO2 emission factor per unit of energy of the fuel i
OXIDi - the oxidation factor of the fuel
The OM emission factor (EFOM, y) has been calculated ex-ante, separately for the most recent three years
(2003-2004, 2004-2005 and 2005-2006) and an average value has been considered as the OM emission
factor for the baseline (EFOM,).

EFOM = EFOM , y / 3
Where y represents the year
STEP 2. Calculation of the Build Margin emission factor (EF BM,)
It is calculated as the generation-weighted average emission factor (t CO2/GWh) of a sample of power
plants m of grid, as follows:

EF BM = Fi , m COEF i , m / GEN
i ,m

Where
F i, m, COEF i ,m and GEN m - are analogous to the variables described in OM method above for plants m.
The Build Margin emission factor EF

BM

has been calculated as ex-ante based on the most recent

information available on plants already built for sample group m of Northern region grid at the time of
PDD submission. The sample group m consists of the recent 20 % of power plants supplying electricity to
northern region grid, as it comprises of larger annual power generation.

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Further, none of the power plant in the sample group has been registered as CDM project activities.
STEP 3. Calculation of the electricity baseline emission factor (EFy)
It is calculated as the weighted average of the Operating Margin emission factor (EF

OM,)

and the Build

Margin emission factor (EF BM,):

EF y = W OM EF OM + W BM EF BM
where the weights W OM and W BM, by default, are 50% (i.e., WOM = WBM = 0.5), and EFOM, and EFBM are
calculated as described in Steps 1 and 2 above and are expressed in t CO2/GWh.

BE y = EFy EG y
Where
BEy - are the baseline emissions due to displacement of electricity during the year y in tons of CO2
EGy- is the net quantity of electricity generated by the project activity during the year y in GWh, and
EF y- is the CO2 baseline emission factor for the electricity displaced due to the project activity in tons
CO2/GWh.
In case, the same amount of electricity is generated by the Northern region grid mix, it adds to the
emissions that are ultimately getting reduced by the project activity. Therefore, the baseline estimated
using above methods / scenarios would represent the realistic anthropogenic emissions by sources that
would have occurred in absence of the project activity.
The uncertainties in the baseline, arising out of capacity additions trends are already taken into
consideration during estimation of combined margin factor. The key information and data related to
baseline estimation is given in Annex 3.
E.1.2.5 Difference between E.1.2.4 and E.1.2.3 represents the emission reductions due to the project
activity during a given period:
>>
Following formula is used to determine emission reduction
CO2 emission reduction due to
project activity

(Baseline emission)

(Project emissions )

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E.2
Table providing values obtained when applying formulae above:
>>
Emission Reductions

Year
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
2014-15
2015-16
2016-17
TOTAL

Baseline
Emission
factor
(tCO2/GWh)
750.87
750.87
750.87
750.87
750.87
750.87
750.87
750.87
750.87
750.87

Net Power
produced
(GWh)
18.635
18.635
18.635
18.635
18.635
18.635
18.635
18.635
18.635
18.635
186.35

Baseline
emissions
(tonnes of
CO2 )
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
139,930

Project
emissions
(tonnes of
CO2)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Emission
reductions
(tonnes of
CO2)
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
13,993
139,930

The proposed project activity will generate 186.35 GWh of electricity during the ten years crediting period
and displace equivalent units of electricity from the northern grid. It would result in the reduction of
139,930 tonnes of CO2 emissions during the ten year crediting period.

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SECTION F.: Environmental impacts:


F.1. If required by the host Party, documentation on the analysis of the environmental impacts of the
project activity:
>>
The project activity rice husk based cogeneration results in effective utilization of the biomass is for the
betterment of the environment. There are no significant adverse impacts arising due to the project activity.
As the project investment is less than INR 500 million so carrying out an Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) is not mandatory for the project activity16as per Indian legislation. The project activity
complies with all environmental legislations and meets all the consent requirements (under the Water Act
and Air Act) given by the State Pollution Control Board.
There are no significant adverse impacts arising due to the project activity. The various environmental
aspects and impacts associated with the project activity are:
S.No.

Aspect - Impact Identified

1.

Air Quality:

2.

Mitigation Measures/Remarks

The emissions will be generated on the

Electrostatic Precipitator would be installed and

combustion of rice husk in the boilers during

flue gases shall be discharged into the atmosphere

operations.

through a chimney of appropriate height.

Water:
There shall be no significant effect on

Extensive water recycling would be carried out in

surface water quality and hydrology.

the plant, no water from the cogeneration plant


would be discharged outside the factory.

3.

Noise:
Additional noise will be produced once the

Though the impact on the noise level is minimum

project activity is in operation stage.

due to use of silencers and will be in the


permissible limits, plantation will be done in and
around the mill and mufflers / ear-plugs would be
distributed to the workers.

4.

Land:
No additional land acquisition is required

16

http://envfor.nic.in/legis/eia/so-60(e).html

No rehabilitation program is required.

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since the project activity is carried out

The ash would be given to the local villagers for

within the premises. Ash would be generated

putting in the field for top soil improvement and

due to the burning of rice husk.

land filling.

Socio-Economic:
Implementation of the project activity would

--------

not have any adverse impact on the socio


economic aspects of the life of people
residing in the village in core zone.
6.

Flora and Fauna:


There will a negligible effect on the flora
and fauna of the region due to increase in
industrial and domestic activity.

--------

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SECTION G. Stakeholders comments:


G.1. Brief description of how comments by local stakeholders have been invited and compiled:
>>
SBPML gave an invitation to their employees, the adjoining village heads (Pradhans), rice mill owners,
and rice husk suppliers - who are directly and indirectly related to the project activity. They were invited
for a meeting held on 7th November 2005 at the manufacturing facility premises. The agenda of the meeting
was to inform them about the proposed project activity of SBPML and get their views on it. The queries
raised by the local stakeholders were addressed during the meeting by the Company representative.
G.2. Summary of the comments received:
>>
The various queries raised during the stakeholder consultation meeting were as follows:

Comment

Reply

Why is SBPML spending so much capital for the SBPML is

committed towards environmental

project activity since they already have diesel conservation. Diesel generators lead to air and noise
generator sets? This capital could have been used pollution, which adversely impacts the health of the
for

further

capacity

increase of

the paper local people. For the project activity SBPML is

manufacturing facility which would have led to investing substantial capital for the installation of
further employment generation.

electro-static precipitator (ESP) to address the air


pollution arising due to rice husk combustion. The
diesel generators would be used only as standby
units when the boiler is shut for maintenance.

What would be the benefit of the project activity to The project activity would lead to employment
the local people?

generation. Over the years the expenditure incurred


for rice husk purchase has gone up substantially.
This money is going to the local people. The project
activity would be contributing positively towards
direct and indirect employment generation.

What

arrangements

have

been

made

for The feeding point of the project activity boiler

transportation of rice husk so that no traffic would be separate and a new road for that would be

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clogging occurs due to the increased influx of laid, thus no traffic clogging would occur.
vehicles?
What safety measures are being adopted for the new The boiler would be operated after the Boiler
boiler being installed?

Directorate has certified it. This certification is done


annually. Moreover, safety valves are installed on
the boiler.

Will there be any delay in the release of payments No delay in payments for rice husk would occur.
for the rice husk supplied?
Will the project activity lead to any water or noise The water used in the project activity remains in the
pollution?

cyclic system and is not released, thus there is no


water pollution arising due to the project activity.
Due to silencer the noise pollution would be
controlled.

G.3. Report on how due account was taken of any comments received:
>>
No adverse comments have been received for the project activity. In view of various direct and indirect
benefits (social, economical, and environmental), no concerns were raised during the consultation with
stakeholders.

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Annex 1
CONTACT INFORMATION ON PARTICIPANTS IN THE PROJECT ACTIVITY
Organization:

Shree Bhawani Paper Mills Limited

Street/P.O.Box:

33, Dayanand Marg

Building:

--

City:

Allahabad

State/Region:

Uttar Pradesh

Postcode/ZIP:

211 002

Country:

India

Telephone:

91-532-2607958, 2607959, 2607960

FAX:

91-532-2607957

E-Mail:

sbpmills1@sancharnet.in

URL:
Represented by:
Title:
Salutation:

Mr.

Last Name:

Srivastav

Middle Name:

First Name:

Kamal

Department:

Finance

Mobile:

Direct FAX:

--

Direct tel:

+91-535-2702155

Personal E-Mail:

sbpml@sify.com

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Annex 2
INFORMATION REGARDING PUBLIC FUNDING
No public funding as part of project financing from Parties included in Annex 1 to the convention is
involved in the project activity.

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Annex 3
BASELINE INFORMATION
Selection of Grid boundary
In the approved consolidated methodology ACM0002, the following guideline is given for the selection of
grid. Where DNA guidance is not available, in large countries with layered dispatch systems (e.g.
state/provincial/regional /national) the regional grid definition should be used. A state/provincial grid
definition may indeed in many cases be too narrow given significant electricity trade among
states/provinces that might be affected, directly or indirectly, by a CDM project activity.
As explained earlier in B.1.1, the electrical transmission system in India, is divided into five regions namely
Northern Region, North Eastern Region, Eastern Region, Southern Region and Western Region. Northern
region grid comprises of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttranchal,
Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. The location of project activity is in Uttar Pradesh state which is
coming under northern region. Therefore northern grid region is selected as grid boundary to estimate the
baseline emission factor.
Key elements to determine baseline for the project activity
The following key parameters are used to estimate the baseline emission factor of the project activity:
S No.
Key Parameters
Data Sources
Reference
1
Generation of power of all the Annual reports of Northern Region http://www.nrldc.org/d
plants for the year 2001-02, Load Dispatch Center (NRLDC) ocs/7-1.pdf
2002-03, 2003-04, 2004-05 and 2001-02 and 2002-03 Section 7.1, http://www.nrldc.org/d
Annual reports of Northern region ocs/2001-022005-06
Electricity Board (NREB)
section5onwards.pdf
2003-04 Annex-10.1.3
http://nreb.nic.in/Repo
2004-05 Annexure 2.7
rts/Index.htm
2005-06
2
Coal consumption of each coal Annual Performance review of www.cea.nic.in
fired power plant for the year Thermal power plant (CEA)
2003-04, 2004-05 and 2005-06
3
Calorific value of coal
CEA reports
CEA General review
2004-05, CEA report CO2 database for
power sector, October
2006
4
Calorific value of gas
Revised 2006 IPCC Guidelines
5
Oxidation factors
Revised 2006 IPCC Guidelines
6
Efficiency of gas based power MNES study titled "Baselines for http://mnes.nic.in/basel
plants supplying power to grid
Renewable Energy Projects under inepdfs/chapter2.pdf
Clean Development Mechanism".
Chapter 2,
7
Emission factor of natural gas,
Revised 2006 IPCC Guidelines
Refer Note
8
Emission factor of non-coking CEA report - CO2 database for http://cea.nic.in/planni
coal
power sector, October 2006
ng/c%20and%20e/Gov
ernment%20of%20Ind
ia%20website.htm

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Emission factor of Eastern and CEA report - CO2 database for http://cea.nic.in/planni
Western grids
power sector, October 2006
ng/c%20and%20e/Gov
ernment%20of%20Ind
ia%20website.htm

Note:
The value of emission factors given in 2006 IPCC Guidelines for national green house gas inventories:
Reference Manual and Natcom report is in terms of carbon unit. It is converted in terms of CO2 as
explained below:
Fuel
Emission factor
Emission factor

Natural gas
Non-coking coal

tC/TJ
15.3
26.13

tCO2/TJ
56.1 ( 15.3 x 44/12)
95.8 ( 26.13 x 44/12)

Power generation Mix of Northern Region for five years


Energy Source
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
Total Power
150935
154544
168110
172682
Generation
(GWh)
Total Thermal
113817
115986
122955
126342
Power
Generation
Total Low Cost
37117
38559
45154
46339
Power
Generation
Thermal % of
75.41
75.05
73.14
73.16
Total grid
generation
Low Cost % of
24.59
24.95
26.86
26.84
Total grid
generation
% of Low Cost generation out of Total grid generation - Average of the five most
recent years

2005-06
180854

132522

48332

73.28

26.72

25.99

Generation details
The power generation of power plants falls under Northern grid region for the past three years is given
below:
Generation
Generation
Generation
Name
Type
Fuel
(2003-04)
(2004-05)
(2005-06)
GWh
GWh
GWh
Anta GPS
Thermal
Gas
2775.92
2595.77
2806.84
Auriya GPS
Thermal
Gas
4247.41
4119.47
4281.67
Badarpur TPS
Thermal
Coal
5428.96
5462.78
5380.54
Bairasiul
Hydro
Hydel
687.79
689.67
790.97

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Bhakra Complex
Chamera HPS
Dadri GPS
Dadri NCTPS
Dehar
Dhauliganga
Delhi
Delhi
Faridabad GPS
H.P.
Haryana
Haryana
J&K
J&K
NAPS
Pong
Punjab
Punjab
Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rajasthan
RAPS-A
RAPS-B
Rihand STPS
Salal
Singrauli STPS
SJVNL
Tanakpur HPS
Tanda TPS
U.P.
U.P.
Unchahar-I TPS
Unchahar-II TPS
Uri HPS
Uttaranchal
TOTAL

page 38

Hydro
Hydro
Thermal
Thermal
Hydro
Hydro
Thermal
Thermal
Thermal
Hydro
Thermal
Hydro
Hydro
Thermal
Nuclear
Hydro
Thermal
Hydro
Thermal
Thermal
Hydro
Nuclear
Nuclear
Thermal
Hydro
Thermal
Hydro
Hydro
Thermal
Thermal
Hydro
Thermal
Thermal
Hydro
Hydro

Hydel
Hydel
Gas
Coal
Hydel
Hydel
Coal
Gas
Gas
Hydel
Coal
Hydel
Hydel
Gas
Nuclear
Hydel
Coal
Hydel
Coal
Gas
Hydel
Nuclear
Nuclear
Coal
Hydel
Coal
Hydel
Hydel
Coal
Coal
Hydel
Coal
Coal
Hydel
Hydel

6956.9
2648.32
5058.66
6181.12
3299.29
1164.11
5159.77
2792.58
3666.39
6849.26
251.73
851.03
15.41
2959.44
1178.93
14118.96
4420.43
15044.48
201.37
494.07
1293.37
2904.68
7949.26
3477.42
15643.4
1537.92
510.99
2872.81
20638.05
2063.04
3252.14
3187.93
2873.54
3452.96
168109.8

4546.01
3452.25
5527.71
6842.52
3150.52
5203.8
4091.37
3172.01
3666.39
7192.41
251.73
851.03
23.51
2760.01
882.57
14390.42
4420.43
17330.79
360.7
494.07
1355.2
2954.43
7988.06
3443.29
15803.34
1617.45
495.17
3254.67
19788.21
2063.04
3342.83
3438.28
2206.71
3452.96
172681.6

6838.78
3833.66
5399.34
6768.09
3122.68
312.46
1559.10
4046.11
2954.64
2870.48
8352.58
258.30
1133.41
28.31
2138.45
1730.70
14848.73
4999.36
19903.79
432.58
921.33
1267.50
2815.73
10554.73
3480.87
15502.80
3867.12
483.26
3329.89
19326.44
1244.92
3544.89
3501.21
2724.81
3496.87
180853.9

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page 39

Calculation of Operating Margin Emission Factor


The following table gives a step by step approach for calculating the Simple Operating Margin emission
factor for Northern Regional electricity grid for the most recent 3 years at the time of PDD submission
i.e.2003-2004, 2004-2005 & 2005-2006.
2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

Generation by Coal out of Total Generation (GWh)

102704.29

106451.00

112572.8

Generation by Gas out of Total Generation (GWh)

20251.12

19890.00

19949.49

Imports from WREB (GWh)

282.02

1602.84

2153.23

Imports from EREB (GWh)

2334.76

3600.58

4112.67

Imports from others

Fuel 1 : Coal
Avg. Calorific Value of Coal used (kcal/kg)
Coal consumption (tons/yr)
Emission Factor for Coal (tonne CO2/TJ)
Oxidation Factor of Coal-IPCC standard value
COEF of Coal (tonneCO2/ton of coal)

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

3820

3820

3624

70,397,000

73,279,000

73,279,000

95.8

95.8

95.8

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.532

1.532

1.454

45

45

45

11,464

11,464

11,464

3375955

3315755

3325672.3

56.1
1.0

56.1
1.0

56.1
1.0

2.693

2.693

2.693

880

890

890

1050

1040

1040

952.98

960.85

916.99

Fuel 2 : Gas
Avg. Efficiency of power generation with gas as a fuel, %
Avg. Calorific Value of Gas used (kcal/kg)
Estimated Gas consumption (tons/yr)
Emission Factor for Gas- IPCC standard value(tonne CO2/TJ)
Oxidation Factor of Gas-IPCC standard value
COEF of Gas(tonneCO2/ton of gas)
EF (WREB), tCO2/GWh
EF (EREB), tCO2/GWh
EF (OM Simple), tCO2/GWh
Average EF (OM Simple), tCO2/GWh

943.60

List of power plants considered for calculating build margin


During 2005-06, the total power generation in northern grid region was 180,853.94 GWh. Twenty % of
total generation is about 36,170.79 GWh. The recently commissioned power plant whose summation of

CDM-SSC-PDD (version 02)


CDM Executive Board

page 40

power generation is about 37,608.63 GWh is considered for the calculation of Build margin. The list is
tabulated below:
S.
Plant
Date of
MW
Generation of the Fuel Type
No.
commissioning
unit in 2005-2006
(GWh)
1
Dhauliganga unit-I
2005-2006
70
78.61
Hydro
2
Dhauliganga unit-II
2005-2006
70
78.61
Hydro
3
Dhauliganga unit-III
2005-2006
70
78.61
Hydro
4
Dhauliganga unit-IV
2005-2006
70
78.61
Hydro
5
Rihand Stage - II unit I
2004-2005
500
2593.70
Coal
6
Panipat # 7
2004-2005
250
921.46
Coal
7
Panipat # 8
2004-2005
250
1613.95
Coal
8
Chamera HEP-II (Unit 1)
2003-2004
100
567.67
Hydro
9
Chamera HEP-II (Unit 2)
2003-2004
100
567.67
Hydro
10
Chamera HEP-II (Unit 3)
2002-2003
100
567.67
Hydro
11
SJVPNL
2003-2004
1500
4104.25
Hydro
12
Baspa-II (Unit 3)
2003-2004
100
389.87
Hydro
13
Suratgarh-III (Unit-5)
2003-2004
250
2033.40
Coal
14
Kota TPS-IV (Unit-6)
2003-2004
195
1695.70
Coal
15
Baspa-II (Unit 1 & 2)
2002-2003
200
779.74
Hydro
16
Pragati CCGT (Unit II)
2002-2003
104.6 728.29
Gas
17
Pragati CCGT (Unit III)
2002-2003
121.2 843.86
Gas
18
Ramgarh CCGT Stage -II (GT-2)
2002-2003
37.5
146.80
Gas
19
Ramgarh CCGT Stage -II (GT-2)
2002-2003
37.8
147.97
Gas
20
Upper Sindh Extn (HPS)(1)
2001-2002
35
68.52
Hydro
21
Suratgarh stage-II (3 & 4)
2001-2002
500
3844.81
Coal
22
Upper Sindh Stage II (2)
2001-2002
35
68.52
Hydro
23
Malana-1 & 2
2001-2002
86
337.79
Hydro
24
Panipat TPS Stage 4 (Unit-6)
2000-2001
210
1688.29
Coal
25
Chenani Stage III (1,2,3)
2000-2001
7.5
3.88
Hydro
26
Ghanvi HPS (2)
2000-2001
22.5
69.71
Hydro
27
RAPP (Unit-4)
2000-2001
220
1432.17
Nuclear
28
Ranjit Sagar (Unit-1,2,3,4)
2000-2001
600
2012.84
Hydro
29
Gumma HPS
2000-2001
3
6.59
Hydro
30
Faridabad CCGT(Unit 1) (NTPC)
2000-2001
144
986.70
Gas
31
Suratgarh TPS 2
1999-2000
250
2112.17
Coal
32
RAPS-B (2)
1999-2000
220
1432.17
Nuclear
33
Uppersindh-2 HPS #1
1999-2000
35
68.52
Hydro
34
Faridabad GPS 1 & 2 (NTPC)
1999-2000
286
1959.71
Gas
35
Unchahar-II TPS #2
1999-2000
210
1732.60
Coal
36
Unchahar-II TPS #1
1998-1999
210
1767.20
Coal

CDM-SSC-PDD (version 02)


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page 41

Built Margin Emission Factor is calculated as per the following table:


Considering 20% of Gross Generation
Sector
Thermal Coal Based
Thermal Gas Based
Hydro
Nuclear
Total
Built Margin
Fuel 1 : Coal
Avg. calorific value of coal used in Northern Grid, kcal/kg
Coal consumption, tons/yr
Emission factor for Coal,tonne CO2/TJ
Oxidation factor of coal ( IPCC standard value)
COEF of coal (tonneCO2/ton of coal)
Fuel 2 : Gas
Avg. efficiency of power generation with gas as a fuel, %
Avg. calorific value of gas used, kcal/kg
Estimated gas consumption, tons/yr
Emission factor for Gas (as per standard IPCC value)
Oxidation factor of gas ( IPCC standard value)
COEF of gas(tonneCO2/ton of gas)

20003.28
4813.33
9927.69
2864.33
37608.63

3624
12952313
95.8
1.0
1.454
45
11464
802405
56.1
1.0
2.693

EF (BM), tCO2/GWh

558.13

Therefore the net baseline emission factor as per combined margin


(OM + BM)/2 = 750.87 tCO2/GWh
Calculation of Net power
Plant Capacity

kW

3000

Plant Load Factor

87

Auxiliary consumption

15

Net power supplied to paper mill

kW

2218.5

Number of days of operation in a year

350

Number of hours of operation in a day

24

Number of hours of operation per year

8400

Gross energy generated

GWh/year

21.92

Net energy generated

GWh/year

18.635