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Ch.

2
Matter & Change

Properties of Matter
Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space
Mass: amount of matter the object contains

Physical Property: characteristic that can be


observed or measured without changing the
samples composition

Extensive properties: depends on the quantity of


matter (length, mass, volume)
Intensive properties: independent of the quantity
present (melting & boiling point, density)

Properties of Matter
Chemical Property: ability of a substance to combine
with or change into on or more substances
*can only be determined by changing the substance
Ex. Iron combines with oxygen to form iron oxide (rust)
Each substance has a unique set of chemical and physical
properties

States of Matter
Solid: definite shape and volume
Particles are very tightly packed incompressible
Difficult to squeeze a solid into a smaller volume

Expands slightly when heated


Most are crystalline regular, repeating pattern
Other are amorphous no internal pattern
(plastic, glass, gel)

States of Matter

Liquid: definite volume, no definite shape


Particles can move past one another fluidity
Takes the shape of the container
Expands slightly when heated
Incompressible

States of Matter
Gas: no definite volume or shape

Flows
Expands to fill the volume of the container
Particles are very far apart compressible
Vapor: used to describe the gaseous state of a
substance that is normally a solid or liquid at
room temperature (water vapor, mercury
vapor)

Changes in Matter
Physical Change: alter a substance without changing its
composition
Changes state all transition like melting, freezing, boiling,
condensing
Can be classified as reversible or irreversible

Chemical Change: a process that involves one or more


substances changing into a new substance
Known as a chemical reaction
New chemical: different composition and properties

Evidence of a Chemical Change


Evidence:
Color change
Energy changes gets cold or hot
Odor change
Precipitate (solid formed from a mixture of
solution)
Gas produced bubbles
Irreversible process
New properties

Mixtures of Matter
Substance:
Substance: matter with uniform definite composition
Cannot be altered by physical methods
Every sample of a given substance has identical intensive
properties because every sample has the same composition
Example: copper

Mixture:
Combination of two or more substances in which each retains
its individual chemical properties
Heterogeneous and homogeneous

Mixtures

Heterogeneous Mixture:
Not uniform in composition
Individual substances remain distinct
Each sample will have parts in different
amounts
Ex. Chicken noodle soup, sand in water

Mixtures
Homogeneous Mixture:
Constant, uniform composition
Each sample will have the parts in the same ratio
Ex. Tea, air, saltwater, antifreeze
Solution: another name for homogeneous mixture
Alloy: a solid-solid solution, usually two metals
Ex. Steel and brass

Separating Mixtures
Mixtures are a physical combination
Separation techniques use differences in physical properties

Filtration:
Used for heterogeneous solid-liquid mixtures
Porous filter paper traps the solid as the liquids
pass through
Ex. A colander separates pasta from the water in
which it cooked
Distillation:
Used for homogeneous liquid-liquid mixtures
Based on differences in boiling point
Ex. Alcohol and water

Separating Mixtures
Crystallization:
Pure solid forms from a solution

Chromatography:
Separates components based on
relative attraction to two
separate phases (mobile and
stationary)

Pure Substances
Elements:

Substance that is composed of


only one type of atom
Building blocks of matter
Cannot be further separated by chemical or physical
methods
91 naturally occurring elements
Scientists developed the rest of the elements
Uranium is the largest natural element

Elements
Origins of name:
Greek, Latin, or German names based on properties
Location or Scientist of discovery
Commemoration of famous scientist

Periodic Table:
Originally developed by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869
Altered into current version
Pattern of similar properties repeat

Pure Substances
Compounds:
Substance that is composed of two or more elements
that are combined chemically
Properties of a compound are generally very different
from the elements that make it
Chemical Formulas:
Formulas show the symbols on the ration of the elements in the
compound

Subscripts: tell the number of each element in the


compound
Ex. C12H22O11

Common Compounds
Water
Glucose
Sucrose
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ammonia

H2O
C6H12O6
C12H22O11
CO2
CH4
NH3

Law of Conservation of Mass:


Mass is neither created or destroyed in a chemical reaction - it is
conserved

Law of Definite Proportions:


Regardless of the amount, a compound is always composed of the
same elements in the same proportion by mass

Law of Multiple Proportions:


The same elements can form different compounds by combining in
different ratios
CO2 carbon dioxide
CO carbon monoxide