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LAPORAN

PRAKTIKUM PRESTASI MESIN

DISUSUN OLEH :
KELOMPOK : 17
NAMA

1. ARDHA RIDHO PANGERAN

NIM : 21050112140175

2. MUHAMMAD TOSA RAHMADI

NIM : 21050112140177

3. SHOFWAN BAHAR

NIM : 21050112120001

4. PRIAMBADA ANUNG NINDITA

NIM : 21050112120002

5. MUHAMMAD ZEZE FAUZI

NIM : 21050112120003

LABORATORIUM THERMOFLUIDA
JURUSAN TEKNIK MESIN FAKULTAS TEKNIK
UNIVERSITAS DIPONEGORO
SEMARANG
2015

LEMBAR PENGESAHAN
Laporan praktikum Prestasi Mesin ini telah di setujui dan disahkan pada :
Hari / Tanggal :
Pukul

Mengetahui,
Kepala Laboratorium Thermofluida

Syaiful, ST, MT, PhD


NIP. 197403081999031005

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KATA PENGANTAR

Puji syukur kehadirat Allah S.W.T atas segala nikmat dan karunia yang telah
diberikan kepada kami sehingga dapat menyelesaikan Laporan Praktikum Prestasi
Mesin ini dengan baik dan tepat pada waktunya.
Laporan praktikum ini disusun untuk memenuhi tugas mata kuliah Praktikum
Prestasi Mesin oleh mahasiswa Teknik Mesin Fakultas Teknik Universitas Diponegoro.
Dalam praktikum ini mahasiswa diharapkan mampu menerapkan berbagai teori dan
pengetahuan yang diperoleh selama perkuliahan.
Pada kesempatan ini kami tidak lupa mengucapkan terima kasih kepada :
1. Bapak Syaiful, ST, MT PhD yang telah memperkenankan kami untuk mengikuti
Praktikum Prestasi Mesin.
2. Asisten pembimbing praktikum Prestasi Mesin.
3. Teman-teman angkatan 2012 dan semua pihak yang telah membantu dalam
penyelesaian laporan ini.
Akhirnya kami menyadari sepenuhnya bahwa laporan ini masih jauh dari
sempurna karena keterbatasan kami sebagai penyusun. Namun demikian kami hanya
dapat berharap laporan ini dapat bermanfaat bagi para pembaca, khususnya bagi
mahasiswa Teknik Mesin Universitas Diponegoro.

Semarang, 5 Desember 2015


Penulis

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DAFTAR ISI

HALAMAN JUDUL...................................................................................................... i
LEMBAR PENGESAHAN ........................................................................................... ii
KATA PENGANTAR ................................................................................................... iii
DAFTAR ISI .................................................................................................................. iv
DAFTAR GAMBAR ................................................................................................... viii
DAFTAR TABEL ........................................................................................................ xii
NOMENKLATUR ....................................................................................................... xiii
BAB I PENGUJIAN POMPA SENTRIFUGAL
1.1 PENDAHULUAN.................................................................................................... 1
1.2 TUJUAN PRAKTIKUM ......................................................................................... 2
1.3 DASAR TEORI ....................................................................................................... 2
1.3.1 KLASIFIKASI POMPA SENTRIFUGAL .................................................... 2
1.3.1.1KLASIFIKASI POMPA BERDASARKAN JUMLAH TINGKAT .. 3
1.3.1.2 KLASIFIKASI POMPA BERDASARKAN JENIS ALIRAN
IMPELER .......................................................................................... 4
1.3.1.3 KLASIFIKASI POMPA BERDASARKAN SISI MASUK IMPELER
........................................................................................................... 5
1.3.2 BAGIAN-BAGIAN POMPA SENTRIFUGAL ............................................ 6
1.3.3 PRINSIP KERJA POMPA SENTRIFUGAL ................................................ 12
1.3.4 APLIKASI POMPA SENTRIFUGAL .......................................................... 13
1.3.5 PERFORMANSI POMPA SENTRIFUGAL ................................................ 14
1.4 PERALATAN DAN BAHAN PENGUJIAN .......................................................... 17
1.5 PROSEDUR PERCOBAAN .................................................................................... 21
1.5.1 LANGKAH-LANGKAH PENGUKURAN KARAKTERISTIK POMPA .. 22
1.5.2 PROSEDUR PENGOLAHAN DATA .......................................................... 22
1.5.2.1 PENGUKURAN DAYA ................................................................... 22
1.5.2.2 PENGUKURAN HEAD.................................................................... 23
1.5.2.3 PENGUKURAN DEBIT ................................................................... 23

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1.5.2.4 PENGUKURAN POROS POMPA ................................................... 24


1.6 PERHITUNGAN DAN ANALISA ......................................................................... 24
1.6.1 DATA HASIL PRAKTIKUM ....................................................................... 24
1.6.2 PERHITUNGAN RALAT ............................................................................. 29
1.6.3 PERHITUNGAN PERFORMANSI .............................................................. 33
1.6.4 GRAFIK DAN ANALISA GRAFIK............................................................. 35
1.7 KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN ................................................................................ 38
1.7.1 KESIMPULAN .............................................................................................. 38
1.7.2 SARAN .......................................................................................................... 39
DAFTAR PUSTAKA .................................................................................................... 40
BAB II TURBIN FRANCIS
2.1 PENDAHULUAN.................................................................................................... 41
2.2 TUJUAN PRAKTIKUM ......................................................................................... 42
2.3 DASAR TEORI ....................................................................................................... 42
2.3.1 TURBIN AIR ................................................................................................. 42
2.3.2 KLASIFIKASI TURBIN AIR ....................................................................... 42
2.3.3 CONTOH-CONTOH TURBIN AIR ............................................................. 44
2.3.4 TURBIN FRANCIS ....................................................................................... 46
2.3.5 PRINSIP KERJA TURBIN FRANCIS.......................................................... 47
2.3.6 BAGIAN-BAGIAN TURBIN FRANCIS ..................................................... 48
2.3.7 APLIKASI TURBIN FRANCIS .................................................................... 49
2.3.8 KARAKTERISTIK DAN PERFORMANSI TURBIN FRANCIS ............... 49
2.3.9 SEGITIGA KECEPATAN TURBIN FRANCIS ........................................... 51
2.4 PERALATAN PENGUJIAN ................................................................................... 52
2.5 PARAMETER PENGUKURAN ............................................................................. 55
2.5.1 PENGUKURAN TORSI ............................................................................... 55
2.5.2 PENGUKURAN TINGGI TEKAN ............................................................... 56
2.5.3 PENGUKURAN DEBIT ............................................................................... 56
2.5.4 PENGUKURAN KECEPATAN ................................................................... 57
2.6 PROSEDUR PENGUJIAN ...................................................................................... 57

2.7 PERHITUNGAN DAN ANALISA ......................................................................... 58


2.7.1 DATA HASIL PRAKTIKUM ....................................................................... 58
2.7.2 ANALISA PERHITUNGAN ......................................................................... 60
2.7.3 TABEL ANALISA PERHITUNGAN ........................................................... 63
2.7.4 PERHITUNGAN RALAT ............................................................................. 66
2.7.5 TABEL PERHITUNGAN RALAT ............................................................... 67
2.7.6 GRAFIK DAN ANALISA GRAFIK ............................................................. 70
2.8 KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN ................................................................................ 75
2.8.1 KESIMPULAN .............................................................................................. 75
2.8.2 SARAN .......................................................................................................... 75
DAFTAR PUSTAKA .................................................................................................... 76
BAB III PENGUJIAN MESIN PENDINGIN
3.1 PENDAHULUAN.................................................................................................... 77
3.2 TUJUAN PRAKTIKUM ......................................................................................... 78
3.3 DASAR TEORI ....................................................................................................... 78
3.3.1 PENGETAHUAN UMUM MESIN PENDINGIN ........................................ 78
3.3.2 BAGIAN-BAGIAN SISTEM PENDINGIN SIKLUS KOMPRESI UAP .... 79
3.3.3 PRINSIP KERJA MESIN PENDINGIN SIKLUS KOMPRESI UAP .......... 82
3.3.4 REFRIGERAN DAN KARAKTERISTIKNYA ........................................... 84
3.3.5 APLIKASI MESIN PENDINGIN ................................................................. 86
3.3.6 PERFORMA MESIN PENDINGIN .............................................................. 87
3.4 PERALATAN DAN BAHAN PENGUJIAN .......................................................... 91
3.5 PROSEDUR PERCOBAAN .................................................................................... 94
3.6 PERHITUNGAN DATA DAN ANALISA GRAFIK ............................................. 95
3.6.1 DATA DAN HASIL PERCOBAAN ............................................................. 95
3.6.2 ANALISA DATA BERDASARKAN DATA SAMPEL .............................. 95
3.6.3 ANALISA DATA BERDASARKAN DATA RATA-RATA......................100
3.6.4 PLOT HASIL PERHITUNGAN KE DIAGRAM P-h R-22.........................106
3.6.5 ANALISA PERBEDAAN DIAGRAM IDEALDENGAN DIAGRAM
AKTUAL (SAMPEL DAN RATA-RATA).................................................109

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3.7 KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN .............................................................................. 110


3.7.1 KESIMPULAN ............................................................................................ 110
3.7.2 SARAN ........................................................................................................ 111
DAFTAR PUSTAKA .................................................................................................. 112

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DAFTAR GAMBAR

Gambar 1.1 Pompa Single Stage .................................................................................... 3


Gambar 1.2 Pompa Multistage....................................................................................... 3
Gambar 1.3 Pompa Aliran Radial (peripheral) .............................................................. 3
Gambar 1.4 Pompa Aliran Campuran ............................................................................ 4
Gambar 1.5 Pompa Aliran Aksial .................................................................................. 5
Gambar 1.6 Pompa Isap Tunggal ................................................................................... 5
Gambar 1.7 pompa isap ganda ....................................................................................... 5
Gambar 1.8 Pompa Sentrifugal ...................................................................................... 6
Gambar 1.9 Stuffing Box ............................................................................................... 6
Gambar 1.10 (a) Mechanical Seal (b) Packing .............................................................. 7
Gambar 1.11 Shaft ......................................................................................................... 7
Gambar 1.12 Shaft Sleeve .............................................................................................. 7
Gambar 1.13 Volute Casing ........................................................................................... 8
Gambar 1.14 Diffuser Casing ........................................................................................ 8
Gambar 1.15 Impeller Terbuka ...................................................................................... 9
Gambar 1.16 Impeller Tertutup................................................................................. 9
Gambar 1.17 Impeller Gabungan ................................................................................... 9
Gambar 1.18 Casing Wear Ring .................................................................................... 10
Gambar 1.19 Ball Bearing.............................................................................................. 10
Gambar 1.20 Sleeve Bearing.......................................................................................... 11
Gambar 1.21 Thrust Bearing .......................................................................................... 11
Gambar 1.22 Coupling ................................................................................................... 11
Gambar 1.23 Discharge Nozzle ..................................................................................... 12
Gambar 1.24 Proses Kavitasi ......................................................................................... 13
Gambar 1.25 Pompa Sentrifugal Warman ..................................................................... 13
Gambar 1.26 Pompa Sentrifugal .................................................................................... 14
Gambar 1.27 Grafik Hubungan antara Head dengan Debit Aliran ................................ 15
Gambar 1.28 Peralatan Uji Pompa Sentrifugal .............................................................. 17

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Gambar 1.29 Pompa Sentrifugal .................................................................................... 17


Gambar 1.30 Motor Penggerak ................................................................................. 18
Gambar 1.31 Volumetric Bench ................................................................................ 18
Gambar 1.32 (a) Inlet Valve (b) Outlet Valve ............................................................... 18
Gambar 1.33 Volumemeter ............................................................................................ 19
Gambar 1.34 Pulsemeter ................................................................................................ 19
Gambar 1.35 Torquemeter ............................................................................................. 19
Gambar 1.36 Suction Pressure Gauge ............................................................................ 20
Gambar 1.37 Discharge Pressure Gauge ........................................................................ 20
Gambar 1.38 Amperemeter ............................................................................................ 20
Gambar 1.39 Voltmeter .................................................................................................. 20
Gambar 1.40 Tachometer ............................................................................................... 21
Gambar 1.41 Stopwatch ................................................................................................. 21
Gambar 1.42 Grafik hubungan Debit dengan Head ....................................................... 35
Gambar 1.43 Grafik hubungan Debit dengan Efisiensi Pompa .................................... 36
Gambar 1.44 Grafik untuk karakteristik pompa stabil ................................................... 37
Gambar 2.1 Model turbin aliran tangensial.................................................................... 42
Gambar 2.2 Model turbin aliran aksial .......................................................................... 43
Gambar 2.3 Model turbin aliran aksial-radial ............................................................ 43
Gambar 2.4 Turbin impuls dan proses penyemprotan ................................................... 44
Gambar 2.5 Instalasi Turbin Francis .............................................................................. 44
Gambar 2.6 Turbin Pelton .............................................................................................. 45
Gambar 2.7 Turbin Turgo .............................................................................................. 45
Gambar 2.8 Turbin Francis ............................................................................................ 46
Gambar 2.9 Turbin Francis ............................................................................................ 46
Gambar 2.10 Aliran air masuk Turbin Francis ............................................................. 47
Gambar 2.11 Bagian-bagian Turbin Francis .................................................................. 48
Gambar 2.12 Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air ............................................................... 49
Gambar 2.13 Segitiga kecepatan turbin francis ............................................................ 51
Gambar 2.14 Mesin uji turbin Francis secara keseluruhan ........................................... 52

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Gambar 2.15 Turbin Francis .......................................................................................... 52


Gambar 2.16 Bagian tambahan alat uji turbin Francis ................................................... 53
Gambar 2.17 V-Notch ................................................................................................... 53
Gambar 2.18 Neraca Beban .......................................................................................... 53
Gambar 2.19 Tachometer ............................................................................................... 54
Gambar 2.20 Neraca Beban ........................................................................................... 56
Gambar 2.21. Pengukuran tinggi tekan menggunakan manometer .............................. 56
Gambar 2.22 Pengukuran debit menggunakan sight glass ............................................ 57
Gambar 2.23 Pengukuran kecepatan menggunakan tachometer.................................... 57
Gambar 2.24 Grafik Kalibrasi Weirs ............................................................................ 60
Gambar 2.25 Grafik hubungan n-Q pada H = 6 untuk variasi bukaan sudu .................. 70
Gambar 2.26 Grafik hubungan n-T pada H = 6 untuk variasi bukaan sudu ................. 71
Gambar 2.27 Grafik hubungan n-WHP pada H = 6 untuk variasi bukaan sudu ............ 72
Gambar 2.28 Grafik Hubungan H-T pada lampu 6 terhadap variasi bukaan sudu ..... 73
Gambar 2.29 Grafik isoefisiensi H = 6 untuk variasi bukaan sudu ............................. 74
Gambar 3.1 Sistem kerja pada AC mobil....................................................................... 79
Gambar 3.2 Kompresor .................................................................................................. 79
Gambar 3.3 Evaporator ................................................................................................. 80
Gambar 3.4 Katup ekspansi dan pipa kapiler ................................................................ 81
Gambar 3.5 Evaporator ................................................................................................. 81
Gambar 3.6 Siklus pendingin kompresor uap ................................................................ 82
Gambar 3.7 Diagram P-H .............................................................................................. 83
Gambar 3.8 Diagram T-s................................................................................................ 83
Gambar 3.9 Diagram P-H dengan siklus aktual dan ideal ............................................. 84
Gambar 3.10 Contoh AC split yang biasa digunakan .................................................... 86
Gambar 3.11 P h Diagram pada daur kompresi uap .................................................. 87
Gambar 3.12 Diagram T s .......................................................................................... 88
Gambar 3.13 Skema peralatan mesin pendingin kompresi uap .................................... 91
Gambar 3.14 Refrigeran R22 ......................................................................................... 92
Gambar 3.15 Kompresor ................................................................................................ 92

Gambar 3.16 Kondensor ................................................................................................ 93


Gambar 3.17 Evaporator ................................................................................................ 93
Gambar 3.18 Pipa kapiler ............................................................................................... 93
Gambar 3.19 Pressure gauge dan termodisplay ............................................................. 94
Gambar 3.20 Diagram P-h Ideal Sampel ....................................................................... 96
Gambar 3.21 Diagram T-s Ideal Sampel........................................................................ 97
Gambar 3.22 Diagram P-h aktual Sampel...................................................................... 99
Gambar 3.23 Diagram T-s Aktual Sampel ..................................................................... 99
Gambar 3.24 Diagram P-h Ideal Rata-rata................................................................... 101
Gambar 3.25 Diagram T-s Ideal Rata-rata ................................................................... 102
Gambar 3.26 Diagram P-h aktual Sampel.................................................................... 104
Gambar 3.27 Diagram T-s Aktual Sampel ................................................................... 104
Gambar 3.28 Diagram P-h Ideal Sampel ..................................................................... 106
Gambar 3.29 Diagram P-h aktual sampel .................................................................... 106
Gambar 3.30 Perbandingan diagram P-h ideal dan aktual sampel............................... 107
Gambar 3.31 Diagram P-h ideal rata-rata .................................................................... 107
Gambar 3.32 Diagram P-h aktual rata-rata .................................................................. 108
Gambar 3.33 Perbandingan diagram P-h ideal dan aktual rata-rata............................. 108

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DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel 1.1 Klasifikasi pompa secara umum .................................................................... 2


Tabel 1.2 Data Hasil Pengujian dengan Bukaan 100%................................................. 24
Tabel 1.3 Data Hasil Pengujian dengan Bukaan 75%................................................... 25
Tabel 1.4 Data Hasil Pengujian dengan Bukaan 50%................................................... 26
Tabel 1.5 Data Hasil Pengujian dengan Bukaan 25%................................................... 27
Tabel 1.6 Data Rata-Rata Hasil Pengujian.................................................................... 28
Tabel 1.7 Tabel Perhitungan Ralat Torsi ...................................................................... 30
Tabel 1.8 Tabel Perhitungan Ralat Debit .................................................................... 31
Tabel 1.9 Tabel Perhitungan Ralat Beda Tekan............................................................ 32
Tabel 1.10 Tabel Hasil Perhitungan ............................................................................. 34
Tabel 2.1 Data praktikum bukaan sudu 100% .............................................................. 58
Tabel 2.2 Data praktikum bukaan sudu 75% ................................................................ 59
Tabel 2.3 Data praktikum bukaan sudu 50% ................................................................ 59
Tabel 2.4 Analisa perhitungan ralat untuk bukaan sudu 100% ..................................... 63
Tabel 2.5 Analisa perhitungan ralat untuk bukaan sudu 75% ....................................... 64
Tabel 2.6 Analisa perhitungan ralat untuk bukaan sudu 50% ....................................... 65
Tabel 2.7 Tabel perhitungan ralat 100% ....................................................................... 67
Tabel 2.8 Tabel perhitungan ralat 75% ......................................................................... 68
Tabel 2.9 Tabel perhitungan ralat 50% ......................................................................... 69
Tabel 3.1 Data perhitungan temparatur dan tekanan mesin pendingin ......................... 95
Tabel 3.2 Hasil analisa kondisi ideal dengan actual berdasarkan data sampel ........... 109
Tabel 3.3 Hasil analisa kondisi ideal dengan actual berdasarkan data sampel ........... 109

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NOMENKLATUR

: Debit

(liter/s)

: Volume

(liter)

: Waktu

(Secon)

: Head pada fluida air

(m H2O)

Hd

: Head dinamis

(m H2O)

Hs

: Head statis

(m H2O)

Pel

: Daya listrik

(Watt)

: Tegangan listrik

(Volt)

: Arus Listrik

(Ampere)

BHP

: Break Horse Power

(Watt)

: Torsi

(Nm)

: Putaran rotasi

(rpm)

: Massa jenis

: Gaya gravitasi

(Kg/m3)
(m/s2)

: Efisiensi kerja

: Gaya

(N)

WHP

: Daya hidrolisis air

(Watt)

mref

: Laju aliran massa

(Kg/s)

: Kapasitas kompresor, kondensor, dan evaporator

(KW)

: Entalpi

(KJ/Kg)

: Daya kompresor

(Watt)

: Entropi

(KJ/Kg K)

: Tekanan

(Psi)

: Suhu

(oC)

COP

: Coefficient of Performance

PF

: Performance Factor

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