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FibersimTM

User Guide

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or software are set forth in the users purchase contract, and nothing stated in, or implied by,
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The information and software discussed in this document are subject to change without notice
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assumes no responsibility for any error that may appear in this document.
The software discussed in this document is furnished under a license and may only be used and
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Trademarks and Copyright


2016 Siemens Product Lifecycle Management Software Inc. All rights reserved. Siemens and
the Siemens logo are registered trademarks of Siemens AG. Fibersim and NX are trademarks of
Siemens Product Lifecycle Management Software Inc. and/or its subsidiaries in the United
States and in other countries.
Creo and Pro/Engineer Wildfire are trademarks or registered trademarks of Parametric
Technology Corporation.
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All other trademarks, registered trademarks or service marks belong to their respective
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This software is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not
use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
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products. For technical assistance with any product you may contact the Siemens PLM Global
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illustrates the problem.

Fibersim User Guide


Chapter 1 Overview/List of Packages
1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................1
Key Features of Fibersim Products ..................................................... 3
1.2 List of Fibersim packages ..............................................................4
Base .............................................................................................. 4
Pro ................................................................................................ 4
Elite ............................................................................................... 4
1.3 About the Bundle values ................................................................5
1.4 User Guide Breakdown ..................................................................6
1.5 About the Fibersim Icons ...............................................................7
1.6 How Units Display in Fibersim .......................................................8
Supported Units and Abbreviations ...........................................................8
How each CAD System Handles Units .......................................................9

1.7 Fibersim Color Palette .................................................................10

Chapter 2 Basic (Functions and Interfaces)

2.1 Introduction ................................................................................12


2.2 Basic (Application Browser) ........................................................13
2.3 Laminates ....................................................................................14
2.3.1 When to Define Additional Laminates ....................................... 15
2.3.2 Laminate (interface) .............................................................. 16
a) Design-to-Extended Design Approach (Design Boundary) ................ 18
b) List of Zone-Based Options ......................................................... 20
c) Notes on selecting an ADD Machine (Automated Deposition) ............. 23

2.3.3 Analysis (for both Net and Extended boundaries) ....................... 24


2.3.4 Laminate Object Toolbar (with utilities) .................................... 27
2.4 Rosettes ......................................................................................28
2.4.1 Rosette Requirements ............................................................ 29
2.4.2 Rosette Mapping Types .......................................................... 30

2.4.3
2.4.4
2.5 Plies
2.5.1
2.5.2

Standard Mapping ........................................................................... 30


Translational Mapping ..................................................................... 31
Radial Mapping ............................................................................... 32
Spine-Based Mapping ...................................................................... 32
Field-Based Rosettes (details) .......................................................... 33

How to Define a Rosette ......................................................... 34


Rosette User Interface ........................................................... 38
............................................................................................41
About 3D Geometry (for ply definitions) ................................... 41
Ply (interface) ....................................................................... 42

The Ply Toolbar .............................................................................. 42


Notes on Wrapped plies ................................................................... 45
CAD Note (NX only): Periodic Faces ................................................... 46
Simulation Options tab .................................................................... 51
How a Plys simulation results display ................................................ 54

2.6 Cores ...........................................................................................58


2.6.1 Virtual Step Cores ................................................................. 58
2.6.2 Virtual Cores ......................................................................... 60
2.6.3 Virtual Variable Cores ............................................................ 62
2.6.4 Modeled Cores ...................................................................... 65

Fibersim User Guide TOC

2.7 Design Stations ...........................................................................67


2.7.1 Understanding Core Sampling ................................................. 68
2.7.2 Design Station Object ............................................................ 75
2.7.3 Types of Core Samples ........................................................... 77
Summary samples .......................................................................... 77
Detailed samples ............................................................................ 77
Laminate Rating Samples ................................................................ 79

2.8 Cutouts ........................................................................................81


2.9 Darting ........................................................................................82
2.9.1 Interpreting Producibility ........................................................ 82
2.9.2 Slit Darts .............................................................................. 84
Slit Darts to Eliminate Wrinkling (Puckering) ....................................... 86
Valid Slit Dart Geometry for Wrinkling (Puckering) .............................. 87

2.9.3 V-Shape Darts ...................................................................... 88

V-Shape Darts to Eliminate Wrinkling (Bridging) ................................. 90


Valid V-Shape Dart Geometry for Wrinkling (Bridging) ......................... 91

Chapter 3 Advanced
3.1 Introduction ................................................................................92
3.1.1 Advanced (Application Browser) .............................................. 93
3.2 Design .........................................................................................95
3.2.1 Zone ................................................................................... 95
3.2.2 Overlay Zones .................................................................... 100
3.2.3 Zone Transition ................................................................... 101
At Start ....................................................................................... 108
At End ......................................................................................... 109
a.) Initial Distance at Start of ZT (visual demo) ................................ 110
b.) Incremental Distance at Start of ZT (visual demo) ........................ 111
c.) Initial Extension Distance at End (visual demo) ............................ 112
d.) Extension Distance Increment at End (visual demo) ..................... 113
e.) Trimming Curves (visual demo) ................................................. 114
Stagger Editor .............................................................................. 117

3.2.4 Transition Adjacency Vertex .................................................. 119


Non-Tangency ............................................................................. 121
Variable Length Chamfer .............................................................. 121
Constant Length Chamfer ............................................................. 122
Minimum Length Chamfer ............................................................. 123
Fixed Transition Chamfer .............................................................. 125
Minimum Course ......................................................................... 126
3.2.5 Layers .............................................................................. 128
Details tab - Note on analysis components (import/export) ................ 132

3.2.6 Core Layer ......................................................................... 133


3.3 Manufacturing ........................................................................... 137
3.3.1 Splice Group ....................................................................... 137
3.3.2 Darts ................................................................................. 140
3.3.3 Dart Group ......................................................................... 141
3.3.4 Design Station .................................................................... 142
3.3.5 Cutouts .............................................................................. 142
3.4 Specifications ............................................................................ 143
3.4.1 Laminate Specifications ........................................................ 143
3.4.2 Material Specifications .......................................................... 144
Notes on Material Specifications ...................................................... 145

3.4.3 Offset Specifications ............................................................ 146


Advanced Positioning Options (pop-up menu) .................................. 148

Fibersim User Guide TOC

A.) Initial Offset ............................................................................ 149


B.) Ramp Centered Offset .............................................................. 150
C.) Center Based Offset ................................................................. 151
D.) Distributed Offset .................................................................... 152

Advanced Spacing Options ............................................................ 153


a.) Distance Based Offset options .................................................. 153
b.) Total Distance Based Offset options ........................................... 155
c.) Material Thickness Based Offset options ..................................... 156
d.) Custom Based Offset options .................................................... 158
e.) Material Ratio Offset ................................................................ 159
3.4.4 Stagger Profile .................................................................... 160
3.4.5 Laminate Regions ................................................................ 161
List of Laminate Region objects ..................................................... 162

Chapter 4 Structure-Based Design (SBD)


4.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 163
Methodology and Workflow ........................................................... 164
Creating the Design Rules ............................................................. 165
4.2 Create a Master Structure .......................................................... 167
4.3 Generate your System Datums .................................................. 170
System Datum Highlight options ..................................................... 170

4.4 Generate the Structure Interface ............................................... 172


4.5 Generate the Analysis Zones ...................................................... 174
Importing a file with stress data .................................................... 176
4.6 Generate the Design Zones ........................................................ 177
4.7 Run Zone-to-Layer utility ........................................................... 179
4.8 Apply structure control to Layers ............................................... 180

Chapter 5 Wind (Interfaces)

5.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 181


5.2 Objects used in wind blade production ...................................... 182
5.2.1 Design ............................................................................... 182
a) Laminate ................................................................................. 182
b) Rosette ................................................................................... 182
c) Layer ...................................................................................... 182
d) Core Layer ............................................................................... 182

5.2.2 Manufacturing ..................................................................... 183

a) Ply .......................................................................................... 183


b) Course .................................................................................... 183
c) Core ........................................................................................ 183
d) Splice Group ............................................................................ 183
e) Design Station .......................................................................... 183
f) Cutout ..................................................................................... 183

5.3 Course ....................................................................................... 184


5.4 Wind Blade Import (utility) ....................................................... 186
Excel spreadsheet parameters ....................................................... 188
Workflow - Geometry ................................................................... 189
Results - Created Geometry .......................................................... 190
Fibersim members that get populated ............................................ 190
Region Details (w/ images) ........................................................... 191

Fibersim User Guide TOC

Leading & Trailing Edge ................................................................. 191


Spar Cap ..................................................................................... 191
Leading and Trailing Core .............................................................. 192
Leading and Trailing Core .............................................................. 193
Full Body ..................................................................................... 193

Chapter 6 Automated Deposition Design (ADD)


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7

Introduction .............................................................................. 194


Extended Ramp .......................................................................... 195
Minimum Course Extension ........................................................ 196
Minimum Course Extension Utility ............................................. 200
Minimum Course Vertex ............................................................. 201
Minimum Course Vertex Utility .................................................. 203
Stagger Origin ........................................................................... 205

Chapter 7 Documentation
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

Introduction .............................................................................. 207


3D Cross Section ........................................................................208
Explode Laminate ...................................................................... 212
Flat Pattern Layout .................................................................... 214
3D Text Annotations .................................................................. 215
7.5.1 Core Sample ...................................................................... 215
7.5.2 Ply Table ........................................................................... 217
7.5.3 Ply Callout .......................................................................... 219
7.5.4 Material Table ..................................................................... 221
7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only) ....................................... 222
7.6.1 Ply Book ............................................................................. 223
7.6.2 Ply Table ............................................................................ 228

Chapter 8 Parametric Surface Offset (PSO) Elements


8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7

Introduction .............................................................................. 232


Parametric Surface Offset utility ............................................... 233
Parametric Surface Offset (PSO) Surface ...................................234
PSO Constant Area ..................................................................... 236
PSO Ramp Area .......................................................................... 238
PSO Constant Rail ...................................................................... 239
PSO Ramp Rail ........................................................................... 241

Fibersim User Guide TOC

Chapter 9 Import/Export
9.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 243
9.2 Import Options ......................................................................... 244
9.2.1 Analysis Ply ..................................................................... 244
Ansys ACP ................................................................................... 244
Beta CAE ANSA ............................................................................ 248
CAE Exchange Format (Ply Import) ................................................. 250
CAE Import to Overlay Zones ......................................................... 252
MSC Laminate Modeler Import ........................................................ 253
NX Laminate Composites ............................................................... 254

9.2.2 Analysis - Zone ................................................................... 255

CAE Exchange Format ................................................................... 255


MSC SimXpert (Zone Import) ......................................................... 257

10.2.3 Laser Projection ................................................................. 258

About Laser Projection ................................................................... 258


Import Laser Projection Data (User Interface) ................................... 260

9.2.4 Fiber Placement .................................................................. 261

ACE V2 Fiber Placement Import ...................................................... 261

9.2.5 Preliminary Design Interface (Import) .................................... 264


9.2.6 Ply Import from Excel .......................................................... 265
9.2.7 Composite Part XML Import .................................................. 266
9.2.8 Wind Blade Design Import .................................................... 268
9.2.9 Composite Part STEP ........................................................... 270
9.3 Export Options .......................................................................... 271
9.3.1 Analysis Ply ..................................................................... 271
Altair Hyperworks ......................................................................... 272
Ansys ACP ................................................................................... 272
Beta CAE Ansa HDF5 ..................................................................... 272
Beta CAE Ansa ............................................................................. 272
CAE Exchange Format ................................................................... 272
CATIA Analysis ............................................................................. 272
MSC Laminate Modeler .................................................................. 272
MSC Patran .................................................................................. 272
MSC SimXpert .............................................................................. 273
NX Laminate Composites ............................................................... 273
PAM-RTM ..................................................................................... 273
Generic Format BDF ...................................................................... 273
Generic Format XML ...................................................................... 273

9.3.2 Analysis Zone ................................................................... 274

Laminate ..................................................................................... 274


Zones ......................................................................................... 274
CAE Exchange Format ................................................................... 275
Beta CAE Ansa ............................................................................. 275
Collier HyperSizer ......................................................................... 275
MSC Patran .................................................................................. 275
MSC SimXpert .............................................................................. 275
Generic Format BDF ...................................................................... 275

9.3.3 Analysis Core Sample ........................................................ 276

Laminate ..................................................................................... 276


Components ................................................................................ 276
Generic Format BDF ...................................................................... 276
Generic Format FEMAP .................................................................. 276

9.3.4 Flat Pattern Export .............................................................. 277

Cutting Edge ............................................................................... 278


DXF ........................................................................................... 282
(A)GFM-NS2 ............................................................................... 284
IGES .......................................................................................... 286

Fibersim User Guide TOC

Optimation .................................................................................. 287


JETCAM Expert ......................................................................... 289

9.3.5 Laser Projection .................................................................. 291

Assembly Guidance ....................................................................... 291


List of the other Laser export format options .................................... 295
Defining Reference Points .............................................................. 296

9.3.6 Fiber Placement Interface ..................................................... 297

Fives Cincinnati ACRAPLACE ........................................................ 297


Fives Cincinnati ACE V2 .............................................................. 300
Ingersoll ...................................................................................... 303
CGTech - Vericut Composite Programming ...................................... 305
Coriolis CAD Fiber ...................................................................... 307

9.3.7 Automated Tape Laying Interface .......................................... 309

Fives Cincinnati ACE V2 ............................................................. 309


MikroSam .................................................................................... 312

9.3.8 Broadgood (Tecnomatix) ...................................................... 313


9.3.9 Preliminary Design Interface (Export) ..................................... 314

Export (User Interface) .................................................................. 314

9.3.10 Ply Export to XML .............................................................. 316


9.3.11 Composite Part XML ........................................................... 317
9.3.12 Composite Part STEP .......................................................... 319

Chapter 10 Volume Fill

10.1 Introduction ............................................................................ 320


10.2 Volume Fill Utility .................................................................... 321
Methodology and Workflow ............................................................ 322

Details of Volume Fill Functionality ................................................. 323

Changes in Normal Orientation of Fill To Surface (to define volumes) ... 323
Multiple Fill To surfaces ................................................................. 324
Highlighting options ...................................................................... 326
Ply simulations using Offset surfaces on by default ............................ 327
Additional full body layer is no longer generated (by default) .............. 330
Laminate Design Boundary used for layer curve assignment ............... 330

Index A Materials & Machine Databases

A.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 331


A.2 How to Edit a Database ............................................................. 332
A.2.1 Editing XML ........................................................................ 332
A.2.2 Adding a Material to the Database ......................................... 333
A.2.3 Deleting a Material from the Database ................................... 333
A.2.4 Changing a Material in the Database ...................................... 334
A.2.5 Accessing a Different Material Database file ............................ 334
A.2.6 How to Edit the Defaults File ................................................. 335
A.3 Integrating CATMaterials with Fibersim .................................... 336
A.3.1 Addition to CATMaterials Database ........................................ 337
A.3.2 CATMaterial Members Used by Fibersim ................................. 338
A.3.3 Configuring the DBConfiguration.xml file ................................ 340
A.4 Materials Database Members ..................................................... 342
Standard .................................................................................... 342
Thickness ................................................................................... 344
Architecture ................................................................................ 345
Cost & Weight ............................................................................. 346

Fibersim User Guide TOC

Laminate Rating .......................................................................... 346


Mechanical Properties A ................................................................ 347
Mechanical Properties B ................................................................ 348
Custom MAT8 Properties ............................................................... 349
Thermal Properties ...................................................................... 350
Radius of Curvature ..................................................................... 351
Orientation Colors ........................................................................ 352
Line Styles ................................................................................. 353
Line Thickness ............................................................................ 354
Custom ...................................................................................... 355
A.5 Machine Database Members ...................................................... 356

Index B Utilities
B.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 358
Accessing the Utilities in Fibersim .................................................. 359
B.2 The Main Utilities Toolbar .......................................................... 360
B.2.1 Design Checker ................................................................... 361
B.2.2 Partial Boundary Editor ........................................................ 362
B.2.3 Composite Sequence Manager ............................................... 364
Resequence Options ...................................................................... 366

B.3

B.4

B.5

B.6

B.2.4 Object Locator .................................................................... 367


Tools > Operations .................................................................... 369
B.3.1 Material Substitution ............................................................ 370
B.3.2 Mirror Laminate .................................................................. 371
B.3.3 Zone to Layer Analysis ......................................................... 372
B.3.4 Step Utility ........................................................................ 374
B.3.5 Drop-Off Order Utility .......................................................... 375
B.3.6 Ply Drop-Off ....................................................................... 376
B.3.7 Splice Ply ........................................................................... 378
B.3.8 Grid-Based Zone Maker ........................................................ 379
B.3.9 Zone Transition Splitter ........................................................ 380
B.3.10 Minimum Course Extension Utility ........................................ 381
B.3.11 Minimum Course Vertex Utility ............................................ 381
B.3.12 Formed Laminate Utility ..................................................... 382
B.3.13 Flat Pattern Layout ............................................................ 385
B.3.14 Course Generation Utility .................................................... 386
Tools > Derivative Laminates .................................................... 388
B.4.1 Symmetric Laminate ............................................................ 389
B.4.2 Merge Models ..................................................................... 391
B.4.3 Surface Transfer ................................................................. 392
B.4.4 Manufacturing Laminate Creation .......................................... 394
B.4.5 2D Laminate Creation .......................................................... 398
Tools > Curve Creation .............................................................. 399
B.5.1 Fiber Path Curve Creation ..................................................... 399
B.5.2 Curve Creation .................................................................... 400
B.5.3 IML Curve Creation .............................................................. 401
B.5.4 Boundary Simplification ........................................................ 402
B.5.5 Curve Offset ....................................................................... 404
Tools > Surface/Solid Creation .................................................. 410
B.6.1 Parametric Surface Offset ..................................................... 410
B.6.2 Constant Surface Offset ....................................................... 413
B.6.3 Explicit Surface Offset .......................................................... 416
B.6.4 Ply-Based Explicit Surface Offset ........................................... 418

Fibersim User Guide TOC

B.6.5
B.6.6
B.6.7
B.6.8

Section-Based Surface Offset ................................................ 420


Parameter Thickness Location ............................................... 422
Zone Based Solid ................................................................ 423
Stepped Solid ..................................................................... 424

Index C Tools > Options > Fibersim Options


C.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 426
C.2 Display Colors ............................................................................ 427
C.3 Naming Conventions .................................................................. 428
Components ............................................................................... 428
Geometry ................................................................................... 429
C.4 Zone Text Display ...................................................................... 430
C.5 Flat Pattern Placement Options ................................................. 431
Flat Patterns Tab ......................................................................... 431
Tolerances Tab ............................................................................ 433
a1) Upgrade Curve Accuracy (Advanced Curvature Mode) .................. 435
a2) Benefits of ACEE Advanced Curvature Mode ................................ 436
b) Constant Gauge Overlap Tolerance Factor .................................... 437
c) Curve Offset Accuracy Factor ...................................................... 438

Release Management Tab ............................................................. 439

Fibersim User Guide TOC

Chapter 1: Overview/List of
Packages

1.1 Introduction
Fibersim is a suite of CAD-integrated software tools designed to reduce the costs
associated with the design and manufacture of composite parts. Fibersim products work
together with CAD systems to allow a single 3D model of a composite part to be used from
conceptual design through fabrication.
All composite part information is centralized because it can be stored, manipulated and
revised within one CAD model. Fibersim also simulates the behavior of composite
materials, taking into account the draping characteristics of a given material when
determining whether a ply is producible.
By offering simulation techniques that are based on the way composite material actually
forms on a given 3D surface, you can more accurately design composite parts within the
CAD system, before any information is transferred to manufacturing.
As part of a special repackaging project, Fibersim has been divided into a 3-tiered
product. The terms CEE and ACEE are no longer used in relation to the Fibersim
product.

Chapter 1: Overview

1.1 Introduction

The product consists of three different packages:

Base - This level allows ply-based modeling only. Users with the Base license
will be able to develop ply-based composite models and open any part that is
simplified to Base-level objects.

Pro - (roughly equal to the former CEE) - This level allows you to perform
layer and ply-based composite modeling. You can work with parts with layers,
overlay zones, and ply data. You will be able to open parts with zone data but
unable to edit/change any zone objects. Only overlay zones can be created and
edited using a Pro-level license.
NOTE: Current CEE licenses will be transitioned to Pro.

Elite - (roughly equal to the former ACEE) - This level allows access to all of
the supported composite modeling methodologies within Fibersim. You can
open and work with models with all Structure Based Design (SBD), zone, layer,
overlay zone, and ply data. The Elite level also supports Volume Fill and Wind
blade design.
NOTE: Current ACEE licenses will be transitioned to Elite.

Fibersim also contains a suite of optional products, that enhance its capabilities, such as
Flat Pattern Export, Laser Projection and Fiber Placement Interface. These products work
in conjunction with Fibersim to ensure a seamless link from the 3D CAD model to the
manufacturing floor.
Because all information required for analysis and manufacturing is generated from a single
CAD master model, Fibersim ensures that all downstream processes will be driven by data
that is complete and up-to-date.

Chapter 1: Overview

1.1 Introduction

Key Features of Fibersim Products


Key features of Fibersim products are:
FEATURE
Used From Within the
CAD Environment

ADVANTAGE

Fibersim tools are launched from within your familiar CAD


environment.
This reduces training costs and encourages use early and
often in the design process, for maximum benefit.

Data Integrity and


Accuracy is Ensured

Fibersim operates directly on the CAD representation of


the composite part, evaluating native CAD geometry, with
no translation or approximation.
This master model concept aids in data management
and ensures the required precision for design and
manufacturing of composite parts.

No Re-entry of Data is
Required

Data input to Fibersim typically consists of the following:

one or more surfaces representing the layup tool


3D Ply boundary curves
material specification
a material orientation

All results are stored within the CAD model, eliminating


manual re-entry of data.

Chapter 1: Overview

1.2 List of Fibersim packages

1.2 List of Fibersim packages


The main interface will consist of a certain methodology, depending on the package
currently licensed:

PACKAGE
Base

INCLUDED SECTIONS IN THIS GUIDE


Allows ply-based modeling only.

Pro

Elite

Chapters 2 (Base objects) and 7 (documentation) include the


objects in the Base package.

Once composite part data is defined, you can generate producibility,


flat pattern, laser projection, automated cutting, and fiber placement
data for the entire part.

Chapters 2 (Base objects) and 3 (advanced) are included


objects in the Pro package.

Chapters 6 (ADD), 7 (documentation) and 8 (PSO) are also


included objects in the standard Pro package.

This package exploits the inherent advantages of many different


composite design methodologiesincluding structure-based design,
zone-based and ply-based design.

Chapter 1: Overview

Every chapter of this guide discusses elements included in a


standard Elite package.

1.3 About the Bundle values

1.3 About the Bundle values


The FIBERSIM_LICENSE_BUNDLE environment variable must be properly set to
reference the package/bundle you are licensed for. This is set using the SES Licensing
Options from the main installer, or it can be set manually.
Full details for the bundle values are discussed in Chapter 1 of the Fibersim Installation
Guide.

Chapter 1: Overview

1.4 User Guide Breakdown

1.4 User Guide Breakdown


This is how this user guide breaks down.
SECTION
(on application
browser)

DESCRIPTION

CHAPTER

Basic

Descriptions of all interfaces under the basic


section of the application browser.

Advanced

Descriptions of all interfaces under the


advanced section of the application browser.

SBD

Structure-Based Design functionality allows


you to enter information about substructures, or
regions of the part where specific design rules
will apply.

Wind Blade

Uses ply-based design for the production of wind


blades.

ADD

Provides design tools that aid those who use


automated deposition machines, including Fiber
Placement and Tape Laying machines.

NOTE: ADD tools work with the Pro & Elite


packages.
Documentation

Special documentation that helps you to better


understand your composite parts.

NOTE: Special license required for 2D


documentation.
PSO

The PSO section on the application browser


contains objects which will be populated with
data once the PSO utility is run.

Import/Export
Interfaces

For importing/exporting composite part data to


analysts or manufacturing personnel.

SPECIAL NOTE: Each of these interfaces is sold


and licensed individually.
Machine &
Materials
Database

All Fibersim data is communicated using XML


technology. XML defines the Materials
Database and the Machine Database.

Index A

Utilities

Utilities available for all aspects of Fibersim.

Index B

Options

Tools > Options > Fibersim Options

Index C

Chapter 1: Overview

1.5 About the Fibersim Icons

1.5 About the Fibersim Icons


This section discusses the icons you will notice as part of the Fibersim product.
ICON

DESCRIPTION
Link with Link Dialog Button
Opens a window containing a list of objects you can
select from. These can be plies, rosettes, laminates, etc.
Link to Database
Opens a link to one of the Fibersim databases.

Geometry Link
Allows you to select and link to some element of the
model, within the CAD system
Save
For saving report or display results to a file.

Print
For printing reports or display results.

Chapter 1: Overview

1.6 How Units Display in Fibersim

1.6 How Units Display in Fibersim


Fibersim uses the CAD systems base unit settings for Length, Mass, Force, Time, Angle,
and Temperature, and then derives other units from the base units. Fibersim handles both
the English (Imperial) unit system and the Metric (SI) unit system. It will also handle
several different settings for each unit type.
NOTE: When CAD display units change, Fibersim updates with the new units.
This table illustrates supported units and the abbreviations for each CAD system. If the
CAD system does not allow setting of certain unit types, Fibersim displays CAD system
defaults.

Supported Units and Abbreviations


Fibersim displays unit abbreviations in the interface.
Unit Type

Unit Name & Abbreviation

Creo

CATIA V5

NX

Length
Millimeter (mm)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Meter (m)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Centimeter (cm)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Kilometer (km)

Yes

Yes

No

Micrometer (micron)

Yes

Yes

No

Inch (in)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Foot (ft)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Milligram (mg)

Yes

Yes

No

Gram (g)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Kilogram (kg)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Metric Ton (MT)

Yes

Yes

No

Ounce (oz)

Yes

Yes

No

Slug (slug)

Yes

Yes

No

Newton (N)

Yes

Yes

No

Pound Force (lbf)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Millisecond (ms)

No

Yes

No

Second (s)

Yes

Yes

No

Minute (min)

No

Yes

No

Mass

Force

Time

Chapter 1: Overview

1.6 How Units Display in Fibersim

Hour (h)

No

Yes

No

Celsius (C)

Yes

Yes

No

Fahrenheit (F)

Yes

Yes

No

Kelvin (K)

No

Yes

No

Temperature

How each CAD System Handles Units


Each CAD system that supports Fibersim handles units in a slightly different manner:
CATIA V5

You have control over all of the supported display units. However,
Fibersim uses the units only, and derives the other units from the
base units.
For example, CATIA V5 lets you specify display units for speed,
volume, pressure, and several other derived units.
Fibersim will not use user-selected settings for these units. It will
derive these units from the settings chosen for Length, Mass, Force,
Time, Temperature, and Angle.

NX

NX only lets you select (lb-in), (lb-ft), (g-mm), (g-cm), (kg-m) for
the display units. Fibersim will use internal defaults for all other base
display units.
All other units will then be derived from the display units and the
default units.

Creo
Parametrics

Creo Parametrics does not let you set a display unit that differs from
model units. In Creo you are setting model units. Fibersim will
display the current settings for the model units.
NOTE: If you select a Creo system that contains units not supported
in Creo, Fibersim uses internal defaults for these unrecognized units.
When you change unit systems in a part, Creo is actually changing
the model units, which converts all stored data in the part. You must
regenerate the flat patterns after model units have changed.

Chapter 1: Overview

1.7 Fibersim Color Palette

1.7 Fibersim Color Palette


This table lists default color names and Red (R), Green (G), and Blue (B) values for the
Fibersim-expanded color palette.
NOTE: Depending on the CAD system being used, the CAD system will take the RGB
values and approximate the color to use, as closely as possible.

Color Name

RGB Values

black

0,0,0

white

255,255,255

sandy yellow

255,190,71

golden yellow

250,190,71

orange salmon

242,162,87

pink salmon

234,132,102

light lavender

196,179,209

dark lavender

153,147,191

slate blue

131,170,214

10

sky blue

129,192,232

11

sea green

148,201,191

12

light sea green

174,209,155

13

light khaki green

191,205,144

14

dark gray green

126,162,151

15

gray

193,196,192

16

brown

211,178,125

17

salmon

255,128,128

18

pale yellow

255,255,128

19

pale green

128,255,128

20

spring green

0,255,128

21

cyan

128,255,255

22

dodger blue

0,128,255

23

pink

255,128,192

24

orchid

255,128,255

25

red

255,0,0

26

yellow

255,255,0

Chapter 1: Overview

10

1.7 Fibersim Color Palette

27

chartreuse

128,255,0

28

blue green

0,255,64

29

royal blue

0,128,192

30

dark slate blue

128,128,192

31

magenta

255,0,255

32

maroon

128,64,64

33

pink orange

255,128,64

34

green

0,255,0

35

teal

0,128,128

36

blue gray

51,51,102

37

pale blue

128,128,255

38

plum

128,0,64

39

light purple

255,0,128

40

burgundy

128,0,0

41

orange

255,128,0

42

dark green

0,128,0

43

aquamarine

0,128,64

44

blue

0,0,255

45

dark blue

0,0,160

46

purple

128,0,128

47

violet

128,0,255

48

olive

94, 120, 32

49

dark red

160, 36, 33

50

light grey

190,190,190

51

light slate blue

150,100,255

52

mauve

200,150,255

53

dark grey

128,128,128

54

safety orange

255,150,0

55

light orange

255,200,100

56

light pink

255,150,200

Chapter 1: Overview

11

Chapter 2: Basic (Functions and


Interfaces)

2.1 Introduction
Engineers define composite parts by creating objects such as laminates, rosettes, plies
and cores. During definition, engineers associate these objects to their corresponding CAD
geometry. All composite part data is stored inside the CAD model, so that anyone
possessing Fibersim, the CAD master model, and the CAD system can access the
composite part data. Composite part data can also be exported in an XML format, which
can then be transformed easily into web pages, office applications, and other downstream
systems.
After part definition has begun, engineers can use various Fibersim tools to verify that
design requirements are being met. Ply listing, sorting, and visualization tools let
engineers inspect all aspects of the layup, including material types, stackup order and
orientations.

Chapter 2: Basic

12

2.2 Basic (Application Browser)

2.2 Basic (Application Browser)


These objects are created in Fibersim, associated to relevant CAD geometry, and
stored within the 3D CAD model.

APP. BROWSER

DESCRIPTION

SECTION

A.

Laminate

Organizational tool, that defines layup surfaces.

2.3

B.

Rosette

References for determining fiber orientations and


defining ply orientations.

2.4

C.

Ply

A single piece of material laid on the tool surface.


Together, plies and cores represent actual materials
used to fabricate a composite part.

2.5

D.

Core(s)

Similar to plies, cores represent components of a


composite layup.

2.6

E.

Design Station

Verification tool (for checking laminate properties)

2.7

F.

Cutout

Cutouts are holes in the part, that are generally


machined after a part has cured.

2.8

G.

Darts

There are two types of darting techniques, one that


produces a slit dart and another that produces a Vshaped dart.

2.9

Chapter 2: Basic

13

2.3 Laminates

2.3 Laminates
A laminate is an organizational tool for grouping together plies, cores, and other
laminates. It is also used to define the layup surface and overall part boundary. Laminates
contain various pieces of information such as sequence, step, and part numbers.
Simply stated, a laminate is an assembly of composite objects. Just as any mechanical
assembly can contain several subassemblies, a Fibersim laminate may contain several
sub-laminates, also known as child laminates. This grouping creates the parent/child
relationship.
Plies and cores are created as children of a parent laminate. When a laminate is defined,
its characteristics, such as layup surface and boundary, are shared by all child
components.
Simple parts may be defined accurately using only a top-level laminate. Other parts,
incorporating cores or inserts, may require child Laminates to represent the significant
change in layup surface, caused by the addition of core. Complex parts containing Ply
packs and/or subassemblies may require several laminates to be accurately represented.
At a minimum: laminates must be defined using a 3D layup surface and 3D boundary,
representing the overall shape of the finished part. Sequence and step values specify
each laminates order in the composite part stackup.

Chapter 2: Basic

14

2.3 Laminates

2.3.1 When to Define Additional Laminates


For every composite part designed, at least one laminate must be fully defined.
A fully defined laminate is one that has a surface and boundary associated to it, and has
been assigned sequence and step values giving it the correct order in the composite part
stackup.
Because the laminate serves two major purposes (surface definition and component
grouping), there are two major reasons for defining additional laminates in a composite
design:

A.) To Represent changes in Surface Topology


When the layup surface topology of the composite part stackup changes significantly (due
to ply or core insertion), a new surface must be defined, so Fibersim can generate
accurate flat patterns and laser projection data.
A new laminate is created as a child of the top-level laminate. The new layup surface is
associated to this laminate, and plies laid on this new surface are created as children of
this laminate.

B.) To Represent logical groups of Components (i.e. Subassemblies or Ply


Packs)
Child laminates represent subassemblies that are manufactured offline, or simply to
organize logical groups of components. If no surface or boundary is defined for a child
laminate, the surface and boundary of the parent laminate are inherited automatically.
Child laminates can aid in ply definition. For instance, if several smaller plies of varying
shapes are to be laid in a particular area, it may be useful to assign these plies to a child
laminate, whose boundary represents overall shape of this smaller area. Since each ply
inherits the outer boundary of its parent laminate, this greatly reduces the time and effort
required to define plies.

Chapter 2: Basic

15

2.3 Laminates

2.3.2 Laminate (interface)


This section shows the members used in a laminate object.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Parent

Reference to parent object. Laminates share the layup surface and


boundary of their parent laminate unless a specific boundary is
defined.

Sequence

The laminates sequence in the composite part stackup.

Step

The laminates step number within the parents sequence. The step
must be given a real number value.

Sequence
Order

A laminate will contain ascending or descending Sequence/Step


values. As objects move away from the tool surface, they will be in
either descending or ascending order.

Ascending Layup Direction


Default
Material

Chapter 2: Basic

The default material (from the material database), for children of this
laminate. This is automatically linked to a ply when a new ply is
created. When creating many plies, using the same material for each
saves time.

16

2.3 Laminates

GEOMETRY
Layup Surface

Defines the surface associated to the laminate. Requirements for a


surface to be used as a Layup Surface include:
It must be continuous within the defined laminate boundary.
It cannot have any discontinuities or holes in the region where the
simulation will be run.
If sections of the surface have holes as part of a post machining of
the part, or as part of the base layup, these holes must be filled in
before running the simulation.
NOTE: The surface normal must point in the direction of layup. (This
is crucial for creation of laser projection data.) If defined with an
incorrect normal, you should flip the surface normal and re-run any
Fibersim-generated data.

Net Boundary

The laminate net boundary (or engineering boundary) defines the


final trimmed shape of the composite part. Curves that define the
boundary must exist on the surface.
NOTE: The net boundary need not consist of a single closed curve,
only curves that form a closed loop.

Extended
Boundary

The manufacturing part boundary. Curves must exist on the laminate


surface.
NOTE: Extended boundaries need not consist of a single closed
curve, only curves that form a closed loop.

Design
Boundary

See section a) below.

Generate
Layer Parent
for Plies

Creates layer parents, for those plies without one.

Zone-Based
Options

See section b) below.

Automated
Deposition

See section c) below.

Chapter 2: Basic

NOTE: When using Splice Group functionality, once you create


layers, Splice Groups perform automated splicing of the part.

17

2.3 Laminates

a) Design-to-Extended Design Approach (Design Boundary)


Normal Fibersim behavior means you have one boundary that is totally user-controlled
(design boundary) and one that is extrapolated from that boundary (derived boundary).
Traditionally, the Net boundary is the design boundary and the Extended boundary is one
that is derived. This design approach is ideal for situations where the manufacturing
boundary is simply an offset of the design boundary. The manufacturing boundary for
each component can simply be derived by extending each boundary to the laminate's
extended/manufacturing boundary.
However, there are cases where the laminate's net and extended boundaries have
completely different shapes. In such scenarios, the correct extended boundary for each
component cannot be derived by extending its net boundary to the laminate's extended
boundary. This is where the "Design-to-Extended" design approach can be used to
achieve the correct design. It allows you to define your components to the extended
boundary, and the net boundary will be derived by trimming each component back to the
laminate's net boundary.
The "Design-to-Extended" design approach is activated by setting the Design Boundary
member to "Extended". Note that it will always be set to "Net" by default.
SPECIAL NOTE #1: Once an option is selected, and OK is pressed on the laminate, the
Design Boundary option becomes read-only, and cannot be changed.
SPECIAL NOTE #2: When set to Net, Fibersim functions exactly as it always has.

Chapter 2: Basic

18

2.3 Laminates

Notes on a laminate set with the Extended option:

Both a net and extended boundary is required.


For all laminates created as children of a laminate with Design Boundary set to
extended, the children will also be set as design-to-extended.
Any component that would previously have been defined to the laminate Net
boundary, must now be defined to the laminate Extended boundary. This includes
plies, zones, layers, splice curves, darts, etc.
Holes must be inside the laminate's Net boundary.

Notes on Plies (when the ply is linked to a parent laminate set to "extended"):
The ply's net geometry members will be read-only.
The ply's net boundary will not highlight, and net flat patterns cannot be generated.
You cannot run net producibility on the ply.
Notes on layers:

Net Geometry fields will become read-only.


Result boundary features can only be generated for extended boundaries.

SPECIAL NOTE: Analysis data can still be produced for both net and extended
boundaries.

Chapter 2: Basic

19

2.3 Laminates

b) List of Zone-Based Options


This is a list of zone-based options.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Default Stagger
Profile

The type of stagger profile to apply to the laminate. This sets the
stagger profile object link, on all zone transitions, to read only.

Lock Global DropOff Order

Ensures that Fibersim prevents changing of the layers drop-off


order. The order will be changed dynamically by Fibersim.

Maintain PreFS2012 Behavior

This option is used when opening a pre-2012 model. It locks


down the transitions, and ensures that the model keeps its
current (pre-2011) stagger conditions.
NOTE: If the pre-2012 model contains a default stagger profile,
when the part is opened, this option will be automatically
checked, to maintain the pre-2012 behavior.
SPECIAL NOTE: This option is only visible when its use is
relevant, which is when a pre-2012 model is opened, and a
default stagger is set. When a new laminate is created, this will
not be shown. Nor will it be shown if an upgraded laminate has
the default stagger set to "none", or the value is unset.

Minimum Weight
Nesting

Nests largest layer shapes of this laminate inside smallest layer


shapes.

Drop-Off Order
Increment

Number by which the drop-off values will increment.

Clear All Stagger


Profiles

Clears all the profiles.

Chapter 2: Basic

20

2.3 Laminates

Layer Shape
Nesting

Defines internal pre-sorting of layers, before Zone Transition


index curves are applied to layers. Pre-sorting is based on:

Zone Count - when using Linear Ascending or Linear


Descending drop-off pattern
Zone Area when using Linear Ascending or Linear
Descending drop-off pattern
No-Pre-Sorting

NOTE: If you assign Zone Transition index curves based solely on


Drop-Off order, then it is recommended using No Pre-Sorting.
Sequence Based
Projection

See the section below.

Sacrificial Plies (These plies are used with SBD functionality.)


Sacrificial plies are used in locations where the part thickness needs to be precisely
controlled. By adding sacrificial plies in an area so the thickness exceeds the actual part
thickness, then this area can be machined to a precise thickness.
Material

Material to use for the ply.

Step

The plys step value.

Chapter 2: Basic

21

2.3 Laminates

b1) Sequence-Based Projection details


When designing composite parts that contain cores, these parts provide some unique
challenges that are not encountered on solid laminate parts. In addition to the OML
surface, cored parts often require an undercore, overcore, and IML surface to be
generated.
The undercore is developed to aid in the creation of the core solid.
The overcore is used to develop ply shapes and flat patterns for plies placed over the
core.
The IML is created to complete the composite part solid.
Often, in the up front design, you do not know which plies will live on the OML, or which
plies will live on the overcore surface. You simply obtain gage data from stress, and need
to define the part based on this data.
You can input all zone data on the OML, and then check this option to project the
necessary plies to the overcore surface. This allows you to input the data as received from
stress, and make changes received from stress on the same set of zones.
To properly auto-project ply boundaries, you must create a second laminate that contains
the overcore surface and is parented to the top-level laminate. Then the laminates and
plies need to be sequenced in the correct layup order.

Chapter 2: Basic

22

2.3 Laminates

c) Notes on selecting an ADD Machine (Automated Deposition)


Fibersim gives you the ability to specify an ADD machine. From this machine, you can set
Fiber Placement and Automated Tape Laying parameters.
To be able select an ADD Machine, you must select an appropriate manufacturing process
(either Automated Tape Laying or Fiber Placement).
Use the ADD Machine member, to specify the Automated Deposition Machine for this
laminate, from the database.

Note that there are tabs for both Tape and Fiber Placement parameters, in the ADD
Machine database.

Chapter 2: Basic

23

2.3 Laminates

2.3.3 Analysis (for both Net and Extended boundaries)


Laminate analysis calculates the center of gravity, weight, area, perimeter, and cost for
entered plies. There are two sets of analysis data for each laminate, one for the Net
boundary and one for the Extended boundary.
To properly update analysis data, Net producibility and Extended producibility (as well as
flat patterns) must be up to date.
NOTE: If the part contains cores, analysis data must be entered in the core form, to be
properly reflected in engineering and manufacturing analysis data. Fibersim does not
automatically generate core analysis information, it is manually entered.
Net Analysis data is calculated based on Net boundaries.

Chapter 2: Basic

24

2.3 Laminates

MEMBER

Preliminary Analysis
Data

DESCRIPTION

Fibersim lets you compute approximate net analysis data (i.e.


area, weight, cost) without first running a draping simulation.
The draping simulation provides analysis data taking into
account deformations induced by draping. However, early on in
the design process exact data is not required (i.e. approximate
analysis data is good enough for initial weight studies and cost
estimation.)
When Update is pressed, Fibersim rolls up the analysis data of
the laminate's children. If approximate analysis data is used for
one or more of the plies then this option will be checked.

Analysis Status

Specifies whether the laminates net analysis is up-to-date or


out-of-date.

Zone-Based Weight

Preliminary weight estimate of the composite part, based on


zone boundaries.

Update

Updates Net boundary analysis information.

Net
This data is calculated based on the net boundaries.
Center of Gravity

Center of gravity of the laminate, given in X, Y and Z


coordinates. This is an area-weighted average of all centers of
gravity of the plies and cores that compose the laminate.
Calculation is based upon the Net boundary. If flat patterns are
generated for extended boundaries of the constituent plies, but
not for net boundaries, no center of gravity values are
calculated.
NOTE: Net flat patterns must be run before Fibersim can
calculate the center of gravity.

Area

Total area of all plies and cores in the laminate.

Weight

Total material weight of all plies and cores in the laminate.

Cost

Total cost of the material used.

Perimeter

Summary of perimeters for all plies and cores, on the flat


pattern.

MOI Tensor

The moment of inertia (MOI) is important for designing


automotive parts. Fibersim will calculate, at the laminate level,
the inertia tensor (moment of inertia about the arbitrary axis)
for a composite part.

with Cutout

Chapter 2: Basic

25

2.3 Laminates

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Assert into NX
Weight
Management

This option asserts the net analysis (with cutout values) of


weight, center of gravity and moments of inertia in the NX part,
using advanced weight management.

Center of Gravity

Displays the engineering, or net, center of gravity coordinates.

Area

Net/Engineering area of the flat pattern.

Weight

Net/Engineering weight of the flat pattern.

Cost

Net/Engineering material cost of the flat pattern.

Perimeter

Net/Engineering perimeter of the flat pattern.

MOI Tensor

The moment of inertia (MOI) is important for designing


automotive parts. Fibersim will calculate, at the laminate level,
the inertia tensor (moment of inertia about the arbitrary axis)
for a composite part.

Extended
This data is calculated based on the extended boundaries, also known as the
manufacturing boundary.
Analysis Status

The status for the analysis, either up-to-date or out-of-date.

Area

Extended/manufacturing area of the flat pattern.

Weight

Extended/manufacturing weight of the flat pattern.

Cost

Extended/manufacturing material cost for the flat pattern.

Perimeter

Extended/manufacturing perimeter of the flat pattern.

MOI Tensor

The moment of inertia (MOI) is important for designing


automotive parts. Fibersim will calculate, at the laminate level,
the inertia tensor (moment of inertia about the arbitrary axis)
for a composite part.

Update

Updates the extended boundary analysis information.

Chapter 2: Basic

26

2.3 Laminates

2.3.4 Laminate Object Toolbar (with utilities)


NOTE: For details on these utilities, see Index B.

The laminate object toolbar:

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Material
Substitution

Allows you to substitute materials used for zone based design.

Symmetric
Laminate

Creates a duplicate dataset of a laminate, by mirroring


information about a symmetry plane.

Manufacturing
Laminate Creation

Lets you create a manufacturing dataset (a child dataset)


from an engineering dataset (the parent dataset). The
parent is then linked to the child.

2D Laminate
Creation

Allows you to create a 2D representation of the 3D laminate,


by flattening 3D laminate data to a 2D laminate.

Zone to Layer
Analysis

Automatically creates layers and plies from zone definitions.

Explode Laminate

Creates a visual representation of the ply stack-up, on a


selected laminate. This tool explodes each ply, at a specified
distance from each other

Step Utility

Applies Step values based on layer areas.

Drop-Off Order
Utility

This utility assigns drop-off order values to layers for a given


material.

Mirror Laminate

Creates mirrored, or copied, plies based on a set of existing


plies.

Chapter 2: Basic

27

2.4 Rosettes

2.4 Rosettes
When a composite part is designed, a rosette is typically referenced on the part drawing.
This rosette defines the fiber orientations for the part and all plies composing the part.
When a single rosette is defined, fiber orientations elsewhere in the part are calculated
based on that rosette. During ply definition, you can simply enter a numeric value for ply
orientation and the actual 3D orientation of the ply will be calculated based on the rosette.
Rosettes generally consist of four reference arrows emanating from a point, with each
arrow representing one of the 0, 45, 90, or -45 directions.
A rosette is often referenced only for a single 2D view of the part. For flat or simply shaped
parts, transferring the rosette direction to a given location on the part can be
straightforward; however, for even mildly complex surfaces, interpreting the rosette
direction on the part can be very difficult or even ambiguous. This ambiguity can cause a
composite part to be manufactured without the intended fiber orientations of the stress
analyst.
Fibersim rosettes are very similar to a conventional rosette referenced in part drawings.
The major difference is that Fibersim rosettes are defined in 3D space on the part surface,
and can be used as a meaningful orientation reference at any point on that surface.
Because it is defined in 3D, Fibersim rosettes have advantages. The orientation reference
can be automatically transferred anywhere on the part, accurately accounting for part
curvature. You can also enter numeric values when defining ply orientation, from 0
360. When modifications are made to the rosette, the orientations of all plies referencing
the rosette are updated automatically, so that subsequent producibility analyses reflect
the change.
After the producibility simulation has been run, Fibersims Design Station utility can
report true fiber orientations at any point on the part surface, by measuring fiber
orientations at that point against a reference rosette.

Chapter 2: Basic

28

2.4 Rosettes

2.4.1 Rosette Requirements


At a minimum, rosettes are defined using a laminate surface, an origin point on the
surface, 0 direction, defined by a curve emanating from the origin point and a curve
representing the parts zero degree direction at that point.
Besides the 0 direction, all other directions are automatically calculated by rotating the 0
direction about the laminate surface normal, at the rosette origin, using the right-hand
rule to determine positive orientations.

Rosette Orientations (based on the right-hand rule)

Chapter 2: Basic

29

2.4 Rosettes

2.4.2 Rosette Mapping Types


When a rosette orientation is transformed to a different ply origin, the resultant direction
of the ply will depend greatly on how the rosettes directions are mapped. Fibersim takes
into account curvature of the layup surface and the rosette mapping technique.
In general, a given part will use only one type of rosette mapping technique, regardless of
the number of rosettes placed on the part. The selection of the correct mapping technique
depends on the output desired and the curvature of the part.
However, there are particular guidelines for determining the recommended technique
based on the curvature of the part, and in most cases these guidelines will determine what
mapping is selected.
Fibersim uses these rosette mapping techniques: Standard, Translational, Radial and
Spine-Based.

Standard Mapping
With standard mapping, orientation is mapped from the rosette in a way that conforms
to part curvature. This correlates to how the fibers of a composite material conform to a
surface. Fibers begin at the specified orientation only at the ply origin, then conform to the
curvature of the part.

In this image, the different sides of the cube can be viewed as drastic changes in
curvature, as the rosette is mapped to different areas of the cube. Surface normals point
outward in all directions. Since the Standard rosette always takes the surface normals at
the new map point into account, the orientation mapping will always be what is intuitively
correct.
Notice that there is no arrow on the surface that is opposite the surface in which the
rosette is defined on. Standard rosettes map by intersecting two planes, one at the rosette
origin and one at the ply origin. In this case, the two surfaces are parallel so there is no
line of intersection for the planes.
Fibersim will transpose the rosette directions exactly as defined on the rosette surface to
the parallel surface. If not the desired behavior, you should define a new rosette on the
parallel surface.

Chapter 2: Basic

30

2.4 Rosettes

Translational Mapping
Translation type mapping is considered a direct translation mapping technique.
Surface normals of the laminate surface are ignored and Fibersim conducts an exact pointto-point translation when mapping the rosette. The 0 direction is mapped directly, and
other fiber orientations are calculated by rotating the translated 0 direction around the
normal at the ply origin (not at the normal of the rosette). The most common cases where
a point-to-point translation mapping is desired is in perfect surfaces of revolution where
you want the 0 direction to always be parallel to an axis:

Translational Rosette Mapping

Note that Translational mapping does not apply to the majority of parts. Note the cube
example again, now using directional translation mapping. Note that the point-to-point
translation fails on two out of the six faces.

How NOT to Use Translational Mapping

The best rosette mapping for a part is a standard mapping that uses surface normals.
Direct translations are only desired on a small subset of parts, such as surfaces of
revolution, as shown above.

Chapter 2: Basic

31

2.4 Rosettes

Radial Mapping
Radial Rosette mapping is a specialized form of translation, used for spherical-shaped
parts.
In this type of mapping, the point-to-point transformation takes place but the 0 direction
is always set in the direction of translation, or radial from the center of the part. Thus, a
Radial Rosette is always placed in the exact center of the part. When the mapping takes
place, the direction of the 0 orientation is thus always pointing outward in a radial
direction. The rosette origin must be placed in the exact center of the part.

45

90

0
-45

Spine-Based Mapping
This is for spine-based parts which provides a better orientation mapping, for parts like
the nose of a fuselage. It defines the fiber orientation along a spine, used for part
definition. The selected spine curve must have a direction (which can be reversed).
NOTE: Similar to the translational rosette, the spine-based rosette must lie on a
laminate surface (though not necessarily the part surface).

Chapter 2: Basic

32

2.4 Rosettes

Field-Based Rosettes (details)


This fiber field rosette type allows you to define a rosette as a fiber field. The fiber field is
defined by the 0 degree orientations specified on each element in the CAE mesh. These
points are included in the file as the rosette's mapping over the entire surface of the part.
You create a field-based rosette by importing from an HDF5 or CP XML external file. This
automatically creates a central point and direction for those rosette members.
The origin, direction, and mapping type members become read-only. The "Mapping-type"
will only display one option (Field-Based) and it will not be user-selectable. Field data will
be saved on the rosette object as a point cloud. When Fibersim maps to a point, nearby
data points are found and a result is calculated based on these points.
NOTE: CAE import/export interfaces are discussed in Chapter 9.
At this point, the field-based rosette functions in the same way as any other rosette, with
the exception of highlighting, which will show a vector field instead of the rosette data at
just the origin.
Note the new "field" rosette mapping visualization. This will show the zero-direction
mapping over the rosette surface. For non-field rosettes, this will be based off of a
visualization mesh. This visualization mode allows users to see how the specified rosette
maps over the surface.

Chapter 2: Basic

33

2.4 Rosettes

2.4.3 How to Define a Rosette


How a rosette is defined will directly affect how the rosette maps fiber directions on a
composite part.

Standard Rosettes
A standard rosette is used on the majority of composite parts. To create a standard
rosette, you only need a point and a curve on the tool surface. The point defines the origin
of the rosette, and the curve defines the zero direction of the rosette.

Standard Rosette Type Definition

Geometry to define a Standard Rosette:

an Origin Point (must be on the Direction curve)


a Direction Curve

Both of these must be on the parent Tool Surface.


Create a laminate that is associated to the Tool Surface, and also a rosette that is
associated to the Origin Point and Direction Curve. The rosette must have the laminate
that contains the Tool Surface as its parent.
Once all data is associated, Fibersim will correctly map the zero direction of the Standard
rosette to the ply origins.

Chapter 2: Basic

34

2.4 Rosettes

Translational Rosettes
Translational Rosettes are used on surfaces of revolution that must have the zero direction
always pointing down the axis of the part. Examples of such tool shapes are composite
nose cones, and aircraft engine nacelles. This method of defining a Translational Rosette
will directly influence how the zero direction is mapped around the composite part.
If you place the rosette origin point and direction curve directly on the conical surface, the
zero direction will not correctly map around the composite part. Plies that use the rosette
origin as their origin will have a correct zero direction, however if an alternate origin point
is selected for a ply, the mapping will not behave as desired.

Translational Rosette (Incorrectly defined)

Ply01 uses the rosette origin as the plys origin. In this case, no mapping needs to occur,
so Ply01 will have a correct zero direction. However, Ply02 requires the direction to be
mapped from the Rosette origin to the Plys origin. This creates an erroneous mapping, as
seen above.
The zero direction for Ply02 is skewed in from where it should be mapped. This will cause
the simulation to run in this incorrectly mapped direction. Incorrect mapping can be
avoided by defining a Translational Rosette like this:

Translational Rosette (Correctly defined)

Chapter 2: Basic

35

2.4 Rosettes

To correctly define a Translational Rosette for a conical part, an additional surface needs
to be created for the rosette definition. This surface needs to be a planar surface that
passes through the cones axis. The rosettes origin and direction then need to be defined
on this surface.
The direction curve needs to be collinear with the cones axis, to ensure that the zero
direction for the rosette is exactly down the axis of revolution for the conical shape. The
rosette origin point then needs to be on the rosette direction curve for a correct rosette
definition. Once the rosette is defined, the zero direction for all the plies defined on the
conical surface will be mapped correctly.
Notice that the Ply02 zero direction is now mapped correctly, when compared to the
incorrect mapping.
To correctly associate the geometric definition, the surface used for the rosette definition
needs to be associated to a Laminate, that will only be used to define the Translational
Rosette.
Then the conical surface (Tool Surface) needs to be associated to a second Laminate,
which will be the highest-level Laminate in the composite hierarchy. The laminates
created for the Translational Rosette and for the Tool Surface should not be
parented to each other. The Laminate created for the Translational Rosette is only used
for creating the Translational Rosette. The hierarchy should look like this:

Translational Rosette Laminate Hierarchy

When defining Translational Rosette, you must select the rosette laminate as the parent,
then associate the direction curve and origin point (defined on the planar surface) to the
Translational Rosette.
You then create Tool Surface laminates as necessary. After selecting the created
Translational rosette in each ply, the zero direction will be correctly mapped to the ply
origin for the conical shape.

Chapter 2: Basic

36

2.4 Rosettes

Radial Rosettes
Radial Rosettes should be used on surfaces of revolution that must have the zero direction
pointing in a radial direction on the part. Most parts that use a Radial Rosette are dish or
bowl shaped, such as composite satellite dishes and radomes. Often for these types of
surfaces, designers need the zero direction of the fabric to always point along the radial
direction of the part. How the Radial Rosette is defined will directly influence how the zero
direction is mapped around the composite part.
Radial Rosettes are defined by placing the rosette origin point at the exact center of the
dish shape. The fiber direction curve also needs to start, or at least pass through, the
center of the dish shape.

Radial Rosette Definition

You need to create a laminate that is associated to the Tool Surface, and also needs a
rosette that is associated to the Origin Point and Direction Curve. The rosette must have
the Laminate that contains the Tool Surface as its parent. Once this data is correctly
associated, Fibersim will correctly map the zero direction of the Radial Rosette to the ply
origins.

Chapter 2: Basic

37

2.4 Rosettes

2.4.4 Rosette User Interface


This section defines functions of each rosette member:

MEMBER

Surface
Origin
Direction

Chapter 2: Basic

DESCRIPTION

Select a surface for the rosette.


The origin point of the rosette. This point must exist on the
rosettes laminate surface, and also lie on the direction curve.
Defines the 0 direction of the rosette. The direction curve must
exist on the parent laminate surface, and terminate at the rosette
origin.

38

2.4 Rosettes

Start Angle

Defines the first Rosette spoke as -45 or 0 (see below):

-45 displays spoke orientations as -45, 0, 45, and


90
0 displays spoke orientations as 0, 45, 90, and 135

Fibersim displays the 0 spoke with an arrow. By knowing the 0


direction, you can interpret remaining spoke orientations.
0

0
-45

45

45

90

90
Start Angle = -45

135
S ta rt A n g le = 0

Start Angle of -45


Direction Angle

Start Angle of 0

Angle of the selected direction curve (in degrees).


NOTE: When a rosette is Translational, it may be defined from
reference of the Y-direction (90 degree axis), instead of always
the X-direction (0 degree axis).
If a different coordinate system is being used that is not currently
supported by Fibersim, use a translational rosette with the Ydirection (or rosette 90 degree axis), to align with the centerline of
a part.

Display Length
from Member

Length of rosettes spokes or vector directions, when displayed on


the part surface. Lengths should be set relative to the parts size.

Create Rosette
Geometry

Whether Fibersim will create CAD geometry for the rosette (Yes)
or not (No).
Fibersim always creates the 0 spoke with an arrow, so you can
visually tell which spoke is the 0 direction, and interpret the
remaining spoke orientations.

Hand Direction

Direction of increasing degree angle of the rosette. Used in


conjunction with the surface normals at the rosette origin.

Right and Left Hand Rosettes

Chapter 2: Basic

39

2.4 Rosettes

Mapping Type

Defines the mapping type used to generate Rosette orientations.


Mapping types are:

Standard
Translational
Radial
Spine-Based

NOTE: When a rosette is Translational, it may be defined from


reference of the Y-direction (90 degree axis), instead of always
the X-direction (0 degree axis).
Set the Direction Angle.
If a different coordinate system is used not currently supported by
Fibersim, use a translational rosette with the Y-direction (or rosette
90 degree axis) to align with the centerline of a part.
Deviation
Warning Angle

Deviation display warning angle for the rosette.

Limit Angle

Deviation display limit angle for the rosette.

Chapter 2: Basic

40

2.5 Plies

2.5 Plies
A ply represents a single piece of material in a composite part. A building block of a
composite part, it contains a great deal of information because it exists in 2D as well as
3D. Together, plies and cores represent actual materials used to fabricate a composite
part. At a minimum, plies are defined with the following:

a laminate surface
material type
orientation
origin (layup start point)
3D boundary

Sequence and step values are used to specify each plys order in the laminate stackup.
Plies must first be fabricated (generally cut out) from a sheet of 2D material. This cut out
is known as a flat pattern. The pattern is then laid up on a 3D tool. Fibersim stores all
2D, 3D, and non-geometric information describing a ply including boundaries, orientation,
material type, stackup order, and flat pattern.

2.5.1 About 3D Geometry (for ply definitions)


Since plies exist in both 3D and 2D there is the potential for several pieces of CAD
geometry to be associated to a ply.

In 3D, plies require an origin, direction, and a boundary. Plies may also have
holes and markers associated to them in 3D.
In 2D, plies contain a flat pattern that represents the shape of the composite
material that will be cutout and used in the manufacturing process. Plies can
also contain a 2D origin, direction, markers, and holes.

Fibersim uses two different ply boundaries: the Net boundary is the as-designed part
boundary, and the Extended boundary defines any excess trim necessary for
manufacturing.
This integration of ply boundaries allows Fibersim to be used for both the design and
manufacture of a composite part. If an Extended boundary is defined for the parent
Laminate, Fibersim can auto-extend the plys net boundary to generate manufacturing
trim for the ply.
Once the 3D ply definition has been defined and producibility/flat pattern simulations have
run, the result is a 2D flat pattern. To modify the shape of a flat pattern, you should
modify the 3D ply definition.

Chapter 2: Basic

41

2.5 Plies

2.5.2 Ply (interface)


This section shows the members used for ply objects.

The Ply Toolbar


This toolbar contains the controls for running simulations, as well as ply-related utilities.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Net Producibility

Runs producibility simulations for the Net boundary.

Net Flat Pattern

Generates the net flat pattern.

Extended
Producibility

Runs producibility simulations for the Extended boundary.

Extended Flat
Pattern

Generates the extended flat pattern.

Flat Pattern Layout

See chapter 7 for details on this utility.

Detect Course
Challenges

Allows Fibersim to detect basic issues with the producibility of


machine-laid plies, (i.e. minimum across cut angle problems
for tape, and minimum course length problems for fiber
placement).

Splice Ply

Lets you splice selected plies based on predefined boundaries.

Ply Drop-Off

Creates smooth transitions, along boundaries of pad-up of


plies.

Fiber Path Curve


Creation

Lets you create curves after receiving producibility results.

Chapter 2: Basic

42

2.5 Plies

Standard Tab

MEMBER

Parent

DESCRIPTION

Parent laminate of the ply.


NOTE: Plies automatically inherit their layup surface and boundary
(unless one is specifically defined) from the parent.

Material

The material from which the ply is made (from the materials
database). The material will determine the plys drapability
characteristics, thickness, areal weight, and material bolt width.

Rosette

The rosette associated to the ply. By default, ply origin is inherited


from the rosette.

Specified
Orientation
Sequence
Step

The ply's orientation, based on the selected rosette. You can enter both
positive and negative integers. See the special note below on for
details on NCF materials.
Defines the plys sequence in the composite part stackup.
Defines the plys step number within the composite part stackup. Must
be a real number value.

Geometry - Net
Origin

Where on the 3D surface the ply layup begins. By default, the origin is
inherited from the rosette, but you can select an alternate point. Ply
origins must reside within the plys net boundary.
Note how the location of the origin can affect future flat patterns.

Boundary
Holes
Producibility

Chapter 2: Basic

Defines the plys engineering boundary.


Defines net (or engineering) holes for the component.
Displays producibility results.

43

2.5 Plies

Flat Pattern

Whether the Net Flat Pattern is out of date or up-to-date.

Geometry - Extended
Origin
Boundary
Holes

Where on the 3D surface the ply layup begins


Defines the plys manufacturing part boundary.
Defines the extended 3D boundary of any holes in the ply.

Producibility

Displays producibility results.

Flat Pattern

Whether or not the extended flat pattern is out of date.

Simulation Options - See the section below for details on the simulation options.

Wrapped
You can define a ply that overlaps itself (i.e. a wrapped ply) with this option. However,
note that this is only available on plies that have a two-domain boundary.
Define a Start and End curve, and you can also reverse the direction of the wrapping
direction.
See the note below for more details.
Start Curve

This must be a continuous curve on the laminate surface that crosses


the entire width of the overlap region. It also cannot intersect the End
Curve.

End Curve

This must be a continuous curve on the laminate surface the crosses


the entire width of the overlap region. It also cannot intersect the
Start Curve.

Reverse
Direction

Toggle which way the overlapping direction goes.

Chapter 2: Basic

44

2.5 Plies

Notes on Wrapped plies


Here we have an example of a two-domain defined ply (blue curves/hoops) on a simple
tube shape:

Green phantom drawn line - This is the defined start curve. It denotes the
beginning of the overlapping section.

Red phantom drawn line - This is the defined end curve. It denotes the end of the
overlapping section.

Green arrows - These denote the direction of the overlapping. This can be toggled
in either direction using the Reverse Direction button.

Chapter 2: Basic

45

2.5 Plies

CAD Note (NX only): Periodic Faces


Fibersim has difficulty simulating on periodic faces that contain the parametric seam
(where surface parameterization resets from 1 to 0). One indication of this condition is a
simulation error about invalid topology:

If this condition is encountered, the surface can be split along the seam. To do this use the
"Divide Face" command and split the surface with a plane, surface or curve that lies on the
seam.
To determine where the seam is on the surface, create a point on a surface edge using the
"Point on Curve/Edge" constraint at 0% of the curve length:

The 0/1 location of the edge is the seam location. If the surface is an extruded sketch, it
usually lies on the X-axis of the sketch. If it is a revolved section, it is the sketch plane of
the section. Once the surface has been split, Fibersim should run as normal.
NOTE: This is strictly an issue on the NX platform.

Chapter 2: Basic

46

2.5 Plies

Net Geometry Tab

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Net 3D Geometry
Origin
Boundary

Specify the point on the 3D surface where the ply layup begins.
Defines the plys engineering boundary.

Holes

Defines net holes for the component.

Darts

Curves used to eliminate wrinkling, without splicing the ply. Includes


both slit and v-shaped darts.
The same dart can be used across multiple plies, to run
producibility, and generate a flat pattern.

Direction

The plys principal 3D fiber direction at the origin. By default, this is


determined by mapping the specified orientation from the rosette to
the plys origin.
Specify a direction by associating a curve. (The direction curve must
pass through the ply origin.)

Actual
Orientation

Chapter 2: Basic

The actual or measured orientation (if different from the specified


orientation).

47

2.5 Plies

Markers
Producibility
Width Exceeded

Miscellaneous 3D curves or points to be mapped to the 2D flat


pattern.
Displays producibility results.
Indicates if the width is exceeded.

Material Width Lines


Material Width

Width of the ply material used for the simulation.

Override Width

Override the default material width with a user-defined value.

Material Width
Offset

Shifts material width lines by this value.

Positioning
Method

Select an option to adjust the positions of the material width.

Net Flat Pattern


Fibersim Flat
Pattern

The Fibersim-generated flat pattern.


NOTE: If you manually edit the pattern, Fibersim moves it to
Customized Flat Pattern, which override Net Flat Patterns. When
a ply is exported, the customized pattern is exported as well.

Customized Flat
Pattern

User-customized flat pattern, that overrides the Fibersimgenerated one. When plies are exported, customized patterns are,
too.
NOTE: If you manually edit the flat pattern, it is moved here.

Flat Pattern Options

Analyze Customized Flat Pattern


If this is checked, analysis results will be based on the customized
flat pattern, not the default one.
Additional 2D Markers
Adds 2D markers (additional CAD geometry), in flat patterns.
NOTE: 2D markers are not included in Laser Projection output.
Direction Length Factor
Flat pattern direction length is the default length, multiplied by this
factor.

Chapter 2: Basic

48

2.5 Plies

Extended Geometry Tab

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Extend
Perpendicular

Extends the net boundary, perpendicular to the laminate net


boundary.
Geodesic
Ext ension
Perpendicular
Ext ension
Ext ended
Boundary

Net Boundary

Geodesic
Ext ension
Perpendicular
Ext ension

Extended 3D Geometry
Origin
Boundary

Holes

Chapter 2: Basic

The origin point for the ply.


Extended boundary (or manufacturing boundary) of the ply. If an
extended boundary is defined for parent laminate, Fibersim
generates the extended boundary.
Defines the extended 3D boundary of any holes in the ply.

49

2.5 Plies

Darts
Direction
Actual Orientation
Markers
Producibility

Curves used to eliminate wrinkling, without splicing the ply.


Major fiber direction, of the material.
The actual or measured orientation (if different from the specified
orientation).
Miscellaneous 3D curves or points to be mapped to the flat
pattern.
Displays producibility results.

Choose a manufacturing process for the ply being created:

Manual
Automated Tape Layup
Fiber Placement

Manual
Flat Pattern

Link to the Fibersim-generated flat pattern. If you manually edit


this pattern, Fibersim moves it to Customized Flat Pattern.
A Customized Flat Pattern overrides this one. When the ply is
exported, the customized flat pattern is as well.

Customized Flat
Pattern

The extended, user-customized flat pattern. This overrides a


Fibersim-generated flat pattern.

Automated Tape Laying


Orientation
Tolerance

Angular tolerance allowed, when interfacing with the Ingersoll


Fiber Placement machine.
Angle is considered both plus and minus based on nominal
orientation values. If you enter 5 for a 45 ply, the machine
can deviate up to an orientation of 50 and down to an
orientation of 40 (45 5).

Minimum Course
Extensions

List of minimum course extensions to apply to the extended


boundary. These allow you to alter the non-tangent corners of ply
shapes, to account for minimum course restrictions imposed by
using automated deposition machines.
See Chapter 6 for more details

Course Challenges
Stagger Origin
Extended Ramps

If course challenges are detected, this is set to Yes or No.


Links to an object that controls the staggering of origin.
List of ramps to apply to the extended boundary. They let you
automatically ramp down the plies extended boundaries.
See Chapter 6 for more details.

Fiber Placement - Same members as Automated Tape Laying.

Chapter 2: Basic

50

2.5 Plies

Simulation Options tab


These options give you more control over how the producibility simulation is run.

MEMBER

Specified
Orientation

DESCRIPTION

The ply's orientation, based on the selected rosette. You can enter
both positive and negative integers.
See the section below Enhanced Support for NCF materials.

Actual
Orientation
Fiber Spacing
Factor

The actual or measured orientation (if different from the specified


orientation).
Controls simulation cell size. Default of 1.0 is usually sufficient for an
accurate simulation, and to generate an accurate flat pattern.
Smaller fiber spacing results in denser producibility results. But there
are times when it is necessary to decrease this value in order to
maintain accuracy.

Chapter 2: Basic

51

2.5 Plies

Simulation
Method

Allows you to select the type of simulation to run on a ply-by-ply


basis:
Traditional
Curvature Adaptive - used with NCF materials
Spine (beta) *
* If you select "Spine (beta)" as the simulation type:

Propagation Method will be set to "To Curve" and be readonly.

Whatever is set as the Specified Orientation will determine


what is set for the Propagation Direction (e.g. setting a 45
degree orientation would set the direction to
"Bias(+WeaveAngle/2)"). This will also be set to read-only.

Options

Simulation
Surface

An alternate simulation surface, used to eliminate holes from the


producibility simulation.

First Stage
Region

Simulation will run in this region first, prior to flattening the


remainder of the ply. Must consist of a set of closed curves.

Constant
Offset Mode

Whether or not to offset the simulation/flat pattern from the tool.

Unchecked results generated on parent laminates surface.


checked producibility results generated at a constant offset
from the layup surface (as specified in Offset Thickness).

Propagation

Propagation
Method
options

Producibility simulation propagation method.

Standard simulation starts at Origin, works progressively


outward in a radial fashion (simulates hand layup process).

To Curve simulation places cells along the Fiber Direction


Curve. This simulates a layup operator or a Tape/Fiber Placement
machine manually steering fibers along a chosen path.

About Curve simulates a layup operator first smoothing the


material around the Fiber Direction curve, then works outward
until it reaches the ply boundary.

The display images will update based on the selected simulation options
and ply material.
These images illustrate how the simulation will solve for producibility.
While this is a diagram of propagation and not related to the geometry of
the part, it helps users to better understand the impact of the set options
on simulation results.

Chapter 2: Basic

52

2.5 Plies

About Curve
propagation

When the Propagation Method is set to About Curve, you can


constrain the simulation propagation along an arbitrary curve, not
just the fiber direction curve. (You can select these two curves
independently.) When producibility is run, the selected constraint
curve will be used to constrain the simulation propagation.
Fibersim will automatically upgrade existing parts that have a curve
set for the Direction member and the ply is using an "About Curve" or
"To Curve" propagation method. Also, plies that are using the spinebased simulation will also be upgraded to use the Constraint Curve.
The data upgrade will link the Constraint Curve member to the same
curve that is linked to the Direction member. Fibersim will NOT clear
the curve linked to the Direction member since this could have other
undesired effects on the ply's orientation. Users can manually clear
the curve linked to the Direction member if they desire.

To Curve
propagation

"To Curve: Geodesic" - Fibersim calculates the constraint curve from


the specified orientation.
"To Curve: Curve" - a user-specified constraint curve is used.

Fiber Angle
from Curve
Usable when
propagation is
set to "To Curve"

Results Display

Direction of the simulation cell propagation:

-45
0
45
90

How the plys simulation results are displayed.


See the section below.

Reference
Rosette

Select the rosette to provide a reference.


NOTE: Used when Results Display is set to Deviation

Offset
Thickness

Chapter 2: Basic

The offset distance used in constant offset producibility.


NOTE: Offset Mode must be set to Constant.

53

2.5 Plies

How a Plys simulation results display

Deformation (default) Fiber paths are colored, indicating the level of distortion
the material will undergo during layup. Blue areas will undergo little or no material
distortion, yellow areas will undergo some distortion, and red areas will undergo
significant distortion, causing wrinkling.

Deviation Fiber paths throughout the ply are measured against a reference
Rosette, and are colored depending on whether they exceed allowable values for
deviation as specified on the rosette.

Areas whose fiber orientation deviates from the plys specified orientation by
less than the limit value specified on the rosette will be white.
Areas whose fiber orientation deviates from the specified orientation by more
than the warning value, will be yellow.
Areas whose fiber orientation deviates from the specified orientation by more
than the limit value are red.

Steering calculates the radius of curvature of the fiber paths, and then the
fiberpaths are colored, depending on whether they are below the allowable values for
radius of curvature.
NOTE: Steering display uses values specified in the TowROCWarning and
TowROCLimit parameters (in the materials database).

Minimum Course displays any minimum course length problems that may occur
for the given ply shape. Use this option when you are running a simulation on a ply
whose material is a tow material or a tape material. (These types of materials are laid
down by fiber placement and tape laying machines.)
An ADD Machine must be linked to the plys parent laminate.
IMPORTANT NOTE: With this simulation type, Fibersim is not doing any sort of
path planning.
The display has been enhanced to show tape and tow course for the visual
appearance only.

Chapter 2: Basic

54

2.5 Plies

Enhanced Support for NCF Materials


Fibersim supports the input of non-crimped fabric (NCF) material orientations. NCF
materials can contain two or more layers of fiber tows, stitched together. The challenge is
to specify a single orientation to represent this material.
You can enter a series of orientations, that represent the different layers of fibers stitched
together in the NCF material.
Enters the NCF orientations here, using a series of angles, separated by a / symbol. The
specified orientations can be positive or negative values:

NOTE: To use an NCF material, you need to define the <MaterialForm> member in the
Materials Database as NCF:
<MaterialForm>NCF</MaterialForm>

Chapter 2: Basic

55

2.5 Plies

Analysis tab
Net Analysis data is calculated based on Net boundaries. (Cutouts are holes in the
composite part that are generally machined after the part has cured.) Incorporating the
cutout into the plies weight analysis gives an accurate ply weight.

MEMBER
Preliminary Analysis
Data
Update Preliminary
Analysis Data

Analysis Status

Chapter 2: Basic

DESCRIPTION
Fibersim provides the ability to compute approximate analysis
data (i.e. area, weight, cost) without first running a draping
simulation.
Users may often want to generate quick estimates of part weight
and do not want to have to run the simulation on all plies to get it.
The draping simulation provides exact analysis data taking into
account deformations induced by draping. However, early on in
the design process exact data is not required (i.e. approximate
analysis data is enough for initial weight studies and cost
estimation).

After defining a ply, press Update Preliminary Analysis


Data. Fibersim will compute its approximate analysis data
and the Preliminary Analysis Data checkbox will be
checked.

Upon running a simulation for a given ply, Fibersim will


populate the exact net analysis data and the Preliminary
Analysis Data checkbox will be un-checked.

Status for the net analysis, either up-to-date or out-of-date.

56

2.5 Plies

Net - both excluding and including cutouts. Members populate when Net Producibility is
run.
Center of Gravity

Area
Weight
Cost

Perimeter
MOI Tensor

The center of gravity of the ply, given in X, Y and Z coordinates.


Calculation is based upon the net boundary. (Net flat pattern must
be run to calculate it.)
Total area of the plys flat pattern.
Total material weight of the ply.
Total material cost for the ply. This is obtained by multiplying the
calculated ply weight by the materials database entry for cost/
weight.
Total perimeter of the ply.
The moment of inertia (MOI) is important for designing
automotive parts. Fibersim calculates the inertia tensor (moment
of inertia about the arbitrary axis) for a part.

Extended
Members populate when Extended Producibility is run.
Analysis Status
Area
Weight
Cost
Perimeter
MOI Tensor

Chapter 2: Basic

The status for the extended analysis, either up-to-date or out-ofdate.


Extended manufacturing area of the flat pattern.
Extended manufacturing weight of the flat pattern.
Extended manufacturing cost of materials, for the flat pattern.
Extended perimeter of the flat pattern.
The moment of inertia (MOI) is important for designing
automotive parts. Fibersim calculates the inertia tensor (moment
of inertia about the arbitrary axis) for a composite part.

57

2.6 Cores

2.6 Cores
Cores are used to represent components of a composite layup. Plies are used to represent
pieces of material that are laid onto the tool surface, and cores are used to represent other
types of inserts incorporated into the layup. At a minimum, cores are defined using a
laminate surface and 3D boundary. Sequence and step values are used to specify each
cores order in the laminate stackup.
When designing composite parts it is often necessary to include a piece of core or other
insert in the composite stackup. There are four types of cores:

Virtual Step Core


Virtual Core
Virtual Variable Core
Modeled Core

2.6.1 Virtual Step Cores


A Virtual Step Core is a core type for handling the most common core (a standard core
with a step). This type of core aids in the use of defining these types of cores within
Fibersim.

MEMBER
Parent
Sequence
Step

Chapter 2: Basic

DESCRIPTION
A core requires a parent laminate, with an associated surface.
Cores sequence in the composite part stackup.
The cores Step number within the sequence. Must be real number.

58

2.6 Cores

Material

Specify the material from which the core is fabricated.

Thickness Status

Whether the thickness is out-of-date or up-to-date.

Geometry
Origin
Ribbon Direction

The origin point for the core.


The ribbon direction of the core.
Defined using a curve on the 3D layup surface. The curve must reside
within the cores boundary.

Boundary

The cores footprint on its parents layup surface.


Boundary curves must exist on the parent laminates layup surface,
and form a closed loop that lies completely inside the laminates
extended boundary.

Holes

Holes that are cut out of the core.


Each hole must be a single closed curve, that exists on the parent
laminates layup surface.

Solid

The core solid, used to attain analysis properties.

Core Dimensions
Thickness

Core thickness from the base shape to the top of the core. Used in
Core samples, and laser projection calculations.

Bevel Angle

Constant angle of the bevel of a parametric core top.

Step Height

The cores step height.

Chapter 2: Basic

59

2.6 Cores

2.6.2 Virtual Cores


Virtual Core objects define the boundary, or footprint, of the core on the 3D layup
surface, as well as the cross-sectional shape of the core, using numeric values for
thickness, bevel angle, and blend radius.
NOTE: Over-core surfaces must be modeled explicitly to generate accurate producibility
and Flat Pattern data.

MEMBER
Parent
Sequence
Step
Material
Thickness Status

Chapter 2: Basic

DESCRIPTION
A core requires a parent laminate, with an associated surface.
Cores sequence in the composite part stackup.
The cores Step number within the sequence. Must be real number.
Specifies material (from the database) from which the core is
fabricated.
Whether the thickness is out-of-date or up-to-date.

60

2.6 Cores

Geometry
Origin
Ribbon Direction
Boundary

The origin point for the core.


The ribbon direction of the core. Defined using a curve on the 3D
layup surface. The curve must reside within the cores boundary.
The cores footprint on its parents layup surface.
Boundary curves must exist on the parent laminates layup surface,
and form a closed loop that lies completely inside the laminates
extended boundary.

Holes

Holes that are cut out of the core. Each hole must be a single closed
curve, that exists on the parent laminates layup surface.

Solid

The core solid, used to attain analysis properties.

Core Top
Thickness
Bevel Angle

Core thickness from the base shape to the top of the Core. Used in
Core samples, and laser projection calculations. See image below.
Constant angle of the bevel of a parametric core top.

Core Bottom
Thickness

Thickness for the core from the base shape to the bottom of the core.
This thickness is used in core samples and laser projection
calculations.

Bevel Angle

Constant angle of the bevel of a parametric core top.


Top Thickness
Top Bevel Angle

Bottom Bevel
Angle
Bottom Thickness

Base Boundary

Virtual Core Thickness/Bevel Angle Definition

Chapter 2: Basic

61

2.6 Cores

2.6.3 Virtual Variable Cores


Virtual Variable Core objects define the base core boundary and top of core boundary.
You can vary the bevel angle of the core on all sides. Sometimes core pieces butt together
with a 90-degree edge, so make base and top boundaries coincident where the core will
butt to another core piece. (See images below.)
Differences in geometric shape of the Base and Top Boundary will define the core bevel
shape. In the area where the inner (cyan) curve overlaps the outer (black) curve, the core
will have a 90-degree edge. This technique defines multiple pieces of virtual core that will
butt together. By knowing the distance between the two curves and the thickness of the
core, the bevel angle can be approximated using simple trigonometry. (See images
below.)
There are several necessary variables to determine the bevel angle. You usually know the
core thickness (t) and the bevel angle (). In this case, the unknown variable is the
distance (D) between the base boundary and the top boundary. The distance (D) can be
determined like this: D = t/tan()
In another scenario, users may have the distance (D) and a thickness (t), and the
unknown is the angle (), which is found like this: = tan-1 (t/D)
NOTE: Trigonometry here assumes a right angle triangle can be formed. On surfaces of
large curvature, assuming this may result in erroneous results.
You can generate core sample, surface offset, and laser projection data without the need
for an explicitly modeled over-core surface. Note that over-core surfaces must be modeled
explicitly to generate accurate producibility and Flat Pattern data.

Virtual Variable Core Boundary Definition

Chapter 2: Basic

Bevel Angle

62

2.6 Cores

MEMBER
Parent

DESCRIPTION
Cores require a parent laminate with an associated surface.
NOTE: Both the Base and Top Boundary must be defined on the
surface of the parent laminate.

Sequence
Step
Material
Thickness Status

Defines the cores sequence in the composite part stackup.


Defines the cores step number within the parents sequence.
Must be a real number value.
Specifies the material from which the core is fabricated.
Whether the thickness is out-of-date or up-to-date.

Geometry
Origin

The origin point for the core.

Ribbon Direction

The ribbon direction of the Core. Defined using a curve on the 3D


layup surface. Curve must reside within the boundary.

Boundary

Outer boundary of the core. Boundary curves must exist on the


parent laminates layup surface, and form a closed loop that lies
completely inside the laminates extended boundary.

Holes

Chapter 2: Basic

Inner hole boundaries for the core.

63

2.6 Cores

Solid

The core solid, used to obtain analysis properties.

Core Top
Thickness

Cores top thickness.


Top Boundary

Top Thickness

Base Boundary

Bottom Boundary

Bottom Thickness

Virtual Variable Core Thickness Definition

Boundary

Top boundary of the core. Boundary curves must exist on the


parent laminates layup surface, and must form a closed loop that
lies completely inside the laminates extended boundary.

Holes

Top hole boundary of the core. Top hole curves must exist on the
parent laminates layup surface, and must form a closed loop that
lies completely inside the cores top boundary.

Core Bottom
Thickness

Cores bottom thickness.

Boundary

Bottom boundary of the core. Core boundary curves must exist


on the parent laminates layup surface, and must form a closed
loop that lies completely inside the laminates extended
boundary.

Holes

Chapter 2: Basic

Bottom hole boundary of the core. Top hole curves must exist on
the parent laminates layup surface, and form a closed loop that
lies completely inside the cores top boundary.

64

2.6 Cores

2.6.4 Modeled Cores


In order to generate accurate Flat Pattern and producibility data, a Modeled Core object
and over-core laminate/tool surface must be used.
Modeled Core objects define only the boundary, or footprint, of the core, while an overcore laminates layup surface defines the cores 3D shape. Producibility analysis for all
plies created as children of the over-core laminate will be performed using this over-core
layup surface, and core sample or laser projection thickness will be determined by
measuring the distance between the over-core surface and the preceding laminates layup
surface.
NOTE: Using Modeled Cores requires creation of an over-core laminate, immediately
following the core in the composite part stackup.

MEMBER
Parent
Sequence
Step
Material

Chapter 2: Basic

DESCRIPTION
Cores require a parent laminate with an associated layup surface.
Defines the cores sequence in the composite part stackup.
Defines the cores step number within the parents sequence. Must
be a real number value.
Specify the material from which the core is fabricated, from the
materials database.

65

2.6 Cores

Geometry
Origin

The origin point for the core.

Ribbon
Direction

The ribbon direction of the core. This is defined using a curve on the
3D surface, that must reside within the cores boundary.

Boundary

Defines the cores footprint on its parents layup surface.


Boundary curves must exist on the parent laminates layup surface,
and must form a closed loop that lies completely inside the parent
laminates extended boundary.

Holes

Inner hole boundaries for the core. Each hole must be a single
closed curve that exists on the parent laminates layup surface,
inside the core boundary.

Solid

The core solid, used to obtain analysis properties.

Specified
Thickness

Chapter 2: Basic

Defines a thickness value for the core.


Fibersim calculates the thickness based on the surface-to-surface
distance, and the defined ply stackup.

66

2.7 Design Stations

2.7 Design Stations


During the composite design process, it is often necessary to check various points
throughout a Laminate to determine if the design meets requirements, such as thickness,
ply count, and orientation. To this end, the design station object performs core samples
on the laminate.
Design station objects are defined by specifying a point of interest (origin) on the
laminate surface, where Fibersim will perform core samples. During a core sample,
Fibersim builds a list of all plies and cores covering the design station origin. Results are
stored on the design station object.
Fibersim offers several core sample types for obtaining laminate information:

A Summary core samples provide component list, specified orientation, and


thickness data.
A Detailed core samples provide actual fiber orientation data at the design station
origin, by measuring results from the producibility simulation against a reference
rosette.
A Laminate Rating core sample provides symmetry, balance, and warpage
calculations based on the specified orientation of each found ply.

Chapter 2: Basic

67

2.7 Design Stations

2.7.1 Understanding Core Sampling


The theory behind a core sample is that you should get the same results, regardless of the
surface the core sample is initiated on. Select a point in the general area and you should
obtain the same results, regardless of which surface the point originates.
NOTE: There are special cases where this theory can be disproved.

How Core Sampling Works


When generating a core sample, Fibersim creates an infinite line based on the surface
normal direction at the point where the sample is defined. Fibersim can intersect all
surfaces encountered along this line and create corresponding results. This is an example
of three flat plates, representing three different tool surfaces:

Surface Intersections
As seen by the green lines, Fibersim uses the surface normal at the sample location and
shoots out an infinite line. Results for the core sample points defined on Surface 1, Surface
2, and Surface 3 would be identical.
The image below is the same example, except plies have been added to further explain
the results.

Chapter 2: Basic

68

2.7 Design Stations

Surface Intersections (with plies)

There are three core sample locations defined; Point 1, 2, and 3. Core sample results for
these points are identical. The ordering of the laminates in the results is not dependent on
whether the core sample is taken at Point 1, 2, or 3. Results list the plies in parent
hierarchical order:
Surface 1 is the parent; so the plies are always listed first regardless of whether
the sample is done from Point 1, 2, or 3.
Surface 2, is the first child in hierarchical order so plies for this surface are
listed next.
Surface 3 is the second child, so these plies are listed last.
This creates the following ply order:

SURFACE 1:
Ply2
Ply1
SURFACE 2:
Ply4
Ply3
SURFACE 3:
Ply6
Ply5

Chapter 2: Basic

69

2.7 Design Stations

This is the order for each core sample defined at Point 1, 2, and 3. The order, based just
on parent hierarchy will always be the same, however, the order of plies on a given
surface can vary based on user-defined inputs.
These inputs include the surface normal direction and whether the laminate is defined as
ascending or descending.
There is one case that Fibersim will recognize that plies on a given laminate need to be
inverted, to ensure the core sample is listed in cross section order.
See the next section.

Chapter 2: Basic

70

2.7 Design Stations

Ply Listing (for IML Tool Surfaces)


Fibersim always lists core sample results based on the laminate parent hierarchy, and then
the Sequence and Step that individual plies have been assigned on each laminate. In
some cases, based on the normal direction and the laminate order (ascending or
descending), plies have to be inverted from the sequence step order to ensure they are
listed in cross sectional order.
For core samples that intersect more than two surfaces, many cases arise where inversion
may be necessary. Fibersim always displays the correct plies and ply information for a
given core sample result. However, due to the abundance of sequencing cases for multiple
surfaces, ply order listings can be non-intuitive. Fibersim will always process the correct
cross section ordering for core samples that intersect two surfaces, and the parent is
defined as an ascending laminate.
This image illustrates a special case where Fibersim identifies that the plies must be
inverted to ensure the core sample results are listed in cross section order.

IML Tool Surface Case


Fibersim will invert the order of the child laminate for any core sample that has the parent
and child surface normal pointing toward each other, and the child laminate is defined as
ascending.
The plies are ordered this way since the IML and OML surfaces are both representing tool
surfaces. So, if Fibersim listed the plies based on parent hierarchy and ply sequence step,
the cross section order would be incorrect. (Ply4 would be listed before Ply5, which is
incorrect based on the cross section shown above).
This example is illustrating two tool surfaces that are laid up separately and then
assembled into one laminate. This is a case that is used by many composite part
manufacturers so it has been accounted for during a core sample.
NOTE: We continually assess customer needs for handling specific part sequencing, so,
additional cases will be added based on customer demand.

Chapter 2: Basic

71

2.7 Design Stations

Multiple Intersections on Same Surface


There are cases where you can obtain non-intuitive results, based on surface geometry
and where a point is selected. These cases are usually encountered when Fibersim
intersects the same surface more than once.
Fibersim does handle multiple intersections with the same surface, but drops the second
intersection, and any intersections encountered beyond it with the same surface.

Multiple intersections on the same surface

Chapter 2: Basic

72

2.7 Design Stations

With a shape that represents a wing surface or a fairing that wraps back in a u-shape,
Fibersim will intersect the surface more than once. Fibersim drops the second intersection,
which prevents non-intuitive core sample results.
For example, if full body plies were intersected twice, the calculated laminate thickness for
the core sample would be incorrect. Fibersim removes the second intersection, and any
intersections encountered beyond it. This image shows intersecting the same surface more
than once, and intersecting other surfaces defined in the model.

Specific Example of Multiple Surface Intersections

This is an example of an I-Beam cross section where Fibersim intersects multiple surfaces.
A core sample will display ply results at the Surface 1 intersection, and plies at the design
station point on Surface 2.
The second intersection with Surface 2 and Surface 3 will be truncated. Since Fibersim can
intersect multiple surfaces during a single core sample, you may want to limit
intersections, by defining a maximum intersection distance.

Chapter 2: Basic

73

2.7 Design Stations

Using Max Intersection Distance


Using default core sampling is not possible to obtain core sample results for specific
surfaces, since Fibersim intersects all surfaces found in the parent surfaces normal
direction. But you can define a design station with a maximum intersection distance.
This distance defines the maximum distance along the surface normal for core sampling.
This allows you to intersect only the surfaces necessary for desired core sample results.

Maximum Intersection Distance

In this example, you only want ply results for Surface 1 and Surface 2. This is possible by
defining a design station on Surface 1 or Surface 2 and setting the max intersection
distance to 1 inch.
Fibersim then shoots out a 1 inch line, in both directions from the surface normal, at the
point where the design station is defined.
If no maximum intersection distance is specified, core sample results will give ply
information for Surface 1, Surface 2, and Surface 3.

Chapter 2: Basic

74

2.7 Design Stations

2.7.2 Design Station Object


To have the design station perform core samples on the laminate:
1. Specify a parent laminate and rosette.
2. Specify a point of interest (Origin) on the laminate surface. This is where Fibersim will
perform the sample. Fibersim will build a list of all plies and cores covering the design
station origin.
3. Specify the type of sample you want to perform (Core Sample Type).

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

To performs a core sample, a parent laminate (with an associated


layup surface) is required.

Rosette

When core samples are performed, this rosette measures actual fiber
orientations.

Origin

Defines a point on the 3D surface where the design station origin is


located. Core samples are performed at this origin.

Status

Current status of this design station.

Boundary Type

Core samples are propagated to the plies Net or Extended


boundaries.

Chapter 2: Basic

75

2.7 Design Stations

Max
Intersection
Distance

This distance defines the maximum distance along the surface normal,
for core sampling. The distance propagates in both the positive and
negative surface normal direction, from the origin. By restricting
which surfaces are used when sampling the part, you can obtain
results for individual surfaces
NOTE: Surfaces beyond this limit are excluded from core sample
results.
The distance is defined on Surface 1, and shoots out 1 inch on both
sides of the surface, in the surfaces normal direction. Since there are
no surfaces below Surface 1, only Surface 1 and 2 are intersected. You
will only obtain plies found on Surface 1 and Surface 2.

Core Sample
Type

Defines the type of Core sample performed. See next section for full
details.

Targets
Target
Thickness

Target thickness for the design station, for comparison to the actual
thickness. If material specs are linked, this member updates based on
cumulative ply counts of the material specs.

Target Ply Count

Target ply count for the design station, for comparison to the actual
count. If material specs are linked, this member updates based on
cumulative ply counts of all the material specs.

Total Thickness

Total thickness values for the design station.

Total Ply Count

Total number of plies.

Chapter 2: Basic

76

2.7 Design Stations

2.7.3 Types of Core Samples


Fibersim provides three types of Core samples for obtaining various pieces of information
about a laminate, Summary, Detailed and Laminate Rating samples.

Summary samples
Summary core sample results include total thickness and ply counts, as well as a list of
plies covering the station origin. Material type, thickness, specified orientation, and
sequence-step data is provided for each ply. Summary samples are used frequently
throughout the design process.
NOTE: These samples do not provide actual fiber orientation data based on producibility
simulations. To assess actual fiber orientations of the as-manufactured part, a Detailed
Analysis must be performed.

Detailed samples
Detailed samples provide true fiber orientations of the as-manufactured part (at the
Design Station origin.) This is valuable, since true fiber orientations in a ply may deviate
significantly when plies conform to complex curvature:

L a yu p sta rts
qu a si-iso tro p ic

Specified Orientation vs. Actual Orientation


This image shows a 0 ply started at the nose of the part, to obtain quasi-isotropy with the
45 nose ply. Due to compound curvature, fiber orientations of the 0 ply actually become
45 near the back of the part. (Note that the smaller 45 ply defined at the back of the
part will not be sufficient to achieve a quasi-isotropic layup.)
The summary core sample will report the specified orientations of each of these three
plies. For a sample performed at the nose of the part, one 0 ply and one 45 ply will be
reported, accurately informing you that quasi-isotropy has been achieved. But at the rear
of the part, the summary sample reports one 0 ply and one 45 ply, indicating that the
layup is quasi-isotropic.

Chapter 2: Basic

77

2.7 Design Stations

Orientation of the 0 ply is actually at 45 near the rear. Despite specified orientations
reporting a quasi-isotropic layup, analysis of the actual fiber orientations near the rear
reveal that the layup is not. To assess isotropy accurately, a detailed sample must be
used.

Entire layup is now


quasi-isotropic

Modified Design (based On Detailed Analysis results)


This image shows a modification to the design based on a detailed core sample analysis.
Since the 0/90 ply is deforming to +/-45 towards the back of the part, the smaller +/45 ply at the rear of the part was changed from a +/-45 to a 0/90 orientation, thus
achieving a quasi-isotropic layup.
Since detailed core samples rely on producibility simulations, all ply definitions must
accurately reflect the manner in which each ply is manufactured for detailed core sample
results to be meaningful. If the simulation parameters do not accurately reflect layup
methods used during manufacture, core sample results will be incorrect.

Chapter 2: Basic

78

2.7 Design Stations

Laminate Rating Samples


Laminate ratings for core samples provide information on the symmetry, weighted
symmetry, mechanical symmetry, balance, and warpage of the laminate.
The thickness and ply count reported is of pierced components included in the laminate
rating, not necessarily those of all pierced components.
NOTE: Not all materials contribute to laminate symmetry (i.e., wire mesh, release plies,
adhesive film, etc.).
The material database column Laminate Rating determines if a material will be
evaluated in a Laminate Rating analysis (set to either Yes or No).

DESCRIPTION
Symmetry

This is the percent of encountered components pairs equidistant from


the laminate centerline that have identical fiber orientations.
Fibersim checks the components that are the first above and first
below the centerline to see if they are the same orientation and
material. Fibersim proceeds with subsequent sets of components.
The symmetry is the number of symmetrical pairs divided by the total
number of pairs.

Chapter 2: Basic

79

2.7 Design Stations

Weighted
Symmetry

The weighted symmetry assigns weights to the symmetry, such that


asymmetrical plies that are further from the centerline will decrease
the symmetry rating more than those closer to the centerline.
The first pair of plies uses a weight of 1 if there is a pivot ply (an odd
number of plies in the laminate rating) or 2 if there is no pivot ply.
Each subsequent set of plies increases the previous weight by 1. The
sum of the weighted symmetrical components is divided by the total
weight (sum of all the weights for the symmetric pairs) to get the
weighted symmetry.

Mechanical
Symmetry

Mechanical symmetry looks at the mechanical properties of


components that are equidistant from the centerline. Properties are
only examined for the primary fiber direction for symmetry
contributes along the 0 direction. This means that 90 plies do not
contribute to the calculated mechanical symmetry.
Fibersim calculates the neutral axis for the stackup using the primary
fiber axis modulus and the primary fiber angle. The mechanical
symmetry is based on relating the neutral axis to the laminate
thickness.
Since contributions from plies that are close to 90 from the 0 direction
are ignored, these mechanical symmetry results should be regarded
with caution for laminates with 90 plies.

Laminate
Balance

Laminate balance looks at plies that are not aligned or orthogonal to


the 0 direction, to see if there are the same number of plies with
orthogonal fiber orientations (i.e. if you have 4 plies with a +45
orientation and 3 with a -45 orientation, then one of the +45 plies is
unbalanced.)

Laminate
Warpage

Laminate warpage uses a similar approach as mechanical symmetry.

Chapter 2: Basic

Only the primary direction properties are considered. The thermal


expansion coefficient is applied to the components using a change in
temperature of 250 F (or the equivalent for Celsius for a metric
material). As with mechanical symmetry, results should be regarded
with caution for laminates with 90 plies.

80

2.8 Cutouts

2.8 Cutouts
Cutouts are regions that are subtracted from the entire laminate for the purpose of
calculating more accurate weight, area and cost data
The cutout affects the entire parent laminate. Any intersection between the cutout area
and ply area on the parent laminate will be reflected in the ply Net analysis. (Net Analysis
is calculated with and without Cutout areas.) Cutouts are also included in the Net Analysis.

C utout
origins

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The parent laminate.

Origin

Select or indicate an origin point (inside of the Cutout boundary).

Boundary

The cutout boundary. Boundaries can be broken against the laminate


net boundary, or can be a set of curves that form a closed loop.

Cutout
Propagation

Within "picture frame" designs, you can apply individual cut-outs, and
propagate on a laminate-by-laminate basis (i.e. one to the parent
laminate only, and one to the child laminate only).

Purpose

Select or type a specific purpose for the given cutout (i.e. window, door
weight, etc.)

Chapter 2: Basic

81

2.9 Darting

2.9 Darting
Darting techniques attempt to eliminate wrinkling in a ply without dividing it into smaller
pieces. As a ply is draped over a layup surface, fibers that are placed on the tool surface
have an effect on the deformation of subsequent fibers in the ply.
When a wrinkle is encountered, it generally propagates outward in the direction of the
layup even over simple curvature in the layup surface. Darting attempts to cut the initial
fibers that initiate the wrinkling, and prevent the wrinkle from propagating through the
ply.
There are two types of darting techniques, one that produces a slit dart and another that
produces a V-shaped dart. Slit darts are used for out-of-plane wrinkling while Vshaped darts are used for in-plane wrinkling.

2.9.1 Interpreting Producibility


As the producibility simulation drapes material over a 3D surface, it may encounter a
region on the surface that requires the material to severely deform to maintain contact
with the surface. If the deformation exceeds the user-specified limit angle of the material,
it is considered to be wrinkling, and Fibersim displays all fiber paths in this region in the
color red. There are two basic types of wrinkling that can occur during the layup process:

Puckering This wrinkling is common in apparel (for example, it occurs behind the
knee in a pair of pants when the knee is bent). It is caused by an excess of material
in a given region of the surface. The material, having draped all available surfaces,
deforms off the surface in a plane that is normal to the surface. Referred to as outof-plane deformation.

Bridging This is caused by a lack of material in a given region of the surface. The
material is not physically able to drape over the entire surface the material spans or
bridges regions of the surface. The material deforms in a plane that is parallel to the
surface. This is often referred to as in-plane deformation.

To determine the type of wrinkling occurring in the simulation, one must observe the
direction the red fiber cells are deforming relative to the ply origin (see below). If red fiber
cells are elongating along a line drawn through the ply origin, the material is puckering. If
red fiber cells are shortening along a line drawn through the ply origin, the material is
bridging.

Chapter 2: Basic

82

2.9 Darting

Determining the type of wrinkling is important when darting ply boundaries. The type of
wrinkling helps determine if a slit or V-shaped dart should be used. Decisions made by the
user, with Fibersim feedback, to determine alternatives for splicing the ply. In general, slit
darts are used to alleviate puckering and V-shaped darts are used to alleviate bridging.
P uckering:
R ed fiber cell is elongating
along a line draw n from the
ply origin

P L Y O R IG IN

B ridging:
R ed fiber c ell is shortening
along a line draw n from the
ply origin

Puckering vs. Bridging

Chapter 2: Basic

83

2.9 Darting

2.9.2 Slit Darts


Slit darts are used to eliminate wrinkling in a ply, without splicing it. You can be creative
in using darts so desired results are achieved.

MEMBER
Offset Distance

DESCRIPTION
Gap between the two legs of a slit dart. Minimum value is
calculated based on current model tolerances. If CAD defaults are
used, default is 0.030 inches or 0.762 mm.
NOTE: Creo, by default, uses floating model tolerances. If the
tolerances change by a significant amount the minimum dart offset
distance will change and darts need to be regenerated.

Trim Curves

Curves that define the boundary at which the dart ends. If no trim
curve is specified, Fibersim trims or extends darts to the Net
boundary.

Slit Curve Definition - Points


The dart will be created using Base Curve Points to define it.
Base Curve Points

Points used to create the dart. Should be selected in order from the
top of the dart toward the trim curve or net boundary. The order in
which the points are selected determines the order for creating the
dart.
NOTE: Define Dart Using needs to be set to Points.

Chapter 2: Basic

84

2.9 Darting

Slit Curve Definition - Curve


The dart will be created using a Base Curve to define it.
Base Curve

The curve that Fibersim offsets (by the Offset Distance) to create
the complete dart feature. Once a slit curve is selected, an arrow
indicates the curves direction.
To properly generate the dart, the arrow must point from the top of
the dart toward the trim curve or net boundary. If pointing in the
wrong direction, the Reverse Curve member must be used.

Reverse Curve

Reverses the direction of a Slit Curve. An arrow indicates the


curves direction.
To p o f D a rt

C o r re ct ly
O rie n t e d C u rve

Slit C u r ve

Slit Curve Orientation


The slit curve orientation is correct since the green orientation
arrow points from the top of the dart toward the bottom. For this
example, Reverse Curve should be set to No.
Producibility Display
Plies
Update Ply
Producibility

When a dart is edited, this member populates with any plies that
are linked to the dart.
Generate ply simulation results.

Regions
No Dart Regions
Toggle Region
Display

Dart Feature
Generate Dart
Feature

Chapter 2: Basic

Defined regions where there should not be any darts.


Turn on/off display of No Dart Regions.

Displays the name of the dart geometry associated to the dart


object.
Generates the dart feature. If a dart is modified and this button is
pressed, old dart geometry is overwritten.

85

2.9 Darting

Slit Darts to Eliminate Wrinkling (Puckering)


The first step in creating a valid slit dart to eliminate puckering is to determine which initial
fibers must be cut, to prevent subsequent wrinkling. These fibers are determined from
producibility display (see below).
First, the area of red or wrinkled fibers is identified. Next, curves are traced from the two
edges of the red fiber region back toward the Ply origin, along a fiberpath. (These curves
do not have to be drawn in CAD, but are done here for clarity; see dashed lines.) The
location where these two curves intersect indicates the location of the fibers that must be
cut. Often, these fibers are not red fibers, and can be some distance from the area of red
or wrinkled fibers.

Dart Start Location

Fiber Paths on Outer


edge of Red Region.

Determining Dart Location


The next step is to determine the path of the dart over the layup surface. The optimal path
starts at the initial fibers that must be cut, and passes through the center of the red
wrinkled region, to the edge of the Ply boundary. However, sometimes the optimal dart
path may pass through regions of the part that are designated as no cut zones. In these
cases, the dart path must be modified from the optimum.

As a general rule, a valid dart path is any that cuts the initial red fibers and continues
to the edge of the ply boundary. This image shows the optimal dart path.

Optimal Slit Dart

The resulting slit dart has eliminated the red or wrinkled region of the ply. This ply is
now producible and a flat pattern can be generated.
NOTE: There is more than one solution to a darting problem. Solutions become the
decision of the designer, based on design requirements.

Chapter 2: Basic

86

2.9 Darting

Valid Slit Dart Geometry for Wrinkling (Puckering)


All valid slit darts consist of three curves defining a U-shaped gap. A dart is composed of
two curves on the layup surface, which are at least 0.030 inches apart at every location,
and a third curve to adjoin them. The free ends of the two side curves must terminate or
be incorporated into an existing ply boundary. The image below shows a schematic of valid
slit dart geometry.
Using Fibersims dart creation tool, the geometry shown below is created automatically.
However, you could replicate the geometry manually, and add the curves to the ply
boundary.
Fibersim will automatically calculate the minimum dart width based on the current model
tolerances. The minimum default value is 0.030 inches or 0.762 mm, however this value
may need to be increased if the model tolerances change.
Of f set Distance = 0.030 in (0.762 m m )

Curve 1
Curve 2

Curve 3

Valid Slit Dart Geometry

Chapter 2: Basic

87

2.9 Darting

2.9.3 V-Shape Darts


V-shaped darts are used when material is bridging over the surface. A bridging condition
indicates that there is not enough material in the region. V-shaped darts basically define
two curves that meet at a point.

MEMBER
Trim Curves

DESCRIPTION
Curves defining the boundary at which the dart ends. If no curve is
specified, Fibersim trims or extends darts to the net boundary.

First Curve Definition -- Points


Base Curve Points

Points used to create the first dart curve. Points should be selected
in order from the top of the dart toward the trim curve or net
boundary. Order determines the order to create the dart.

First Curve Definition -- Curve


Base Curve

Chapter 2: Basic

The curve to create the first dart curve. An arrow indicates the
curves direction. To generate the dart, arrows must point from the
top of the dart toward the trim curve or net boundary. If pointing in
the wrong direction, use Reverse Curve.

88

2.9 Darting

Reverse Curve

Reverse the direction of the First Curve. Curves must be oriented


from the top of the dart toward the trim curve or net boundary.

First Dart Curve Orientation

The first dart curve orientation is correct since the green arrow
points from the top of the dart toward the bottom.
Second Curve Definition -- Points
Second Curve
Points

Points to create the second dart curve. The top of the first dart curve
is used as the top of this curve, to ensure that both curves form a
vertex at the top of the dart. Lead the second dart curve from the
top of the first dart curve to the trim curve or net boundary.

Second Curve Definition -- Curve


Second Curve

Reverse Second
Curve

The second dart curve. An arrow indicates the curves direction. To


generate the dart, arrows must point from the top of the dart
toward the trim curve or net boundary. If pointing in the wrong
direction, the Reverse Curve option must be used.
Reverses the direction of the Second Curve.

Dart Feature

Specifies the generated dart feature.

Generate Dart
Feature

Executes the generation of the dart.

Regions
No Dart Regions
Toggle Region
Display

Defined regions where there should not be any darts.


Turn on/off display of No Dart Regions.

Producibility Display
Plies
Update Ply
Producibility

Chapter 2: Basic

By default, when a dart is edited this member populates with any


plies linked to the dart. Click Update... to run selected plies.
Runs any plies with invalid producibility results.

89

2.9 Darting

V-Shape Darts to Eliminate Wrinkling (Bridging)


Although the same slit darting techniques described above for out-of-plane wrinkling can
be used in a region of in-plane wrinkling or bridging, they will produce an invalid flat
pattern.
The nature of in-plane wrinkling causes a lack of material in a given region of the surface.
Placing a slit dart in a region of in-plane wrinkling allows more material to enter that
region. When the 3D draped material is unfolded into a 2D flat pattern, this extra material
becomes an overlap. An example of a slit dart placed in a region of in-plane wrinkling or
bridging is shown below, and the resultant 2D flat pattern with overlap is shown in the
image on the right.

O verlapped
M aterial

Slit Dart in Location of Bridging

Pattern (w/ Overlapped Material)

Results indicate that slit darting will not work in regions of in-plane wrinkling or bridging.
To eliminate in-plane wrinkling, two plies must be created: the original ply with a Vshaped dart and a patch ply to fill in the V-shaped area. Boundaries of both can be
determined using producibility display.
The first step is to place a valid slit dart, with the techniques for out-of-plane wrinkling, in
the region of in-plane wrinkling. Slit darting produces an invalid flat pattern that will
overlap on itself. While generating producibility information for this darted ply, Fibersim
shows an overlap condition in the 2D flat pattern, and adjusts producibility display
accordingly.
The image below shows the producibility display in a slit darted region of in-plane
wrinkling. Fibersim does not display 3D fiber paths in any region on the surface where the
2D flat pattern overlaps on itself. Using the 3D fiber paths as a guide, a V-shaped dart
should be created so the dart legs lie on the edge of the region without fiber paths. The
resulting dart looks like the image below.
Notice how the fiber paths around the V-shaped dart now complete, and no voided regions
are present. A valid flat pattern can now be generated for this ply. Note that, based on the
original design intent, you need to create a small wedge shaped plies to fill the gap left by
the darted region.

V-Shaped Dart and Resulting Producibility

Chapter 2: Basic

90

2.9 Darting

Valid V-Shape Dart Geometry for Wrinkling (Bridging)


All valid V-Shape darts in Fibersim consist of two curves. In most cases these two curves
form a v-shape. The top of a V-Shape dart must form a vertex between the two
constituent dart curves as seen below.
The length of each dart curve and the angle between each dart curve is defined based on
user-inputted points or user-inputted base curves.

Valid V-Shape Dart Geometry

Chapter 2: Basic

91

Chapter 3: Advanced

3.1 Introduction
The advanced section provides advanced, preliminary design & automation tools, for the
most complex composites.
These objects provide a flexible and productive environment for digitally defining
composite products while automating many of the repetitive design, simulation and
manufacturing tasks related to working with composite parts. The software easily
accommodates the demands of designing a wide variety of composite parts and the
complete range of materials and manufacturing processes used to create them.
These objects exploit the inherent advantages of many different composite design
methodologies, including:

structure-based design
zone-based design
ply-based design

Chapter 3: Advanced

92

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1 Advanced (Application Browser)


The Elite package breaks down in the Application Browser as follows:

APP.
BROWSER

DESCRIPTION

Basic

See Chapter 2.

Advanced

Includes zone-based design & layer management.

Fibersim uses layers, for parts that are designed


using zones. Layers allow you to apply dart groups
and splice groups, which are then used when plies
are created from the layer.

Design
Manufacturing
Specification

Chapter 3: Advanced

SECTION

93

3.1 Introduction

Design

3.2
Zone

3.2.1

Overlay Zone

3.2.2

Zone Transition

3.2.3

Transition Adjacency Vertex

3.2.4

Layer

3.2.5

Core Layer

3.2.6

Manufacturing

3.3
Splice Group

3.3.1

Darts

3.3.2

Dart Group

3.3.3

Design Station

3.3.4

Specification

Chapter 3: Advanced

3.4
Laminate Specification

3.4.1

Material Specification

3.4.2

Offset Specification

3.4.3

Stagger Profile

3.4.4

Laminate Regions

3.4.5

94

3.2 Design

3.2 Design
The process of zone-based design is used to create plies for zone-based parts.
1. Define the Zone and Material Specification objects.
2. Use the Zone-to-Layer Analysis functionality to create the corresponding Zone
Transitions (ZTs) and Transition Adjacency Vertices (TAVs).
You can customize ZTs and TAVs to meet design requirements. When a design change is
made to zone definitions, Zone to Layer update can update all corresponding data.

3.2.1 Zone
The zone object defines the constant gage areas of the composite part. A single zone can
represent a continuous constant gage area, or several zones can be defined.
NOTE: Zone definitions should be chosen to minimize the effort when a design change
is necessary.
All zones defined for a given laminate must cover the entire area inside of the laminates
Net boundary. If there are any voids or regions not covered by a zone, the utility will not
function properly.
You can also use multiple laminates that contain unique zone groups. Multiple laminates
should be used when zones are unique to a set of ply shapes that do not correspond to the
ply shapes in other laminates.
Fibersim does allow zone boundaries to be multi-domain. If they are, each individual
domain must form a closed loop. Fibersim does not require you to split individual curves to
form a closed loop. Zone objects use advanced boundary breaking behavior, allowing you
to use a grid-based approach to their design.

Chapter 3: Advanced

95

3.2 Design

Standard Tab

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Parent laminate of the zone. Zones inherit the layup surface and
boundary from the parent.
NOTE: The group of zones defined on any given laminate must
account for all areas defined by the Net boundary.

Rosette

The rosette for the zone. Rosettes determine the fiber directions of
the material orientations associated to the zones.
In general, only one rosette should be used for each set of zones that
cover a given laminate.

Origin

Defines the origin of the zone. By default, zones inherit the origin
from the rosette. However, in most cases you must select or indicate
a point on the laminate surface to define the origin.
NOTE: Origins must be defined on the inside of the zone boundary.

Boundary

Defines the zones boundary. By default, zones inherit the laminate


Net Boundary from the parent laminate. Curves should form a closed
loop.
Fibersims boundary generation behavior lets you use a grid-based
input for zone boundaries. The union of all zone boundaries on a
given laminate must cover the entire area defined by the Net
boundary.

Zone to Layer
Status

Whether the zone has changed since the last zone analysis.

Laminate
Specification

Link to the laminate specification for the zone.

Chapter 3: Advanced

96

3.2 Design

Based On
Enter the target based on either:

Ply Count target Ply count in Target Ply Count (Default)


Thickness target Ply thickness in Target Thickness

Target Ply Count

Defines the target ply count for the zone. This member should match
the Actual Ply Count, once all Material Specs are defined.
NOTE: Used when Based On is set to Target Ply Count.

Actual Ply Count

The actual ply count for the zone. This field is updated as Material
Specifications are added to the zone.
NOTE: This member should match Target Ply Count, once all
Material Specifications are defined for a given Zone.

Target
Thickness

Defines the target Ply thickness for the zone. This member should
match Actual Thickness once all Material Specs are defined for a
zone.
NOTE: Used when Based On is set to Target Thickness.

Actual Ply
Thickness

Specifies the actual ply thickness for the zone. This is updated as
Material Specifications are added to the zone.
Reports cumulative ply thickness for all Specifications that are
associated to a zone.
Fibersim uses the Cured Thickness, of the materials associated to
each Specifications, for the calculation of the Actual Thickness.
NOTE: This member should match Target Ply Count once all
Material Specifications are defined for a given zone.

Chapter 3: Advanced

97

3.2 Design

Core Sample Tab

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Max
Intersection
Distance

Distance that Fibersim uses to intersect surfaces from the zone


origin. By restricting which surfaces are used when core sampling
the part, you can obtain core sample results for individual surfaces.
The distance will propagate in both the positive and negative
surface normal direction, from the design station origin.

Core Sample
type

Type of core sample to be performed at the zone origin:

Chapter 3: Advanced

Summary core samples provide component list, specified


orientation, and thickness data.

Detailed core samples provide actual fiber orientation data


at the design station origin, by measuring results from the
producibility simulation against a reference rosette.

Laminate rating core samples provide symmetry, balance,


and warpage calculations based on the specified orientation of
each found ply.

98

3.2 Design

Driving Zones Tab

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Driving Zones

Select one or more zones that will be used to obtain the material
specs for the zone being edited.

Operator

Derived Material
Specifications

If one zone is selected, any material specs linked to that zone


are automatically copied into this zone.

If two or more zones are selected, select how the material


specs from the driving zones are to be combined, on the
Operator member.

You have a choice between a union of the material specs of the


driving zones, or an intersection of the material specs.

Union every material spec used by each driving zone is


combined to form the derived zones. If there are any
common material specs between the driving zones, the
highest material count will be used. This zone will be the
highest pad up area, when compared to its driving zones.

Intersect the resultant list of material specs will be the


lowest number of common material specs in all the selected
driving zones.

This is the combined list of material specs, obtained from the driving
zone(s).

Chapter 3: Advanced

99

3.2 Design

3.2.2 Overlay Zones


SPECIAL NOTE: Overlay zones are created using the CAE Import object. This object,
and its general workflow, is discussed in Chapter 9 Import/Export.
CAE import objects allow you to import overlay zones from CAE data. You can preview the
contents of the CAE file before creating or updating any Fibersim objects. You can identify
the different, perhaps intersecting, overlay zones contained in the CAE file.
Match the overlay zones contained in the CAE file with the already existing overlay zone
objects. This allows you to see the difference between the two sets of overlay zones.

Chapter 3: Advanced

100

3.2 Design

3.2.3 Zone Transition


Zone Transitions determine how layers will drop-off from one zone to another.
Transitions contain Offset Specifications and Stagger Profiles that determine how the layer
boundaries will drop-off from zone to zone.
Zone Transitions are associated to layers, which determines the layers boundary shape.
The Zone to Layer utility automatically creates the necessary Zone Transitions that
construct each layer. Using Offset Specifications, you can manipulate the transitions as
necessary. You can also create additional transitions.
Zone Transitions are connected to adjacent Zone Transitions via the Transition
Adjacency Vertex (TAV). When a Zone Transition (ZT) object is selected in the object list
view, a series of green lines highlights to represent the Zone Transition.
The Transition Adjacency Vertices that are associated to the selected Zone Transition will
be highlighted as red circles or Xs. This provides a visual representation of the
relationship between the ZTs and TAVs.

Chapter 3: Advanced

101

3.2 Design

Standard Tab

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Defines the parent laminate of the zone transition.

Ply Count

Displays the ply count difference between the thicker and thinner
zones.

Stagger Profile

The Stagger Profile used when generating the layer boundaries from
the Zone Transition.
This will determine the drop-off profile or cross-section of a Zone
Transition through the thickness of the composite part.

Offset Specification - Constant


Will offset both transition end points a constant amount, so only one Offset Specification is
necessary to define the offset

Constant Offset Type

Chapter 3: Advanced

102

3.2 Design

Offset Specification - Variable


Will offset each end point of the Zone Transition individually. Requires an Offset
Specification for both the start and end of the Zone Transition.

Notice how the variable offset has a different offset distance on each end point of the Zone
Transition.
At Start

Specifies the Offset Specification for one start point of the ZT. The
arrow that gets highlighted originates from the start of the
transition.

At End

Specifies the Offset Specification for one end point of the ZT. The
arrow that gets highlighted points to the end of the transition.

Initial Offset
Adjustment

Used to position the zone transition. Can be positive or negative.


If the initial offset is already set in the offset spec then this value
will add or subtract from the current zone transition position.

Options
(Pop-up menu)

See the section below.

Offset Specification - Fill To Curve


Select a final drop-off curve, and the transition will automatically compute the intermediate
offset curves according to the total number of drop-off curves. Fibersim generates a
number of geodesic curves between corresponding points on the transition base curve and
the last drop-off curve.
Last Drop-Off
Curve

Select a final drop-off curve.

Plies per Drop-Off


Curve

Number of plies to be dropped-off at each transition.

Orthogonal Trim
From Base Curve

Option to have the transition orthogonally trim the last drop-off


curve by the base curve.

As Plus-One Curve
Curve Offset
Accuracy Factor
Initial Offset
Adjustment

Chapter 3: Advanced

The fill curve is used as the plus-one offset for the transition.
This value controls the tolerance that drives point density.
Used to position the zone transition. Can be positive or negative.

103

3.2 Design

Placement Details
Thicker Zone

The thicker zone of the zone transition. Curves are always offset
from the thicker zone to the thinner one.

Thinner Zone

The thinner zone of the zone transition.

Adjacency
Vertex 1 & 2

Every Zone Transition must be connected to a Transition Adjacency


Vertex, at both ends. Each Zone Transition has an Adjacency
Vertex 1 and 2. There are two links since the Zone Transitions will
potentially be associated to two Transition Adjacency Vertices.
NOTE: When a TAV is linked to two or more intersecting Zone
Transitions, a red circle or an x highlights for the vertex.

Adjacency Curves

CAD-modeled curves to define the Zone Transitions drop-off curves.


This member overrides Fibersim-generated base transition curves.
NOTE: Clearing selected curves from here causes the Transition to
revert back to Fibersim-generated Transition base curves.

Chapter 3: Advanced

104

3.2 Design

Option pop-up menu (Additional Options for ZTs)


The Options pop-up menu contains several other values you can set for the current zone
transition:

MEMBER
Override Drop-Off
Curves

DESCRIPTION
If Fibersim-generated curves are not sufficient, you can override
them by first selecting base curve geometry (Adjacency Curve),
and then selecting drop-off curves.
NOTE: Clearing selected curves makes Zone Transition revert back
to Fibersim-generated Zone Transition drop-off curves.

Offset Behavior
Geodesic Offset
Curves
Alternate
Geodesic Method

Whether to pull offset curves closer to the surface.


Whether to use an alternate geodesic offset method.
This option means that Fibersim will use a different geodesic offset
function for the creation of Zone Transition offset curves.
This option is used if the default Zone Transition offset method was
creating undesirable results for a given Zone Transition.

Maximum Curve
Segment Length
Factor

Factor applied to the maximum segment length, used to subdivide


the curve being offset.

Spine-based Inputs
Spine Curve
Custom Plane

Chapter 3: Advanced

Specifies the guiding curve.


Select a plane used to define a spine-based transition.

105

3.2 Design

Upgrade to Plane
based offset
behavior

If you have existing parts, with a valid spine curve and Use Spine
Planes is unchecked, your part contains offset curves using the
legacy method of computation. It is highly recommended to upgrade
to the plane-based approach to ensure consistent results.
When Fibersim detects a part that needs to be upgraded, this
upgrade button will display on the interface.
The Spine Curve and Custom Plane fields will be read-only. Clicking
this button will result in the generation of the offset curves based on
the new plane-based method. The Spine Curve and Custom Plane
fields will then become usable.
NOTE: Upgrading and saving the part is irreversible. It is a good
idea to ensure you have a backup of the existing part.

Generate Result
Transition Feature
Generate Custom
Offset
Specification

Generates the result transition feature.


NOTE: This button is only accessible when the offset specification is
a materials ratio specification.
It will create a custom offset specification that is equivalent to the
material ratio specification at this ZT, and link the ZT to the new
specification.

Chapter 3: Advanced

106

3.2 Design

Trimming Tab
Select the method for zone transition curve manipulation.
At Start

At End

By Distance

By Distance

By Angle

By Angle

By Curve

By Curve

Chapter 3: Advanced

107

3.2 Design

At Start
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

At Start
Initial Distance

The Zone Transition (ZT) extension distance, at the starting point of


the base curve. The yellow arrow indicates the starting point.
Positive values extend the ZT. Negative values trim it.
See example (a.) below.

Extend Along
Reference Curve

Transitions extend geodesically based on the tangent direction at the


end of the transition. In many cases, especially geometrically
complex parts, you will need it to extend along the path of the curve
or adjacent transition to get the correct shape.
This option allows for extension at the start following the CAD curve
used to define the corresponding zone boundary.
All affected layer boundaries should curve/close correctly once they
are recomputed.

At Start
By Distance
Incremental
Distance

The incremental extension or trimming of the ZT curves at the


starting point. The yellow arrow indicates the starting point.
See example (b.) below.

By Angle
Angle

Specifies the angle for trimming/extending the start point of the


zone transition.

By Curve
Trimming Curves

Select the curves that will be used to trim the zone transition curves.
See example (e.) below.

Chapter 3: Advanced

108

3.2 Design

At End
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

At End
Initial Distance

The Zone Transition (ZT) extension distance, at the end point of the
base curve. The yellow arrow indicates the starting point.
Positive values extend the ZT. Negative values trim it.
See example (c.) below.

Extend Along
Reference Curve

Transitions extend geodesically based on the tangent direction at the


end of the transition. In many cases, especially geometrically
complex parts, you will need it to extend along the path of the curve
or adjacent transition to get the correct shape.
This option allows for extension at the end following the CAD curve
used to define the corresponding zone boundary.
All affected layer boundaries should curve/close correctly once they
are recomputed.

At End
By Distance
Incremental
Distance

The incremental extension (or trimming) of ZT curves at the end


point. The yellow arrow indicates the starting point, so the end point
is opposite the yellow arrow.
See example (d.) below.

By Angle
Angle

Specifies the angle for trimming/extending the end point of the zone
transition.

By Curve
Trimming Curves

Select the curves that will be used to trim Zone Transition curves.
See example (e.) below.

Chapter 3: Advanced

109

3.2 Design

a.) Initial Distance at Start of ZT (visual demo)


The Zone Transition extension distance, at the starting point of the base curve. The yellow
arrow indicates the starting point.

Positive values extend the Zone Transition.

Negative values trim it the zone transition.

Chapter 3: Advanced

110

3.2 Design

b.) Incremental Distance at Start of ZT (visual demo)


The incremental extension (or trimming) of the Zone Transition curves at the starting
point. The yellow arrow indicates the starting point.

Positive values extend the Zone Transition. Negative values trim it.

Chapter 3: Advanced

111

3.2 Design

c.) Initial Extension Distance at End (visual demo)


The extension distance at the end point of the Zone Transition base curve. A yellow arrow
indicates the starting point, so the end point is opposite the yellow arrow.

Positive values

Negative values

Chapter 3: Advanced

112

3.2 Design

d.) Extension Distance Increment at End (visual demo)


The incremental extension (or trimming) of Zone Transition curves at the Zone Transition
end point.
The yellow arrow indicates the starting point, so the end point is opposite the yellow
arrow.

Chapter 3: Advanced

113

3.2 Design

e.) Trimming Curves (visual demo)


Trim Curves, just as they say, trim zone transition curves. The image below illustrates
using a single continuous trim curve. The yellow arrow indicates the Start side of the zone
transition.

Choosing a Single Continuous Curve (at Start)

Choosing a Single Continuous Curve (at End)

Chapter 3: Advanced

114

3.2 Design

In some cases, Zone Transitions may need extending before being trimmed.
This image shows using Initial Extension Distance at End to first extend the Zone
Transition past the desired trim curve, and then a trim curve to finish the desired result.
If two trim curves are selected, Fibersim keeps the Zone Transition portion that is in
between the two curves.

Initial Extension Distance (with Trim Curve)

Chapter 3: Advanced

115

3.2 Design

This image illustrates using two trim curves with an initial extension distance at the end of
the Zone Transition.

Two Trim Curves, with Initial Extension Distance

Chapter 3: Advanced

116

3.2 Design

Stagger Editor
The Stagger Editor is a special cross-section-based user interface, which will show a
cross section of the layers dropping off at a given transition. Using this interactive
interface, you can drag the layer endpoints to the desired drop-off positions, allowing you
to define the custom string of the transition stagger profile.
The stagger editor always shows the given transitions' current stagger based on the
laminate default stagger or the local stagger profile. You can then immediately start
dragging layers to new index locations, or apply a pre-defined stagger shape.
Use the "+" and "-" buttons to zoom in and out to fit the display better. Note that you can
also hold down <control> and use the mouse wheel to zoom in and out like any traditional
Windows application. <Ctrl + A> also selects all layers at once.
Layer names/steps are listed on the left hand side, and layers are represented horizontally
by a solid colored line (regular transition) or a dashed line (interior transition).
For interior corners, a white circle symbol indicates an offset curve is being actively used.
Offset curves are represented by vertical dashed lines with the number at the top. (Note
that when you select and move either a line or a circle, it will highlight.)

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117

3.2 Design

TOOLBAR BUTTON

DESCRIPTION

Update
Dynamically

With this is checked, the layers will update as you drag them to
different locations. (On most models, it is easier to leave this
checked, but note that on large parts, the computation might be
time-consuming.)

Update Stagger
and Layer
Boundaries

This is only available when Update Dynamically is unchecked. This


option allows you to quickly make custom stagger changes to
layers without waiting for each layer to update. The layers update
once this option is selected. (This is a better choice for large
models.)

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Stagger Profile

The stagger profile for the given zone transition.

Stagger Shapes

This is the list of preset stagger shapes/profiles that can be


applied (same as the list in global stagger profile).

Create New
Stagger Profile

Creates a new custom Transition Stagger Profile object, to update


the transitions stagger behavior.

Apply Stagger
Shape

This applies the previously set stagger shape to the transition,


and creates a new transition stagger profile, if the transition did
not previously have one.

Options (pop-up menu)


Layer Display
All Transition
Layers
Exclude Interiors

Displays all layers using this transition.


Excludes any layers that use the transition as an interior.

Collapsed Cross
Section

Collapses the cross section layers that do not use the transition
into single black lines.

Full Cross Section

Displays all layers that exist at that transition, whether they use
it or not.

Layer Labels
You can set the GUI window to display layer names, sequence/step, or both.
Name

Option to set whether the UI window displays layer names.

Sequence/Step

Option to set whether the UI window displays sequence/step.

Orientation

Option to set whether the UI window displays the orientation.

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3.2 Design

3.2.4 Transition Adjacency Vertex


Transition Adjacency Vertices are used to connect intersecting Zone Transitions to one
another. You will see a red circle or an x highlight that indicates the location of the
Transition Adjacency Vertex.
Fibersim will also highlight green lines for the Zone Transitions that are associated to the
vertex:

TAV001 (Transition Adjacency Vertex) is associated to ZT001 (Zone Transition), ZT002


and ZT003. This tells Fibersim that these three ZTs intersect at TAV001.
Fibersim uses the Transition Adjacency Vertices and Zone Transitions to construct layer
boundaries. If connectivity of the Zone Transitions is not properly defined, Fibersim will
not be able to construct the boundaries.
TAVs also control where chamfers will be applied to layer boundaries. In some
manufacturing processes, such as Tape Laying, the machine has a minimum course length
requirement. You can define a chamfer on the outside corners of the layer boundaries,
which satisfies the minimum course length requirement.

Chapter 3: Advanced

119

3.2 Design

Standard Tab

MEMBER
Referring Zone
Transitions
Vertex Transition
Method

DESCRIPTION
Displays the list of Zone Transitions that are linked to the given
TAV.
The type of corner to be created at individual Transition Adjacency
Vertices.
Each option is described in its own section below.

Chamfer Interior
Corner

Whether or not Fibersim will chamfer interior corners (Yes).


By default when a chamfer is applied to a Transition Adjacency
Vertex, Fibersim chamfers the outside corners of the layer
boundaries that pass through the Vertex. Origin and direction will
always be on the inside of the layer boundary.
Inside
corner

Layer boundary

Origin and
direction
indicates inside
of Layer

Outside
corners

Inside corner

Example of Inside and Outside Corners

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3.2 Design

Non-Tangency
The Non-tangency option produces the default shape (non-tangent corner) at any given
Transition Adjacency Vertex.

Layer boundary

Result of
Non-tangent vertex

Non-tangent Corner

Variable Length Chamfer


The Variable Length Chamfer increases in size as layer boundaries are offset. Fibersim
constructs it by connecting the gap between the vertical and horizontal transitions with a
straight line.
Since the first curve from each transition intersects one another there is no gap, and the
corner results in a non-tangency.
When ZTs are offset from a thicker gage to a thinner gage, a gap between the transitions
is formed. Fibersim constructs the Variable Length Chamfer by connecting this gap with a
straight line.

Zone Tra nsitions

Layer boundary

Transitio n
Gap

Result of Variable
Length cham fer

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3.2 Design

Constant Length Chamfer


The Constant Length Chamfers are constructed by creating a chamfer of constant
length between two adjacent Zone Transitions. Note that the Chamfer Length member
must be set.
Fibersim first extends adjacent transitions until they intersect, then applies a Constant
Length chamfer to each layer. The offset spacing between layer boundaries in the
chamfered area must increase.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Chamfer Length

The chamfer length applied to the Transition Adjacency Vertex.

Orient Vertex with


Rosette

Whether or not Fibersim uses the rosette to map angles for the
Transition Adjacency Vertex.
When using Fixed Transition Chamfers, Fibersim sets this to Yes,
and makes it read-only.

Reference Angle

Chapter 3: Advanced

Specifies the rosette angle to be used.

122

3.2 Design

Minimum Length Chamfer


When a minimum chamfer length is required, and the offset spacing in the chamfered area
must remain at the distance specified in the Offset Specification, you should use a
Minimum Length Chamfer. Note that the Chamfer Length member must be set.
Fibersim will create the first chamfer using the Chamfer Length value, and then construct
other chamfers by maintaining a constant offset distance.

Lay er b ou nd aries

Firs t Cham fe r is
M inim um L engt h

Z one T ra ns ition
ex tens ions be fo re
c ham feri ng

Minimum Length Chamfer

The Minimum Length Chamfer is constructed by creating the first chamfer per the
Minimum Length value. Subsequent chamfers are created by maintaining the offset
distance, which increases chamfer length as the layer boundaries are offset.

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3.2 Design

MEMBER
Chamfer Length
Orient Vertex with
Rosette

DESCRIPTION
The length of the chamfer for the TAV.
Whether or not Fibersim uses the rosette to map angles for the
Transition Adjacency Vertex.
NOTE: When using Fixed Transition Chamfers, Fibersim sets this to
Yes, and makes it read-only.

Reference Angle
Chamfer Drop-Off
Control

Specifies the rosette angle to be used.


If at a given Transition Adjacency Vertex, the Zone Transition has
different offset distances then you can choose to use the larger or
smaller offset distance for the chamfer area.
You can also set the drop-off distance by either the constant values
or using the multiple of thickness value.

Larger Drop-Off larger offset distance for the chamfer.

Smaller Drop-Off smaller offset for the chamfer.

Constant Drop-Off chamfer will drop off according to the


value displayed in Constant Drop-Off

Constant Drop-Off
Multiple of
Thickness
Layers Per DropOff

Chapter 3: Advanced

Multiple of Thickness Fibersim will multiply the cured


material thickness by this number (displayed in Multiple of
Thickness) for the drop off

The chamfer will drop off according to the value displayed here
when the drop-off is set to Use Constant Drop-Off.
Fibersim will multiply the cured material thickness by this number
when the drop off is set to Use Multiple of Thickness.
Number of layers per drop-off.

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3.2 Design

Fixed Transition Chamfer


Fixed Transition Chamfers fix the Zone Transition length with the larger spacing, then
use transition end points to extend the chamfer. The direction that the chamfer extends is
based on the Reference Angle value.
Fibersim extends the chamfer from the end point of the larger transition until it intersects
the other transition, and uses the rosette to map the chamfer reference angle. This
illustrates how Fibersim constructs a Fixed Transition Chamfer.

Fixed Transition Chamfer Construction

Fixed Transition Chamfer Result

Chapter 3: Advanced

125

3.2 Design

Minimum Course

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Chamfer Length

The chamfer length applied to the TAV.

Minimum Course
Vertex

Links the TAV to a Minimum Course Vertex object. Fibersim then


applies appropriate Minimum Course behavior.

Orient Vertex with


Rosette Label

Whether or not Fibersim uses the rosette to map angles for the
Transition Adjacency Vertex.
NOTE: When using Fixed Transition Chamfers, Fibersim sets this to
Yes, and makes it read-only.

Reference Angle

Chapter 3: Advanced

Specifies the rosette angle to be used.

126

3.2 Design

Point-to-Point
This chamfer type option will connect the end points of the zone transitions, with no
influence from interior transitions.

Construction Transition
When this option is enabled, Fibersim will automatically create a construction transition at
the given transition vertex. This is only valid for vertices that have two transitions.

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3.2.5 Layers
Fibersim uses layers for parts that are designed using zones. (Layers are parent objects
in the creation of plies). Fibersim creates layers from zone definitions.
You can then create plies directly from the layer object. Layers allow you to apply dart
groups and splice groups, which are then used when plies are created from the layer. Note
that if a ply is spliced via a layer, the layer holds on to the original or pre-spliced shape.

In zone-based design, Fibersim updates the layer boundary when changes are made to
objects that affect the boundary. When a layer is the parent of a ply, then members that
are shared between the ply and the layer can only be edited in the layer. When changes
are made to the layer, Fibersim updates corresponding members in the ply.
Note that you can manually edit Net Boundaries and Net Holes in the layer, and select
curves. When overriding a layer boundary, both Net Boundary and Net Hole members
must also be overridden. Net Holes do not need to be overridden if there are no holes in
the layer being overridden. You can then clear manually selected curves, to get back to
the Fibersim-created boundary.

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MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Parent laminate of the layer. Layers automatically inherit their layup


surface and boundary from the parent.
In zone-based design, a layers laminate is obtained from the
zones used to define the layer.

Sequence

Defines the layers sequence in the composite part stackup. A layer


sequence value is inherited by any plies generated from it.

Step

The layers step number within composite part stackup. Inherited by


any plies that are generated from the layer.

Drop-Off Order

Defines the order that a layer is assigned an index curve for a given
Zone Transition. Since layers often use many ZTs, the position of an
index curve for a layer can change from ZT to ZT.
NOTE: It is recommend to use No Pre-Sorting in the Drop-Off
Order Pre-Sorting member, in the Laminate form.
Default value is 0, which means Drop-Off Orders are not being used
(Stagger Profile is used.) To use Drop-Off Order, you must define a
Linear Ascending Stagger Profile object and link it to all Zone
Transitions.
NOTE: This member overrides Stagger Profiles for each ZT.

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3.2 Design

Material

Material that the layer is made from. Layers that are defined from a
zone-based design inherit their material from the material spec.
NOTE: It is not recommended changing a material from within the
layer object. Make appropriate changes to material spec objects, and
then run a zone-to-layer update.
The chosen material will determine the drapability characteristics,
thickness, areal weight, cost, and material bolt width for the ply.

Rosette
Specified
Orientation

Fiber angles are measured relative to this rosette.


Defines the layers orientation based on the rosette. For zone-based
design, orientation is inherited from the material spec.
Make appropriate changes to material spec objects and then run a
Zone-to-Layer update, to ensure that layers are accurately
generated based on the zone definitions.

Zones

Zone objects, in combination with transition object, is how a layers


boundary gets generated.
For zone based design, zones are associated to layers when the
zone-to-layer utility is run.

Manufacturing
Process

Select the manufacturing process for this component.

Splice Groups

Select a splice group object, to splice the target layer. Once a ply has
been created from a layer, you can then splice it.

Splice Status

Current splice status of the layers plies. Status changes to Out-ofdate when a change is made that requires re-splicing.

Dart Groups

Select dart group object to apply darts to plies created from the
layer.

Dart Status

Current dart status of the layers plies.

Transition Management
Transitions

Transition objects, in combination with zone objects, is how a layers


boundary gets generated. Transitions determine how layers/plies
drop-off from regions of gage or thickness changes.

Transition
Status

If a layer successfully generates, OK is displayed. If not, it is


displayed in red, and Failed is displayed.

Geometry
Origin

Select the origin point for the layer, on the 3D surface.

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3.2 Design

Net Boundary

The boundary feature, generated with utilities that publish data to a


new model or a new laminate:

Net Holes

Merge Models
Surface Transfer
Manufacturing Laminate Creation utilities

Behaves the same as Boundary Feature, but holes are linked,


instead of the boundary.

Override Plus-One Boundary

Boundary
Display
Generate

The boundary used for explicit surface offset ramps.


Highlights plus-one offset boundary (in Blue).
Generates a CAD curve, representing the plus-one boundary for
the given layer.

Centerline (for Course objects) - Used with Wind Blades


Centerline
Generate Centerline
Course

Chapter 3: Advanced

Centerline curve for this layer, used to generate course


objects.
Generates the course on the centerline, using the selected
centerline.

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3.2 Design

Details tab - Note on analysis components (import/export)


The Analysis Component field makes sure that links are maintained to the proper
analysis data. This field displays the links to the analysis components that were created in
the import process.
Layers created from the overlay zones will have the analysis component populated. Note
that deleting the import will clear this field.
Prior to the 15 release, plies generated from overlay zones were not guaranteed to match
the name of the analysis components that was imported from an HDF5 file. This caused
links to be lost and made it difficult to keep track of where the original date came from.

Layer Workflow (when performing imports)


1) Open a new h5 file in the ply-based CAE Exchange Format import.
2) Import analysis components as layers.
3) Layers created at this point will link to the analysis component from which they were
created.
4) Plies created from these layers will share the name of the original analysis components.
5) Make any desired changes and export the plies to CAE. Note that exported names will
be the same as the original analysis plies.
NOTE: If the ply name is changed, the HDF5 file will include those names. So, when
the import is performed, names will not match the names listed in the layers.
6) Open a new h5 file in the existing ply-based CAE Exchange Format. Analysis
components will be linked to the related data in the new file. Analysis components will
also maintain the link to their created layers.

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3.2 Design

3.2.6 Core Layer


Core Layers are used when a zone-based design must contain a core. They are generated
during the Zone-to-Layer Analysis, similar to how layers are generated, when you have
included cores in Material Specs.
When defining cores, enter a total core thickness value. This value is transferred to the
Top Thickness value of the Core Layer. If using a double bevel core, change the thickness
in the Core Layer to represent the double bevel core. When core is generated via the
Zone-to-Layer Analysis, Fibersim generates a single bevel core.
Once a Core Layer is setup, you can generate Virtual or Virtual Variable Core objects. The
core layer will be the parent of the core (similar to layers and plies relationship).

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The parent laminate. Core Layers automatically inherit their layup


surface and boundary from the parent laminate.

Sequence

The Core Layers sequence in the part stackup.

Step
Material

Core Type

Chapter 3: Advanced

The Core Layers step number within the part stackup.


Material that the Core Layer is made from. Core Layers defined
from a zone-based design inherit the material from the material
spec.
Select the proper core to generate the layer for.

133

3.2 Design

Virtual Step Core

MEMBER
Origin
Boundary

DESCRIPTION
Select the origin point for the core layer.
In general, core layer boundaries are generated from the base zone
boundaries that make up the core layer.
NOTE: This member overrides default core layer boundaries.

Holes

Defines inner hole boundaries. In general, core layer holes are


generated from the base zone boundaries that make up the core layer.
NOTE: This member overrides the default core layer holes.

Core Dimensions
Thickness

Core thickness value, from the base shape to the top of the core.
Used in core samples, and laser projection calculations.

Bevel Angle

Constant angle of the bevel, of a parametric core top.

Step Height

Cores step height value.

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134

3.2 Design

Virtual Constant Core

MEMBER
Origin
Boundary

DESCRIPTION
Select the origin point for the core layer.
In general, core layer boundaries are generated from the base zone
boundaries that make up the core layer.
NOTE: This member overrides default core layer boundaries.

Holes

Defines inner hole boundaries. In general, holes are generated from


the base zone boundaries that make up the Core Layer.
NOTE: This member overrides the default Core Layer holes.

Core Top
Thickness
Bevel Angle

Cores top thickness value.


Cores top bevel angle value.

Core Bottom
Thickness
Bevel Angle

Chapter 3: Advanced

Cores bottom thickness value.


Cores bottom bevel angle.

135

3.2 Design

Virtual Variable Core

MEMBER
Origin
Boundary
Holes

DESCRIPTION
Select the origin point for the core layer.
In general, core layer boundaries are generated from the base zone
boundaries that make up the Core Layer.
In general, core layer holes are generated from base zone
boundaries that make up the Core Layer.

Core Top
Boundary
Holes
Thickness

The top core boundary. Zone-to-Layer assigns the same boundary


to the base and Top Boundary.
The top hole boundary. Zone-to-Layer will assign the same
boundary to the Hole and Top Hole boundary.
Core thickness from the base shape to the top of the core. Used in
core samples, and laser projection calculations.

Core Bottom
Boundary
Holes
Thickness

The bottom core boundary. Zone-to-Layer assumes a single bevel


core; so by default this member is not used.
Bottom hole boundary for the core. Zone-to-Layer assumes a single
bevel core, so by default this member is not used.
Thickness for the core from the base shape to the bottom of the
core.

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3.3 Manufacturing

3.3 Manufacturing
3.3.1 Splice Group
Splice Groups allow you to define a group of splice curves to be used to splice a group of
layer-based plies. Most often the Splice Groups are created based on ply orientations that
they will be applied to. Based on the number of layers that the Splice Group is applied to,
Fibersim will create all of the necessary offset curves.
Splice Groups use Offset Specifications to drive how the Splice curves are offset, and let
you define butt splices or overlap splices.

MEMBER
Laminate
Orientation
Options
(Pop-up menu)
Overlap Based On

DESCRIPTION
The laminate that will be used for the Splice Group.
Specifies the orientation of the layers that the Splice Group will
be applied to.
See below.
Specifies whether the Overlap Distance is based on:

Distance input an Overlap Distance value

Material Thickness select a Material, and then input a


Multiple of Thickness, which is based on the Materials
Cured Thickness.

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3.3 Manufacturing

Overlap Region

Allows you to specify an overlap region. You should choose a


region that defines the area where the overlap should take place.
With an overlap region, Fibersim creates butt splices outside of
the region and overlap splices on the interior of the region.

Recess Distance

Defines the recess distance from the Overlap Region that the
overlap splice will begin.
For example, you often define the Overlap Region as the edge of
a core, but do not want the change from a butt splice to an
overlap splice to begin directly on the core edge.
Overlap Region

Overlap

Recess
Distance

Shift Splice Base


Curves

Whether or not Fibersim will shift overlap splices, to maintain


proper material width.

Other
Generate...
Override Splice
Curves
Splice Curves

Performs the splice.


Curves that override Fibersim-generated splice curves.
Specifies curves for the Splice Group. Select the curves in the
exact order in which the plies are going to be spliced.
For example, if the part is going to be spliced from left to right,
pick the left most curve first, then continue left to right
NOTE: Splice Curves must be on the laminate surface, and must
break against the laminate Net Boundary.

Reverse Offset
Direction

Reverses the offset direction by 180 degrees.

Stagger Profile

Specifies the Stagger Profile used when splicing the plies.


Determines how plies splice through the thickness of the part.

Offset Specification

Chapter 3: Advanced

Specifies the Offset Specification for offsetting Splice Curves. This


value determines how far apart the Splice Curves will drop-off
through the part thickness.

138

3.3 Manufacturing

Regions
No Splice
Toggle Region
Display

Defined regions where there should be no splices.


Turn on/off the display of Overlap Splice and No Splice regions.

Options (pop-up menu)

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Only Splice Wider


Than Material Width

Whether to splice only those plies that are wider than the
material width.

Match Step

Layers that link to this splice group will get the same curve, if
they have the same step.

Geodesic Offset
Curves

Whether to pull the offset curves closer to the surface.

Alternative Geodesic
Method

Whether to use an alternative geodesic offset method.

Ply Name Separator

This option allows you to specify a separator character for


spliced plies.

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3.3 Manufacturing

3.3.2 Darts
Full details about darts are discussed in section 2.9 in Chapter 2.

Chapter 3: Advanced

140

3.3 Manufacturing

3.3.3 Dart Group


Dart Groups allow you to apply a sequential group of darts to plies that are layer-based.
Some composite parts use a pattern of darts that need to be applied to a group of plies.
In these cases. you define a Dart Group and then assign it to the necessary layers.
When you create plies from the layers, Fibersim applies the correct darts to the correct
ply.

MEMBER
Laminate
Orientation
Darts

DESCRIPTION
The laminate to be used for the Dart Group.
The orientation of the layers that the Dart Group will be applied
to.
Specifies darts to be applied to the plies. The order of the darts is
determined by the order that the darts are linked.
When the Dart Plies button is selected for a group of Layers that
use a given Dart Group, Darts are applied based on the dart
sequence, and the layer sequence.
The layer with the lowest sequence will be given the dart with the
lowest sequence.

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3.3 Manufacturing

3.3.4 Design Station


Full details about darts are discussed in section 2.7 in Chapter 2.

3.3.5 Cutouts
Full details about darts are discussed in section 2.8 in Chapter 2.

Chapter 3: Advanced

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3.4 Specifications

3.4 Specifications
3.4.1 Laminate Specifications
Laminate Specifications are used to group material specs, that define the material
characteristics of the constant gage areas on a composite part.
When using Laminate Specs for a zone-based design, it is recommended defining a spec
for the unique constant gage areas on the composite part.
For example, some composite parts may require 200 or more zones, however there may
only be 20 unique gage areas. This means you only have to define 20 unique Laminate
Specifications, and then link them to all of the appropriate zones.

MEMBER
Color
Ply Count

DESCRIPTION
Select a color to use when highlighting the zones.
Total ply count for all Material Specs that have been added to the
Laminate Specification. Fibersim updates this value as ply counts
increase or decrease.
NOTE: This member is read only.

Ply Thickness

A total ply thickness for all material specs that have been added to
the Laminate Specification. Fibersim updates this value as the ply
thickness increases or decreases.
NOTE: This member is read only.

Material
Specifications

Chapter 3: Advanced

Lists all Material Specs linked to this Laminate Specification.

143

3.4 Specifications

3.4.2 Material Specifications


Material Specs define a material, orientation, and ply count:
When used for zone definitions: the combination of all Material Specs applied to a
given zone fully defines the zones gage characteristics.

When used for Design Station purposes: the combination of all Material Specs
applied to a given Design Station verifies laminate characteristics at the Design
Station location.

Material Specs are usually used for zone definitions. As a rule, only unique Material Specs
can be applied to a zone. Most composite parts require many zones, which makes this rule
tedious for these types of parts.
However, material specs can also be applied to Laminate Specs, which then can be applied
to multiple zones. When using Material Specs for zone-based design, it is recommended
using Laminate Specs.
Each one should have unique Material Spec that describe the gage characteristics of a
zone or multiple zones. It is recommended having a Laminate Spec define the unique
constant gage area on the composite part. This provides the most efficient use of the
material specification for a given part.

MEMBER
Parent
Material
Orientation

DESCRIPTION
Zones, Laminate Specs, and Design Stations can all be parents of a
material specification.
Material used for the material specification.
Orientation value for the material.

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3.4 Specifications

Core Material
Thickness

The thickness of the core for a given Material Spec. You can enter the
core thickness for each Material Spec since the same database entry
for a given core material may be used for a variety of core thickness.
This value is used when the core layer is generated.

Ply Count

The ply count for the Material Specification. Must be an integer value,
that is greater than or equal to 0 for the ply count.

Step
Drop Off
Order
Analysis
Components

Specifies the Material Specifications position in the stackup.


Select the drop off order to be used for the layer created from this
material specification.
Displays the links to the analysis components that were created in the
import process. Note that deleting the import will clear this field.
See the note below for more details.

Notes on Material Specifications


Layers created from Material Specifications with Analysis Components will be created with one
Analysis Component each:

If the number of layers to be created is greater than the number of Analysis


Components one or more layers will not contain analysis data.
If the number of layers to be created is less than the number of Analysis Components
one or more Analysis Components will not be used.
If there is a list of Analysis Components, and the Material Specification's material and thickness
values are changed such that the number of plies in that Material Specification no longer
matches the number of Analysis Components in the list, the user is notified via a warning.
A Material Specification created via "Create Based On" will not inherit the source Material
Specification's analysis data.
Multiple Material Specifications used by a single Zone cannot link to the same Analysis
Component.
If a Material Specification with Analysis Components is linked (by user) to an object other than
an Overlay Zone the user should be warned that the link to analysis data will be broken.
Layers will only be assigned Analysis Components if the Material Specification is linked directly
to the Overlay Zone.

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3.4 Specifications

3.4.3 Offset Specifications


Offset Specifications tell Fibersim how a set of curves should be offset. Offset
Specifications are used in the Zone Transition (ZT) and Splice Group Objects.
When used to customize the behavior of a ZT, the Offset Specification is a power tool. By
using them, ZTs can be moved so ramp areas are positioned strategically. This allows you
to use a grid-based design approach and then customize the ZTs to meet your design
needs.
Offset Based On
Specify whether the offset distance will be inputted based on:

Distance
Material Thickness
Total Distance

For example, if there are 10 offset curves and the Total Distance is 1 inch, Fibersim
equally spaces all 10 curves to 1 inch of the base curve.

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146

3.4 Specifications

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Drop-Off Spacing
Offset Distance
Plies Per Drop-Off
Curve

The primary or first offset distance along the edge.


Number of layers/plies to be dropped-off at each ZT or Splice
Curve. Input individual values for:
Base Curve
First, Second or Third offset

Additional
Distance

Check the Use... option to make this active.


This is the offset distance used for additional curves.

Transition Positioning
Distance

Specifies the transition position, values can be positive or negative


real numbers.

Material Thickness
Multiple of
Thickness
Material

Advanced
Positioning
(Pop-up menu)

Specifies the offset distance as a multiple of the chosen material's


thickness. The values entered will be multiplied by the materials
thickness value to determine the offset spacing.
Material to use.

See below for details.

Chapter 3: Advanced

147

3.4 Specifications

Advanced Positioning Options (pop-up menu)


The Advanced Positioning portal lets you select the type of offset to use for the zone
transition.
Offsets to select include:

Initial Offset enter a positive or negative offset on the zone transition curves.
(A.)

Ramp Centered Offset similar to Center Based Offset, but Fibersim centers the
zone transition based on the ply ramp instead of the number of drop-off curves.
(B.)

Center Based Offset center the zone transition curves along the zone boundary.
(C.)

Distributed Offset input a gap distance on the inner (thicker) and outer
(thinner) side of the zone boundary. (D.)

Chapter 3: Advanced

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3.4 Specifications

A.) Initial Offset

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Initial Offset - options are Distance or Material Thickness


Distance
Distance

Initial offset distance value.

Material Thickness
Multiple of
Thickness

Specifies the distance that a Zone Transition will be offset from the zone
boundary. The value is a multiple of material thickness.
A positive value offsets curves to the thinner zone, negative values
offsets them to the thicker zone.

ZONE 1
Thin
Zone bou nd ary

ZONE 2
Thic k

A bs olute Initial
Offs et
(P os iti ve )

Absolute Initial Offset


Material

The material to use.

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149

3.4 Specifications

B.) Ramp Centered Offset


This options centers the zone transition based on the ply ramp.

This behaves like a Center Based Offset, but is offset an additional Offset Distance
toward the thinner zone.
When you set the value for the Initial Offset Distance (distance that a Zone Transition is
offset from the zone boundary), a positive value offsets curves toward the thinner zone,
negative values to the thicker zone.

Ramp Centered Offset

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150

3.4 Specifications

C.) Center Based Offset


Using this option, if there are an even number of curves, the center offset is split on each
side of the zone boundary. If there are an odd number, it lies directly on top.

ZONE 1
Thin
Zone boundary

ZONE 2
Thick

Center Based Offset

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3.4 Specifications

D.) Distributed Offset


The Distributed Offset lets you define an Inner and Outer Gap distance. The number of
curves generated for the Gap is determined by the Inner Offset Percentage.

In this image, it would be 50 percent.


ZONE 1
Thin

Outer G ap
Distance

Zone bound ary

Inner G ap
Distance

ZONE 2
Thick
Distributed Offset

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Inner Offset
Percentage

The percentage of curves to be offset to the inside (thick side) of


the Inner Gap distance.

Inner Gap

The Inner Gap distance in between Zone Transition curves and


the zone boundary curve. Distance is always toward the thicker
zone.

Outer Gap

The Outer Gap distance in between the Zone Transition curves


and the zone boundary curve.
This distance is always toward the thinner zone.

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3.4 Specifications

Advanced Spacing Options


The advanced spacing options consist of four choices:

Distance Based Offset (see a. below)


Total Distance Based Offset (see b. below)
Material Thickness Based Offset (see c. below)
Custom Based Offset (see d. below)

a.) Distance Based Offset options


This type of offset defines the distance between offset curves directly.

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3.4 Specifications

MEMBER
Offset Type

DESCRIPTION
Whether the Offset Specification will be:

Single Linear all offset curves controlled by the Offset


Specification will have the same Offset Distance.
Double Linear provide two different Offset Distances
Triple Linear provide three different Offset Distances.

Select an option and the appropriate section becomes active below.

MEMBER
Offset Distance

DESCRIPTION
Total to offset distance value.

Drop-Off Curve count based on either Percentage or Curve Count:


Percentage
Percentage of
Curves

Percentage of offset curves that use the offset distance.


NOTE: If Offset Type is set to Single Linear, percentage is
always 100.

Curve Count
Number of Curves

The number of offset curves that use the offset distance.


NOTE: If Offset Type is set to Single Linear the Offset Distance
is applied to all curves in the Zone Transition.

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3.4 Specifications

b.) Total Distance Based Offset options


This type of offset defines the length of the entire ramp.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Total Distance

Total distance value.

Divide By Ply
Count Plus One

This option will divide the total distance by the number of plies,
then add one.

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3.4 Specifications

c.) Material Thickness Based Offset options


This type of offset defines the distance between offset curves, as a multiple of a single
material thickness. The Offsets portal opens to the window below:

MEMBER
Offset Type

DESCRIPTION
Whether the Offset Specification will be:

Single Linear all offset curves controlled by the Offset


Specification will have the same Offset Distance.
Double Linear provide two different Offset Distances.
Triple Linear provide three different Offset Distances.

Select an option and the appropriate section becomes active below.

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3.4 Specifications

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Multiple of
Thickness

Specifies the offset distance as a multiple of the chosen material's


thickness.

Drop-Off Curve count based on either Percentage or Curve Count:


Percentage
Percentage of
Curves

Percentage of offset curves that use the Single/First Offset


distance.
NOTE: If Offset Type is set to Single Linear, percentage is
always 100.

Curve Count
Number of Curves

Chapter 3: Advanced

The number of offset curves that use the Single/First Offset


distance.

157

3.4 Specifications

d.) Custom Based Offset options


This type of offset lets you set custom-based offset values.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Offsets

Comma-separated list of distances, between each offset curve.

Plies Per Drop-Off


Curve

Comma-separated list of the number of plies, for each drop off


curve.

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3.4 Specifications

e.) Material Ratio Offset


The Material Ratio Offset type lets you generate an offset specification based on more than
one material thickness. You can set the Multiple of Thickness and a number of plies per
drop-off. This will disable the other offset distance and plies-per-drop-off members.
When a Material Ratio offset specification is linked to a zone transition, the transition will
compute its offset curves according to the multiple of material thickness, relative to the
layer, that dropped off previously.
PLEASE NOTE: Because the offset distances are based on the layer stackup, changing
the drop-off order (directly or by changing the step value, for example) will require
zone transitions and all the layers on them to be recomputed.

MEMBER
Multiple of
Thickness
Plies per Drop-Off
Curves

Chapter 3: Advanced

DESCRIPTION
Set the multiple of thickness value.
(i.e. set to 20 to achieve a ramp based on a 20:1 material ratio)
Comma-separated list of the number of plies, for each drop off
curve.

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3.4 Specifications

3.4.4 Stagger Profile


Stagger Profiles are used when generating the layer boundaries from a Zone Transition.
This will determine the drop-off profile or cross-section of a Zone Transition through the
thickness of the composite part.
These profiles are used with the Zone Transition Stagger Editor utility. See section
3.2.3.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Stagger Profile
Pattern

Specify the pattern for this profile. Either Linear Ascending,


Linear Descending or Custom.

Custom Pattern

Specifies the through-the-thickness order in which the offset


curves are assigned.

Repeat After

Chapter 3: Advanced

This value specifies the limit on the number of curves to be offset,


for linear and symmetric stagger profile patterns.

160

3.4 Specifications

3.4.5 Laminate Regions


Fibersim allows you to define all of the following:

Regions where no splicing should occur


Regions where no darting should occur
Regions where no drop-offs should occur
Surface Treatment Regions
Mating Surface Regions

Regions have a logical link to Darts, Dart Groups, and Splice Groups. Fibersim will report if
any Darts or Splices violate the No Dart or No Splice Regions.
These regions are designed to alert you when a given region has been violated.
In general, regions enrich the CAD model with non-geometric information that better
describes the part being designed.

Showing a Region object window

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3.4 Specifications

List of Laminate Region objects


The following is a list of region object windows you can use within Fibersim:
REGION OBJECT
Overlap Splice Region

DESCRIPTION
You can define an area on the part where overlap splices
should be defined. In some cases, you might like to apply a
butt splice on the edge of the part, and then switch to an
overlap splice for a given region of the part.
You can do this by linking the Overlap Splice Region to the
Overlap Region member in the Splice Group.

No Splice Regions

Defines regions where splices are not allowed.


Fibersim presents a warning message if you attempt to
splice through these areas.

No Dart Regions

Allows you to define a region where darts are not allowed.


Fibersim presents a warning message if you attempt to dart
through these areas.

No Drop-Off Regions

Defines regions where drop-offs are not allowed.

Surface Treatment
Regions

Surface treatment regions are regions on the given


surface that will receive specific surface treatments, based
on your standards.
On some parts, the surface finish on all or certain areas of
the part needs to be done in a specific way.

Mating Surface Regions

Mating Surface Regions are regions on the given surface,


used to mate additional components.
NOTE: You may have special rules in regards to the
treatment of ply drop-offs and splices in these regions.

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Chapter 4: Structure-Based
Design (SBD)

4.1 Introduction
The Structure-Based Design functionality allows you to enter information about
substructures, or regions of the part where specific design rules will apply.
This enables you to enter more up front information in regard to your composite design.
Fibersim can then use this information throughout the design process.

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4.1 Introduction

Methodology and Workflow


The SBD functionality uses the following methodology:
1. Create the master model (i.e. the Master Structure).
2. Create Design Rule objects, which will be applied to the specified parts and
substructures.
3. Generate the System Datums, by selecting main load system and transfer load system
curves.
4. Generate Structure Interface objects. These objects will add more refinement to the
parts and provide additional details for each.
5. Generate your Analysis zones.
6. Import the file into Fibersim containing any necessary stress data, to update the
analysis zones.
7. Generate the Design zones. (If necessary, use the option to consolidate the zones.)
8. Run the Zone-to-Layer Analysis utility. This will create the layer shapes based on the
zones.
9. Apply the structure controls to the layers.

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164

4.1 Introduction

Creating the Design Rules


You must set up the design rules you want applied to the individual regions of your parts.
This includes boundary offsets, offset specifications and the default Laminate Spec
Operator.

MEMBER

Laminate

DESCRIPTION

Select the parent laminate.

Footprint
Boundary Offset 1 &
2

The offset distance to the left (Offset 1) and the offset distance
to the right (Offset 2).

Cross Perpendicular
to Structure
Interface

Check this option and the crossing ramps will run perpendicular
to the structure interface.

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4.1 Introduction

Drop-Off Control
Parallel Offset Spec

Select the offset specification for the ramps that run parallel.

Cross Offset Spec

Select the offset specification for the ramps that cross.

Centered in Datum
Curve

Check this option to have the ramp centered about the datum
curve.

Laminate Spec
Operator

Select either the union or the intersection of the material


specs to the left and the right.

Sacrificial Plies
Sacrificial plies are used in locations where the part thickness needs to be precisely
controlled. By adding sacrificial plies in an area so the thickness exceeds the actual part
thickness, then this area can be machined to a precise thickness.
Minimum Thickness

Specify a minimum thickness value for any applied sacrificial


plies.

Material

Specify a material to use for the sacrificial plies.

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4.2 Create a Master Structure

4.2 Create a Master Structure


The Master Structure object is the centralized location for interacting with a structurebased design. Here you define and update the main components for the SBD design.
To create the master structure object, you must select primary and secondary curves, and
the design rules you want to be applied.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select the parent laminate.

Rosette

Fiber angles will be measured relative to this selected rosette.

Options
(pop-up menu)

System Datum Name Style


This option will determine how the system datums get named.
Options are:

Type and Curve


Curve
Type

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167

4.2 Create a Master Structure

Primary (& Secondary) System Datum(s)


Type

Select the type of (primary and secondary) datums to create.


Options are Stringer, Rib or Frame.

The window next to Type will display the highlight color for the primary (and secondary)
system datums.

First Curve

The first primary (and first secondary) system curve.

Curve

The primary (and secondary) system curves.

Design Rule

The primary (and secondary) design rule to apply to the system


datums.

Structure-Based Design (SBD) Processes


Structure and Stress Engine
You can go through each step in the SBD process by clicking on the set of buttons below.
1. Generate System
Datums

Press this button to generate the system datum objects. They


will be listed under the System Datum tab.

2. Generate
Structure Interfaces

Press this button to generate the structure interface objects.


They will be listed under the Structure Interface tab.

3. Generate Analysis
Zones

Press this button to generate the analysis zones. They will be


listed under the Analysis Zone tab.

Stress Data File


Stress Data File

Specify the file that contains the stress data.

4. Import Stress Data

Press this button to import the stress data into Fibersim.

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4.2 Create a Master Structure

Design Engine
5. Generate Design
Zones

Press this button to generate the design zones.


They will be listed under the Design Zone tab.

Consolidation

Check this option and all design zones will be consolidated when
they are generated, based on matching laminate specs.

6. Zone to Layer

Press this button to run the zone to layer analysis utility.

7. Apply Structure
Control to Layers

Press this button to apply the structure controls and structurebased rules, to the created layers and zone transitions.

SBD Message
This window will display a report of each action taken throughout the SBD process.

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169

4.3 Generate your System Datums

4.3 Generate your System Datums


System datums represent part datums, or part sub-structures, that are used to design
the part.
Shown below is the object window for the system datums that you create. Note that these
will be listed on the Master Structure object, under the System Datum tab.
System Datum Highlight options
The highlight options button from the main toolbar offers the following options for
highlighting the datums in the CAD window:

Label - Highlights the datum label in the CAD window.


Boundary - Highlights the datum boundary in the CAD window.
Shading - Shades the datum in the area inside the boundary.

Showing highlighted datums (stringer and a frame) in the CAD window

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4.3 Generate your System Datums

System Datum Object Window

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Master Structure

Displays the master structure for this datum.

Type

Specifies what type of datum this is. Options are:

Frame
Rib
Stringer

Design Rule

Shows the design rule in use for this datum.

Reverse
Orientation

Press this button to reverse the orientation of the system datum


in the CAD window.

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171

4.4 Generate the Structure Interface

4.4 Generate the Structure Interface


These are the object windows for the structure interfaces that you create. The structure
interfaces will add more refinement to the parts and provide additional details for each.
Note that these will be listed on the Master Structure object, under the Structure
Interface tab.

MEMBER
Design Rule

DESCRIPTION
The design rule to use for this structure interface.

References
Parent Datum

Specifies the parent system datum for this structure interface.

First Trim Datum

The first trim system datum.

Second Trim
Datum

The second trim system datum.

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172

4.4 Generate the Structure Interface

Showing highlighted structure interfaces in the CAD window

Chapter 4: Structure-Based Design

173

4.5 Generate the Analysis Zones

4.5 Generate the Analysis Zones


These are the object windows for the analysis zones that you create.
Note that these will be listed on the Master Structure object, under the Analysis Zone
tab.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Displays the parent laminate.

Origin

Specify the point, defining the location of the zone on the


laminate surface.

Laminate
Specifications

Specifies the material specification layup of this zone.

Material
Specifications

All material specifications defining the layup of this zone will be


listed here.

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174

4.5 Generate the Analysis Zones

Showing highlighted analysis zones in the CAD window

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175

4.5 Generate the Analysis Zones

Importing a file with stress data


Select the file that contains your stress data and press Import Stress Data.
This action imports laminate specifications, and updates the current analysis zones,
resulting in the creation of zones associated to geometry and the laminate specs.
The zones will be properly linked to the laminate specifications in the data file.

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176

4.6 Generate the Design Zones

4.6 Generate the Design Zones


These are the object windows for the design zones that you create. Note that these zones
will be listed under the Layer Control section of the SBD application browser.
NOTE: This is the same object layout as found in Chapter 3, section 3.2.1 Zone.
These zones will also be listed on the Master Structure object, under the Design Zone
tab.

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4.6 Generate the Design Zones

Showing highlighted design zones in the CAD window

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178

4.7 Run Zone-to-Layer utility

4.7 Run Zone-to-Layer utility


Fibersim matches up materials and orientations across all of the zones, and constructs
boundaries. Fibersim also creates necessary Zone Transitions, Transition Adjacency
Vertices, and the resulting layers.
The resulting report will describe what objects were created/updated as a result of running
the analysis. This report also lists any errors that were encountered during the analysis.

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179

4.8 Apply structure control to Layers

4.8 Apply structure control to Layers


This action will apply all the structure-based rules to the created zone transitions and
layers.

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180

Chapter 5: Wind (Interfaces)

5.1 Introduction
IMPORTANT: You need the proper bundle value set (FIBERSIM_LICENSE_BUNDLE) and
have the proper license to use Wind Blade functionality.
Chapter 1, section 1.3.2 of the Installation Guide includes a full list of bundle values.
The laminate structure for most wind blades can be derived from a few reference curves
and the offset values from those curves. As such, Fibersim offers the ability to define all
the geometry and plies in a blade by importing a spreadsheet using the Wind Blade Design
Import (WBDI) utility. This utility is discussed later in this chapter.
This utility provides a link to several reference curves in the CAD system. Based on a
specified region and several parameters defined in the spreadsheet, the utility will create
4-sided plies and cores, or layers and core layers. The Wind Blade module provides access
to all objects necessary to design a wind blade within Fibersim.

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181

5.2 Objects used in wind blade production

5.2 Objects used in wind blade production


This is a list of the objects you can use during wind blade production.

5.2.1 Design
a) Laminate
NOTE: Details of the laminate object are discussed in Chapter 2, section 2.3.

b) Rosette
NOTE: Details of the rosette object are discussed in Chapter 2, section 2.4.

c) Layer
NOTE: Details of the layer object are discussed in Chapter 3, section 3.2.5.

d) Core Layer
NOTE: Details of the layer object are discussed in Chapter 3, section 3.2.6.

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182

5.2 Objects used in wind blade production

5.2.2 Manufacturing
a) Ply
NOTE: Details of the laminate object are discussed in Chapter 2, section 2.5.

b) Course
See the next section for details.

c) Core
NOTE: Details of the laminate object are discussed in Chapter 2, section 2.6.

d) Splice Group
NOTE: Details of the layer object are discussed in Chapter 3, section 3.3.1.

e) Design Station
NOTE: Details of the layer object are discussed in Chapter 3, section 3.3.4.

f) Cutout
NOTE: Details of the laminate object are discussed in Chapter 2, section 2.8.

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183

5.3 Course

5.3 Course
Course objects are only used in Wind Blade production. Courses will be linked to its 3D
boundary, 3D centerline, flat pattern and 3D centerlines for the adjacent courses (one on
each side). A course object also inherits the seq/step, material, orientation and rosette
from its parent layer.
Running the Course Generation utility (found on the layer object toolbar and under
Tools > Operations) creates the new course objects.
SPECIAL NOTE: A course object has a very similar look and feel to the ply object.
The main differences are that a course has a Centerline, which is used to define
the course boundary. You can also select left and right adjacent course materials.

MEMBER
Parent
Sequence
Step
Centerline
Constraint Curve

DESCRIPTION
Specifies the parent object.
Determines the courses sequence in the part stackup.
Determines the courses step number in the part stackup.
The centerline of the layer must span the parent layer
boundary, and have some part of it inside the net boundary.
This curve is necessary when the centerline is outside the
laminate net boundary (used to guide the simulation).

Material

Select the material from which the course is made.

Rosette

Fiber angles are measured relative to this rosette.

Specified Orientation

Chapter 5: Wind

The courses orientation, based on the selected rosette.

184

5.3 Course

Actual Orientation

The actual orientation of the course. If the orientation is defined


using a fiber direction curve, the orientation of the fiber
direction curve is measured against the rosette, to determine
the actual orientation.

Adjacent Course
Overlap

This value is the overlap distance between a course, and any


adjacent courses.

Guiding Course

If the course centerline ends, the guide course will be used to


propagate the remaining simulation. This function is intended
for courses at the edge of the part whose centerline is shorter
than the rest of the course.

Generate Right/Left
Adjacent Centerline

Check this option and select a material.

Right/Left Adjacent
Course Material

Material for the adjacent course.

Simulation Options (pop-up menu)


Simulation Method

Select the type of simulation to run on a ply-by-ply basis. Either


Traditional, Curvature Adaptive, NCF or Spine.

Fiber Spacing Factor

Controls simulation cell size. Default of 1.0 is usually sufficient


for an accurate simulation, and to generate an accurate flat
pattern.

Propagation Method

Producibility simulation propagation method.

Propagation Direction

Direction of the simulation cell propagation:

Parallel
Bias (WeaveAngle/2)
Bias (+WeaveAngle/2)
Orthogonal

Simulation Surface

An alternate simulation surface, used to eliminate holes from


the producibility simulation.

First Stage Region

Simulation will run in this region first, prior to flattening the


remainder of the course. Must consist of a set of closed curves.

Results Display
Offset Mode

How the plys simulation results are displayed.


Whether flat patterns will be run in offset mode:

Chapter 5: Wind

None results generated on the parent surface.


Constant producibility results generated at a constant
offset from the layup surface

185

5.4 Wind Blade Import (utility)

5.4 Wind Blade Import (utility)


Manually creating a ply-based design of a wind blade is extremely time-consuming, due to
the number of plies. You can now set parameters in an excel spreadsheet, with minimal
geometry input, to describe the plies. That file can then be imported into Fibersim using
this utility.
This utility provides a link to several reference curves in the CAD system. Based on a
specified region and several parameters defined in the spreadsheet, will create 4-sided
plies and cores, or layers and core layers. The Wind Blade module provides access to all
objects necessary to design a wind blade within Fibersim.
You can access this from: File > Import > Wind Blade Design Import

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The parent laminate, for the imported plies and rosettes.

Rosette

Fiber directions will be measured relative to this rosette.

Input File

File containing the data, to be used in the wind blade design.

Leading Edge

This curve represents the leading edge of the part.

Trailing Edge

This curve represents the trailing edge of the part.

Spar Cap
Centerline

The centerline that runs the length of the spar cap area.

Spine

Specifies the wind blade spine, to be used as an axis.

Options (drop-down menu)


Result Type

Chapter 5: Wind

Whether Fibersim will create layers or plies.

186

5.4 Wind Blade Import (utility)

Add Prefix to Names


Prefix

In order to track the ply name independently from the layup


sequence, there spreadsheet columns called "Step" and "Sequence".
In the Step column, plies/layers are named based on the "Ply"
column (i.e. "1" becomes "PLY001" or "LYR001", "14b" becomes
"PLY014b" or "LYR014b").
This option lets you add the prefix, to specify the full ply name in the
spreadsheet. The "PLY" or "LYR" prefixes are used as the defaults.
You can also specify your own prefix, rather than the defaults.

Reverse Spine
Direction

Reverses the orientation direction of the spine.

Maximum Curve
Segment Length
Factor

Controls the number of points, for the creation of blade geometry.

Step Increment

The step increment value.

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187

5.4 Wind Blade Import (utility)

Excel spreadsheet parameters


This is a list of the parameters used in an imported spreadsheet:

Ply - Name of the ply

Step - The number in the stackup

ZStart, ZEnd - Boundary distances from the root

Width - Defines edge boundaries for certain regions

Orientation - The Orientation value to be imported

Material - The Material to be imported

Region - Type of ply, determines behavior of import (mapped to the Function


field)

StartOffset, EndOffset - Offset values from the region curve

StartEdgeOffset, EndEdgeOffset - Offset from the Leading/Trailing edge for


the core

StartAngle, EndAngle - Angles Z-boundaries from the ply centerline normal

Thickness - Used for cores only

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188

5.4 Wind Blade Import (utility)

Workflow - Geometry
In Fibersim, links must be made to:
The laminate and rosette
Leading Edge Curve
Trailing Edge Curve
Spar Cap Centerline
Spine
Based on the Region field, the WBDI utility creates all plies/layers, core, and the
associated geometry.

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189

5.4 Wind Blade Import (utility)

Results - Created Geometry

Spine Intersect curves - planar Z-boundaries normal to the spine

Curve Offsets - geodesic offset curves from region curves

**_MWL_## - material width curves used for ply/layer boundaries

**_CENTER_## - curves used for ply/layer centerlines

Angle Cuts - angled Z-boundaries defined from the centerline normal

Origins - defined along the centerline

Core Boundaries - closed curves for the core

Fibersim members that get populated

Step

Material

Orientation - Note that for NCF materials, this will be overridden by values in
the Materials Database.

Direction - For layers, the Centerline member is used.

Origin

Function - This is on the Details tab of the Course object, and is used for
grouping/sorting.

Propagation Method - set to "To Curve" for plies

Thickness - set for cores

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190

5.4 Wind Blade Import (utility)

Region Details (w/ images)


The unique regions supported by the WBDI utility are: Leading & Trailing Edge, Spar
Cap, Leading &Trailing Core, Leading & Trailing Var and Full Body.
Each of these regions is mapped into the Fibersim object's Function field to aid in working
with the data once imported.

Leading & Trailing Edge


Ignored fields:

StartEdgeOffset
EndEdgeOffset
Thickness

Spar Cap
Ignored fields:

StartEdgeOffset
EndEdgeOffset
Thickness

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191

5.4 Wind Blade Import (utility)

Angle Cuts (StartAngle and EndAngle) - Leading/Trailing Edge and


Spar Cap only
The angle is measured from the orthogonal of the ply centerline. If it is blank, or a non-numeric
value, the ply will be trimmed to the spine intersection (ZStart/ZEnd).

Leading and Trailing Core


Ignored fields:

Width
StartAngle
EndAngle

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192

5.4 Wind Blade Import (utility)

Leading and Trailing Core


Ignored fields:

Width
StartAngle
EndAngle
Thickness

Full Body
Ignored fields:

StartEdgeOffset
EndEdgeOffset
Thickness
Width
StartOffset
EndOffset
StartAngle
EndAngle

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193

Chapter 6: Automated Deposition


Design (ADD)

6.1 Introduction
The Automated Deposition Design (ADD) environment provides design tools that aid
those who use automated deposition machines. This includes Fiber Placement and Tape
Laying machines. Since these machines often have minimum course length restrictions,
the ADD aids in applying necessary boundary alterations, to account for the restriction.s
The ADD also aids in the ramping down of extended ply boundaries. When using
automated deposition machines, it is not desirable to have a large step from the material
edge to the tool surface. If this step does exist, the machine will often lift up layers of
material that have already been deposited on the tool.

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194

6.2 Extended Ramp

6.2 Extended Ramp


When using automated deposition machines, you may want to prevent having a large step
from the material edge to the tool surface. The Extended Ramp object lets you
automatically ramp down the plies extended boundaries.
Extended ramps must be applied to the necessary plies, and link to the plies under the
Extended Geometry tab (in the Ply form).
You should only apply Extended Ramp objects to fullbody plies, and plies that break
against the Laminate Net Boundary.
NOTE: Ply shapes that are closed and internal to the laminate Net boundary do not
need an Extended Ramp object.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The laminate used when ramping down extended boundaries.

Stagger Profile

Defines the Stagger Profile, used when generating Extended Ramp


boundaries. The Stagger Profile determines the drop-off profile for
the plies that use the Extended Ramp.

Offset Specification

Offset Specifications tell Fibersim how to offset the curves that are
being used to create the Extended Ramps.

First Boundary
Ramp

When an Extended Boundary has more than one domain, this


determines a boundary. The Extended Ramp will be applied to this
boundary.
For parts with more than one domain, you need to create two
Extended Ramps. For example, if the part is a cylindrical section with
a boundary on each side of the cylinder, an Extended Ramp object
needs to be created for each side of the cylinder.
This option should be used to toggle between which of the laminate
curves will be used for the corresponding Extended Ramp object.

Match Step

Whether plies linking to this ramp will get the same curve, if they
have the same step.

Geodesic Offset
Curves

Whether to pull offset curves closer to the surface.

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6.3 Minimum Course Extension

6.3 Minimum Course Extension


Minimum Course Extensions allow you to alter the non-tangent corners of ply shapes,
to account for minimum course restrictions imposed by using automated deposition
machines.
You can select a ply and indicate next to the desired corner point. Fibersim then
automatically creates the minimum course extension.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
Specify the laminate used for the Minimum Course Extension.
Determines which plies will be eligible for linking (under Ply).

Ply

The ply that will have the Minimum Course Extension applied.
NOTE: The plies orientation is used to orient the Minimum
Course Extension at the chosen non-tangency.

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6.3 Minimum Course Extension

Corner Point

The non-tangent corner where the Minimum Course Extension will


be applied.
NOTE: You should indicate a point next to the desired nontangent corner for the ply.
SPECIAL NOTE: In prior releases, the corner point used by an
MCE was simply stored as coordinates. Now, the corner point is a
physical CAD point created in the background and hidden.
This helps to ensure that the MCE is not sensitive to the CAD part
being translated. The point is hidden as it is not intended to be
modified/changed.

Any new MCEs that get created will have a CAD point
associated with them. If the MCE is deleted, the CAD
point will be deleted. If the point is changed through the
MCE, it will be replaced.

Existing MCEs will not be affected unless they are modified


and changed, in which case they will upgrade to the new
behavior. Additionally, simply modifying an existing MCE
and clicking OK will trigger the upgrade.
Minimum Course
Length

Length value of the Minimum Course Extension.

Minimum Course
Type

Specifies the type of Minimum Course Extension to be applied at


the chosen corner:

The length should be entered in the CAD systems current display


unit for length.

Bird Beak
Bat Ear
Chamfer

An illustration of each Minimum Course Type is shown below.

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6.3 Minimum Course Extension

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6.3 Minimum Course Extension

Extended Along
Ply Direction

Whether Fibersim will extend the Minimum Course Extension


along the plys fiber direction.
NOTE: Only valid when Minimum Course Type is set to Bird
Beak.

Along Fiber Direction

180 from Fiber Direction

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6.4 Minimum Course Extension Utility

6.4 Minimum Course Extension Utility


The Minimum Course Extension utility will allow you to automatically apply minimum
course extensions to plies. Each applicable corner of the ply will have a minimum course
extension applied to it.

MEMBER
Minimum Course
Type

DESCRIPTION
The type of Minimum Course Extension to be applied:

Generate

Bird Beak
Bat Ear
Chamfer

Applies the minimum course extensions to the plies.

Machine Definitions
ADD Machine

You must select a default ADD machine from the ADD machine
database before running this utility.
NOTE: Specify the ADD Machine on the Default ADD Machine
member on the Laminate object.

Minimum Course
Length

This value is the machine-specific minimum length for the course


extension. This member will populate once an AD Machine is
selected.

Minimum
Extension Angle

The minimum extension angle must be within the ply's boundary.

Options (pop-up menu)


Extend Along Ply
Direction

This option ensures that the minimum course extension extends


along the plys fiber direction.

Add to Extended
Ramps Only

This option means that the minimum course extension will only be
applied to extended ramps.

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6.5 Minimum Course Vertex

6.5 Minimum Course Vertex


Minimum Course Vertices allows you to alter non-tangent corners of layer shapes, to
account for minimum course restrictions imposed by using automated deposition
machines.
Minimum Course Vertices are applied to Transition Adjacency Vertices. Fibersim applies
Minimum Course extensions to all necessary layers at the given Transition Adjacency
Vertex.

MEMBER
Minimum Course
Type

DESCRIPTION
The Minimum Course Extension applied to the chosen corner:

Extend Along First


Layer Orientation

Bird Beak
Bat Ear

Whether to extend the Minimum Course Extension along the


layers fiber direction, or flip it 180 from the fiber direction.
NOTE: Valid when Minimum Course Type is set to Bird Beak.
See image below.

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6.5 Minimum Course Vertex

Along Fiber Direction

180 from Fiber Direction

Alternate
Extension
Direction

Alternates the direction of the extension, for each layer.


NOTE: Used when Minimum Course Type is set to Bird Beak.

Custom Extension
Direction

NOTE: This option is only available if the Alternate Extension


Direction option is unchecked.
A comma-separated list of 0s and 1s, to define a custom extension
direction pattern for the MCVs. The 0 and 1 values represent the
desired side for the MCV.

0 = the direction that the rosette spoke would point if


mapped to the given non-tangent corner. (Same as
selecting the Extend Along First Layer Orientation
option.)

1 = the opposite direction that the rosette spoke would


point if mapped to the given non-tangent corner. Same as
un-checking the Extend Along First Layer Orientation
option.)

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6.6 Minimum Course Vertex Utility

6.6 Minimum Course Vertex Utility


The Minimum Course Vertex utility will allow you to automatically apply minimum
course vertices to zone adjacency vertices.
Fibersim will also set the zone adjacency vertexs Vertex Transition Method to
Minimum Course, and link it to the new MCV. The value of the Chamfer Length member
will be the machine-specific minimum length.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select the parent laminate.

Minimum Course
Type

The type of minimum course vertex to be applied:

Generate

Applies the minimum course vertices to the zone adjacency


vertices.

Bird Beak
Bat Ear

Machine Definitions
ADD Machine

You must select a default ADD machine from the ADD machine
database before running this utility.
NOTE: Specify the ADD Machine on the Default ADD
Machine member on the Laminate object.

Minimum Course
Length

This value is the machine-specific minimum length for the


course extension.
This member will populate once an ADD Machine is selected.

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6.6 Minimum Course Vertex Utility

Options (pop-up menu)


Extend Along First
Layer Orientation

Whether to extend the Minimum Course Vertex along the


layers fiber direction, or flip it 180.
NOTE: Valid when Minimum Course Type is set to Bird
Beak.

Alternate Extension
Direction

Alternates the direction of the extension, for each vertex.


NOTE: Only applicable when Minimum Course Type is set to
Bird Beak.

Custom Extension
Direction

NOTE: This option is only available if Alternate Extension


Direction is unchecked.
A comma-separated list of 0s and 1s, to define a custom
extension direction pattern for the MCVs. The 0 and 1 values
represent the desired side for the MCV.

0 = the direction that the rosette spoke would point if


mapped to the given non-tangent corner. (Same as
selecting the Extend Along First Layer Orientation
option.)

1 = the opposite direction that the rosette spoke would


point if mapped to the given non-tangent corner. Same
as un-checking the Extend Along First Layer
Orientation option.)

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6.7 Stagger Origin

6.7 Stagger Origin


The Stagger Origin utility is designed for use with Automated Deposition Machines. You
can automatically generate a set of staggered origins for a given set of plies.
In some Automated Deposition processes, you are required to stagger the origins for
groups of plies of similar orientations, and have material coverage areas in common.
Once a ply is linked to a Stagger Origin object the plies origin is overridden by the origin
created by the Stagger Origin object. When a single Stagger Origin object is used by
multiple plies, choose a starting origin that is inside of all the targeted plies.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The Stagger Origin object is defined on this parent laminate.


Fibersim uses the Laminate to determine the surface that validates
the point.

Origin

Defines the starting origin point for the Stagger Origin object.
All offset origins will originate from this point.

Direction Type

Defines whether origins will be offset based on the Fiber Axis


Direction or the rosette direction.

Fiber Axis - Fibersim maps a chosen Fiber Axis curve to the


point chosen for the origin. This mapped vector direction is
then used as a direction for the offsetting of the additional
origins.

Rosette - Fibersim uses the chosen rosettes direction for


offsetting additional origins. You can use the same Stagger
Origin object for plies of differing orientations. Fibersim creates
staggered origins based on orientations of plies that use the
given Stagger Origin object.

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6.7 Stagger Origin

Reverse Offset
Direction

This option will reverse the offset directions by 180 degrees.

Offset Type
Offset Type

Whether the origin offset distance is based on:

Material Width Fibersim uses the Tow Width (specified in


the materials database) as a basis for offsetting staggered
origins. You must enter a Multiple of Width value, which
gets multiplied by the materials width. This will be the offset
distance between each origin.

Distance Fibersim uses the Offset Distance value for the


spacing in between each staggered origin.

Material

The material used, when Offset Type is set to Material Width.

Multiple of Width

This factor is multiplied by the Tow Width of the material. This value
is then used as the offset spacing in between each staggered origin.

Repeat After

Determines whether or not a repeat after will be used for


offsetting stagger origins. For a default of 0, no repeat after is used.
For a value other than zero, Fibersim creates the specified number
of offset origins, and then starts the offsets over.
For example, if 4 is entered, Fibersim offsets 4 stagger origins, and
the 5th origin will start over at the base location.

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Chapter 7: Documentation

7.1 Introduction
Fibersims documentation interfaces allows you to visually display laminate definition
and component information.
3D Cross Sections allow you to visually inspect the laminate stack, to ensure the desired
design has been achieved. Cross Sections are also useful in aiding manufacturing in the
layup of the composite part.
You can also display core sample results, ply callouts and ply table information as 3D text
annotations. This lets designers display the laminate definition at a desired point in 3D.
3D Cross Sections and 3D Text Annotations can be used together to provide a visual and
qualitative representation of the composite definition.
NOTE: To create 3D documentation, you must create annotation views and annotation
text in the model.

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7.2 3D Cross Section

7.2 3D Cross Section


In the design of a composite part, you may want to see the cross section of the laminate
in 3D space, on the tool surfaces. This helps visualize how plies and cores will be laid up on
a tool surface.
NOTE: All values in the materials database are listed in the Index: Materials &
Machine Database, section A.3.
The Cross Section tool colors cross section curves based on ply orientations for each
material. You can optimize the line color, line style and line thickness. Boundary styling is
specified for each material used in the materials database.
The default styling scheme based on the materials database is summarized here:
Ply Orientation

Curve Color

Line Type

Line Thickness

Blue

Solid

Thin

90

Yellow

Solid

Thin

45

Green

Solid

Thin

-45

Red

Solid

Thin

135

Red

Solid

Thin

Non-Standard *

White

Solid

Thin

Default Styling Scheme

* Non-Standard refers to user-input angles that are not specified above. For example, if
you enter 30 for the specified orientation, the cross section curve that corresponds to this
ply will be colored white. Core objects will also be colored white in generated cross
sections.

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7.2 3D Cross Section

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The laminate on which the cross section will be performed.

Cross Section
Curve

Curves that determine where on the tool surface the cross section
will be created. The curve must be on the chosen Laminate and can
be a curve, line, or spline.

Offset Type

Determines how distances between plies in the cross section


display:

Scaled distance between plies, relative to the material


thickness of each individual ply. Ply Offset Scale and Core
Offset Scale generate the cross section. Ply and core material
thickness are multiplied by their values to determine each
individual offset.

Constant Ply Offset Value and Core Offset Value determine


the offset for each individual ply and core.
Component Type

Fibersim generates the cross section based on a ply or a layer.

Boundary Type

Whether the cross section will be propagated to ply net boundaries


or extended boundaries.

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7.2 3D Cross Section

Style

Specifies the style of the cross section.

A Draped cross section displays a profile with Ply ramps, due to


material draping and part curvature.
A Schematic cross section displays a profile of constant
thickness with part curvature.
An Over Core Hybrid cross section behaves like a Draped cross
section under the core, and a Schematic cross section over it.

Draped Style Cross Section

Schematic Style Cross Section

Over Core Hybrid Cross Section


Profile Type

How to display each ply, either a line or a rectangle.

Minimum
Distance Between
Ramps

For draped cross sections, this member specifies the minimum


allowable distance between two separate ramps of a ply profile.
If the distance between two ramps is below this value, Fibersim will
smooth the ply profile into one ramp. This value must be greater
or equal to 0, and is in units of the model.
See the image below.

Cross Section
Offset

Specify a user-specific offset for the cross section. This option allows
you to move the cross section to a more visible location.

Status

Current status of the cross section.

Generate

Generates the 3D cross section. If changes are made, perhaps by


creating new plies, use this to re-generate the cross section and
update it with design changes.

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7.2 3D Cross Section

Create Cross Section Geometry


Whether Fibersim creates cross section as display geometry (No) or as actual CAD
geometry (Yes).
Output Curve
Type

Creates output curves as construction output curves (resulting Ply


boundaries are output as splines), or result output curves
(chainable curves).

Geometry Locked

When set, the cross section geometry cannot be updated.

Result when Min Dist Btwn Ramps


is set below 0.20 inches
(Case 1)
Distance = 0.20 inches
Distance = 0.40 inches

Result when Min Dist Btwn Ramps


is set to 0.30 inches
(Case 2)

Definition of Minimum Distance Between Ramps


Notice how the cross section has two different distances between ramps:

Top distance is 0.20 inches


Bottom distance is 0.40 inches

This illustrates how the minimum distance between ramps influences how cross sections
drape over Ply drop-offs.
If you input a value for the minimum distance between ramps below the lowest distance
then Fibersim will drape cross section plies over every ramp (Case 1).
But, in Case 2, if you enter 0.30 inches, then Fibersim will drape over the 0.40 distance
and smooth over the 0.20 distance.
Fibersim will treat each distance between ramps as a case for smoothing. Ramp distances
are not added up to meet or exceed the minimum distance between ramps.

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7.3 Explode Laminate

7.3 Explode Laminate


The Explode Laminate tool creates a visual representation of the ply stack-up, on a
selected laminate. This tool explodes each ply, at a specified distance from each other.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The parent laminate.

Status

Whether the exploded laminate is out of date.

Boundary Type

Specifies which boundary exploded plies will be based on:

Net explode plies using Net Boundaries


Extended explode plies using Extended Boundaries

Append Sequence/
Step to Geometry
Name

When enabled, Fibersim will append the plies' sequence/step to


the CAD geometry name.

Offset Type

Whether the offsets will Constant or Scaled:

Ply Offset Value

Constant Plies exploded at a distance from each


other specified by the Ply Offset Value.
Scaled distance based on multiplying the cured
thickness of ply material, by the Ply Offset Scale
value.

Distance between each exploded ply.


NOTE: When Offset Type is set to Constant.

Ply Offset Scale

Distance between each exploded ply. The distance is the result


of multiplying the cured thickness of the chosen material and
the value entered here.
NOTE: When Offset Type is set to Scaled.

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7.3 Explode Laminate

Core Offset Value

Distance at which the plies are exploded off the core.


NOTE: When Offset Type is set to Constant.

Core Offset Scale

Distance at which the Plies are exploded off the core. Distance
is the result of multiplying the cured thickness of the chosen
material and the value entered for this member.
NOTE: When Offset Type is set to Scaled.

Generate

Generates the exploded view of the laminate.

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7.4 Flat Pattern Layout

7.4 Flat Pattern Layout


This utility allows you to manipulate how flat patterns display in the CAD window. By
setting the parameters, such as cell width/height values and origin coordinates, you can
ensure that the flat patterns properly display in the CAD window in a grid fashion.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Laminate that contains the plies patterns you want to


manipulate.

Plies

Select the plies from the laminate, whose patterns you


want to manipulate.

Boundary Type

Rearranges either the Net or Extended patterns of the


selected plies.

Options
Grid Origin (X & Y)

The X & Y coordinate values that determine the location of


the first cell in the grid.

Cell Width

Width value for the cells in the grid.

Cell Height

Height value for the cells in the grid.

Spliced Ply Spacing

The space between spliced plies in a grid cell.

Row Direction

Select the axis to use to orient the row direction.

Column Direction

Select the axis to use to orient the column direction.

Cells per Row

Number of cells per row to have in the grid.

Generate

Arranges the patterns based on the set parameters.

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7.5 3D Text Annotations

7.5 3D Text Annotations


7.5.1 Core Sample
Core Sample annotations allow you to display design station results in a 3D text object.
These 3D text objects are text with or without leaders that Fibersim uses to populate with
design station results. Core Sample annotations are driven by Design Stations.
NOTE: When a design station that is associated to a core sample annotation is
updated, the text associated to the annotation will also be updated.

Showing a Core Sample

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7.5 3D Text Annotations

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Design Station

The design station determines which plies get displayed in the


annotation based on core sample results. (When a design station is
updated, the annotation is too.)

Summary
Information

Summary information that is displayed in the core sample. Count


is the total ply count at the core sample origin. Thickness is the
total laminate thickness at the core sample origin. Options are:

Component
Information

Count / Thickness
Count
Thickness
Name / Thickness / Percentage
None

Component information that is displayed in the core sample:

Ply name
Sequence/step
Orientation
Material
Thickness

Column Separator

Separation character, to separate columns of information in the


annotation.

Status

Current status of this document.

Annotation
Locked

When this option is checked, the annotation text will not change,
even if the status is out-of-date.

Annotation Leader

Text leader in which to display this annotation.

Reverse Sequence

Reverses the order in which components are listed.

Lines Per Column

Maximum number of lines per column in the annotation.

Header Text

Any notes to be displayed on the header of this document.

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7.5 3D Text Annotations

7.5.2 Ply Table


Ply Table Annotations allow you to display ply and core information in a 3D text
annotation. The annotation will display all ply and core objects defined on a laminate.
NOTE: The annotation will update automatically when ply information is altered.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
The laminate to decide which ply and core objects will display.
NOTE: Choosing a top-level laminate means all ply and core
objects in the composite part are displayed. But, selecting a
child laminate means only plies and cores from that laminate
(and any of its own children) are displayed.

Status

Whether the ply table is up to date or not.

Annotation Leader

Defines the text leader in which to display this information.

Column Separator

The character used to separate the columns of ply information in


the annotation.

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7.5 3D Text Annotations

Options
(Pop-up menu)

Lines Per Column


Maximum number of lines per column in the annotation.
Reverse Sequence
Whether Fibersim will invert the ply order (Yes) that is
displayed in the annotation, or not (No).
Include Net Area
Include the net area values in the ply table.
Include Extended Area
Include the extended area values in the ply table.

Additional Lines
Text Lines

Optional lines of text that can be inserted into the ply table.

Line Indices

Zero-based index that specifies the location of the text lines in


the ply table.

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7.5 3D Text Annotations

7.5.3 Ply Callout


Ply Callouts will display all ply and core objects, defined on a laminate at a specified point.
If the point is not on a piece of curve geometry, Fibersim will find the closest curve, and
list the ply and core objects that use this curve.

Showing a Ply Callout

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
The laminate that decides which ply and core objects get displayed.
NOTE: For a top-level laminate, all plies and cores in the composite
part are displayed. But if a child laminate is selected, only plies and
cores of that laminate (and its children) display.

Callout Point

The location used to gather ply and core information.

Annotation
Leader

Text leader in which to display this annotation.

Boundary Type

Whether the callout will search for Net or Extended boundaries.

Prefix

Additional text to display before the callout. Any valid text string can
be used for the prefix.

Number of
Names Per Line

Defines how many ply or core objects display on each line of the
callout. Values are any valid integer.
Default value is 10 names per line.

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7.5 3D Text Annotations

Status

Whether the ply callout is up to date or not.

Generate

Processes the user-defined ply callout, and populates information into


the annotation.

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7.5 3D Text Annotations

7.5.4 Material Table


The Material Table object lets you create a table of materials used in the plies and laminates.
Note also that additional non-modeled materials may be added manually and retained
during updates.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

References the parent laminate.

Non-Modeled
Materials

List of non-modeled materials. You can manually select materials


to be added to the table.

Annotation Leader

Text leader, in which to display this annotation.

Column Separator

The symbol to use as the column separator.

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7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only)

7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only)


2D Drawings provide a method of transferring 3D information into a 2D document. This
information can then be passed on to manufacturing in either electronic or printed format.
NOTE: All values in the materials database are listed in the Index: Materials &
Machine Database, section A.3.
The 2D documentation tool colors ply and core curves, based on ply orientations for each
material. You can optimize the line color, line style and line thickness for generated 2D
curves.
Boundary styling is also specified, for each material used in the materials database. You
can customize the line color, line type, and line thickness for each material and
orientation.
The default styling scheme (based on the materials database) is summarized here:
Ply Orientation

Curve Color

Line Type

Line Thickness

Blue

Solid

Thin

90

Yellow

Solid

Thin

45

Green

Solid

Thin

-45

Red

Solid

Thin

135

Red

Solid

Thin

Non-Standard*

White

Solid

Thin

Default Styling Scheme

* Non-Standard refers to user-input angles that are not specified above. For example, if
30 is input for the specified orientation, the 2D curves that correspond to this ply will be
colored white. (Core objects are considered non-standard, so they will be colored white.)

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7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only)

7.6.1 Ply Book


Ply Books are intended as a way of sharing drawings in a book. Information such as step,
sequence, material names, etc. can be listed in a text block while 2D/3D (isometric, front,
etc.) views can be shown with an overlay of each ply. Each sheet in the book may contain
a view of the tool geometry with a 3D ply boundary, as well as the flat pattern shape for
each ply.
NOTE: Flat Patterns need to be created in order to be viewed in the ply book
CREO PARAMETRICS NOTE: Template sheets can only be selected by picking a draft
entity such as a view, table or note. At this time, sheet names in Creo Parametrics
cannot be programmatically controlled by Fibersim.
You must first open (or create a new) Template Sheet and create an Isometric view. Make
sure both the model and the template sheet are both open in CAD. Then, from the CAD
window:
1. Click Insert > View > Projections > Isometric.
2. Click the model to create the link to the template sheet.

Showing a Ply Book template sheet

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7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only)

Generation tab
1. Link to the pre-existing Template Sheet.
2. Select a laminate. Only one laminate per ply book is allowed.
3. Specify which plies (Source Objects) used to generate the ply book sheets.
4. Generate/update the ply book sheets.
5. Press Remove Generated Sheets to remove unnecessary or outdated sheets.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Name

The name will be at the beginning of the name of each tabbed


view in the drawing, followed by the ply name.

Laminate

Only one laminate per ply book is allowed. Note also that only
plies for that laminate are available (plies of child laminates do
not show up.)

Status

Ply Books are either Out-of-date or Up-to-date, whether


updated since the last change to the composite data.

Source Objects

Specifies which plies will be used to generate sheets of the book.

Template Sheet

Link to the pre-existing template sheet, with all the necessary


text and diagram objects.

Generate/Update
Sheets

Generates/updates the ply book sheets.

Remove Generated
Sheets

Removes the generated sheets.

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7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only)

Options (drop-down menu)


Starting Page
Number

Specify the page number at which to start the ply book.

Allow out-of-date
patterns

Allow out-of-date patterns in the ply book.

Text Setup Tab & Diagram Setup Tab


Text Setup Tab - Text Associations
Here you can set up the Ply Book text associations. You can populate text fields on the
drawing to clearly identify the ply name, sequence, material and a variety of other
attributes.
1. Right-click and Create New.
2. Select existing template text
(Text Link). Text will be
displayed in the Current Text
column.
3. Specify the object type being
reported (Source Member).

Text Association columns include:


Text Link

Define text associations by selecting


existing template text.

Current Link

Displays the current text in the Text


Link object.

Source Member

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The object type being reported.

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7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only)

Text Setup Tab - Table Associations


Here you can set up the Ply Book table associations. You can populate text fields to identify
the table columns.
1. Right-click and select Create
New.
2. Select an existing table on the
template sheet. (Table Link).
3. Define the tables columns.
4. Check options to preserve the
tables title or read the title by
row.

Table Association columns include:


Table Link
Define Columns
Preserve Title
Read Title By Row

Chapter 7: Documentation

Define table associations by selecting


existing.
Define the tables columns.
Check to preserve the tables title.
Check to read the title by row.

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7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only)

Diagram Setup Tab


This is a display of ply book table
associations.
Select how to break out the ply book,
either by Sequence-Step or
Component.
Boundary Type - Specify either the
Net or Extended boundary.
You can also right-click to create
either a boundary diagram or a
flat pattern diagram.
Display Layup Information
Displays the propagation method and
direction in the ply book.
Break on Sequence-Step:

Break on Component:

Use Flat Pattern Layout - Uses the flat pattern


layout utility.
Include Origin and Direction - displays the ply
direction in the flat pattern diagram.

Chapter 7: Documentation

Include Origin and Direction displays the ply direction in the


boundary diagram.

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7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only)

7.6.2 Ply Table


Ply Tables contain pertinent part information displayed in a table format. A ply table can
include document entities such as Ply Name, Step, Orientation, Material, etc. You have
complete control over the style of template and precisely how many columns you wish to
generate.
CREO PARAMETRICS NOTE: Template sheets can only be selected by picking a draft
entity such as a view, table or note. At this time, sheet names in Creo Parametrics
cannot be programmatically controlled by Fibersim.
You must first open the Template Sheet and create an Isometric view. Make sure both the
model and the template sheet are both open in CAD. Then, from the CAD window:
1. Click Insert > View > Projections > Isometric.
2. Click the model to set the link to the template sheet.

Showing a Ply Table template sheet

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228

7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only)

Generation tab
1. Select a pre-existing Template Sheet.
2. Select the laminate, which will specify which plies will be available for this table.
3. Select the plies (Source Objects) that will be used to generate the table rows.
4. Press Generate/update to create the table.
5. Press Remove Generated Sheets to remove any unnecessary or outdated sheets.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
Specifies which plies will be available for this table.
Only one laminate per table object is allowed. Only plies for this
laminate are available (any plies of child laminates do not
appear.)

Status

The table is either Out-of-date or Up-to-date, depending on


whether it has been Generated/Updated since the last change.

Source Objects

Plies used to generate the table rows.

Template Sheet

A pre-existing template sheet with all necessary text.

Generate/Update

Generate/update sheets.

Remove

Remove certain generated sheets.

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7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only)

Table Setup Tab


Defining Text Associations

Items Per Page - how many


rows of ply information will
appear on each Ply Table
sheet.
1. Right-click and select
Create New.
2. Set the Text Link to the
table being populated.
3. Specify the object type being
reported (Source Member).

Columns of information include:


Text Link

Current Text
Source Member

Chapter 7: Documentation

Define text associations by


selecting existing template
text.
Displays the current text in the
Text Link object.
The object type being reported.

230

7.6 2D Drawings (CATIA V5 and NX Only)

Defining Table Associations


1. Right-click and select
Create New.
2. Define the columns that will
display in the table.
3. Check the options to
preserve (display) the table
title, or to read the title by
row.

Columns of information include:


Table Link

Current table being populated.

Define Columns

Columns that will display in the


table.

Preserve Title
Read Title By Row

Chapter 7: Documentation

Whether or not to preserve


(display) the table title.
Read title by row (Yes or No).

231

Chapter 8: Parametric Surface


Offset (PSO) Elements

8.1 Introduction
The PSO section on the application browser contains these objects, which will be populated
with data once the PSO utility is run:

PSO
PSO
PSO
PSO
PSO

Surface
Constant Area
Ramp Area
Constant Rail
Ramp Rail

SPECIAL NOTE #1: You can manually create a PSO Surface (though this is not usually
recommended), but you cannot manually create any of the other PSO objects. These
will only be created when the PSO utility is run. However, these objects are editable for
the purpose of specific geometry overrides.
SPECIAL NOTE #2: The PSO utility is described in Index B: Fibersim Utilities,
section B.6.1.

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8.2 Parametric Surface Offset utility

8.2 Parametric Surface Offset utility


NOTE: This utility is discussed in detail in Index B, section B.6.

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8.3 Parametric Surface Offset (PSO) Surface

8.3 Parametric Surface Offset (PSO) Surface


The PSO surface (created when the PSO utility is run) serves as a parent for all of the
ramps and areas. The PSO Surface data structure manages the results generated for a
given PSO run. If the user makes any design changes that change layer shapes or part
thicknesses, then the PSO utility needs to be re-run.
Running an update on the PSO surface object only affects the current objects in the data
structure. It is only necessary to run a PSO surface update if, for any reason, the user
needs to override geometry created by Fibersim.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminates

This identifies the laminate from which the PSO surface was
created.

Ramp Geometry
Type

This field determines the type of surface to use for the ramps:
Swept - Fibersim creates a multi-section surface (on V5) or
a swept (on NX). If this fails, Fibersim creates a fill surface
(on V5) or an n-sided surface (on NX). Note that lofts fail
when they are not 4-sided with two sections and two
guides.

Topology Status

Fill - Fibersim will create a fill surface (on V5) or n-sided


surface (on NX).

This displays the topology status of the child objects, as either


up-to-date or out-of-date.
This status indicates whether or not the topology of the child
objects has been validated. Note that the status will go out-ofdate if the user changes the topology structure.

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8.3 Parametric Surface Offset (PSO) Surface

IML Status

This displays the status of the IML geometry of the child


objects, as either up-to-date or out-of-date.
This status indicates whether the IML geometry of the child
objects is complete and up-to-date. This will go out of date
along with the topology status, or if overrides have been
applied.

Generate\Update
Offset

Generates or updates the PSO surface, and the IML geometry.


NOTE: Running this update only has an effect when the user
has overridden geometry in the PSO data structure. Changes to
the part design make it necessary to run an update of the PSO
utility. (Part design changes are anything that changes the
layer shapes or part thickness.)

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8.4 PSO Constant Area

8.4 PSO Constant Area


Constant areas represent the constant thickness regions of the part being designed. These
areas will be created when the PSO utility is run and the offset distance (thickness) is
driven from a CAD parameter.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

IML Surface Feature

This identifies the current IML surface that represents the


offset constant surface.

Thickness

Thickness value of the area's offset thickness. This value can


be changed, however this is not recommended as a design
change. This should only be used in the event Fibersim
computes the wrong thickness for a given region.

PSO Surface

This identifies the current parent PSO surface.

IML Surface Override

This field lets you select a different surface, to override the


generated IML Surface. This should be used for cases where
the Fibersim-generated surface has an unwanted anomaly
(wavy region, hook surface, etc.)
This should not be used to change the entire shape of a
constant area. This will create errors when updating the PSO
surface, since the overall topology has changed.
NOTE: If you do select an override surface, you will have to
re-generate the PSO surface.

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8.4 PSO Constant Area

IML Status

This displays the status of the IML geometry of the child


objects, as either up-to-date or out-of-date.
When an override is made this status will go out-of-date. Upon
updating the PSO surface this status will be up-to-date.

Rails

This is a list of all of the current constant rails.

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8.5 PSO Ramp Area

8.5 PSO Ramp Area


These are the areas of the surface that form a ramp. These areas are created when
the PSO utility is run (with the Ramp Generation option checked).

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

IML Surface
Feature

This identifies the current IML surface.

PSO Surface

This identifies the parent PSO surface.

IML Surface
Override

This field lets you select a different IML surface, to override the
generated one. This should be used in cases where the Fibersimgenerated ramp is undesired.
Since Fibersim creates a CAD feature for the ramp, in most cases
the CAD feature can be manipulated to get the desired result.
This should be the first action tried before completely overriding
the ramp.
NOTE: If you do select an override surface, you will have to regenerate the PSO surface.

IML Status

This displays the status of the IML geometry of the child objects,
as either up-to-date or out-of-date.

Rails

This is a list of all of the current ramp rails associated with this
area.

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8.6 PSO Constant Rail

8.6 PSO Constant Rail


Constant rails represent the edges of the constant areas. The constant rails are also used
to bound the ramp edges that run along the thicker and thinner constant areas.

MEMBER
OML Curve

DESCRIPTION
This identifies the current OML curve. (This can be a curve or a
chain of curves.) This curve represents the lowest level building
block for the PSO data structure.
This curve is created on the laminate surface and is driven from
Fibersim's composite definition.

IML Curve

This identifies the current IML curve. (This can be a curve or a


chain of curves.) The IML constant curves are driven from the IML
surface edges.

Area 1

This identifies the constant area associated with the given


constant rail. (This is read-only.)

Next Rail 1

The connected rail that continues counter-clockwise around Area


1. (This is read-only.)

Thickness

Thickness value of the rail.

PSO Surface

This identifies the current parent PSO surface.

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8.6 PSO Constant Rail

OML Curve
Override

This field lets you select a different OML curve, to override the
current one.
When possible, users should override the OML rail and let Fibersim
compute the IML rail.
NOTE: If you do select an override curve, you will have to regenerate the PSO surface.

IML Curve
Override

This field lets you select a different IML curve, to override the
current one.
When possible, users should override the OML rail and let Fibersim
compute the IML rail.
NOTE: If you do select an override curve, you will have to regenerate the PSO surface.

Area 2

This identifies one of the areas on either side of the rail. (This is
read-only.)

Next Rail 2

The connected rail that continues counter-clockwise around Area


2. (This is read-only.)

IML Status

This displays the status of the IML geometry of the child objects,
as either up-to-date or out-of-date.
This status goes out-of-date when either an OML or IML override
has been made. In this case, running a PSO surface update is
necessary to bring the status back to up-to-date.

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8.7 PSO Ramp Rail

8.7 PSO Ramp Rail


Ramp rails contain different thickness values at each end of the rail. These areas are
created when the PSO utility is run (with the Ramp Generation option checked). Ramp
rails represent the connection between the constant areas.

MEMBER
OML Curve

DESCRIPTION
This identifies the current OML curve. (This can be a curve or a
chain of curves.)
This curve represents the second lowest level building block for
the PSO data structure. This curve is created on the laminate
surface and creates connections between the constant areas.

IML Curve

This identifies the current IML curve. (This can be a curve or a


chain of curves.)
The IML ramp rail curves are computed by sweeping the OML
ramp rail by the appropriate thickness.

Area 1

This identifies one of the areas on either side of the rail. (This is
read-only.)

Next Rail 1

The connected rail that continues counter-clockwise around Area


1. (This is read-only.)

Thickness 1

The thickness of the rail where this rail meets Next Rail 1. (This
is read-only.)

PSO Surface

This identifies the parent PSO surface.

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8.7 PSO Ramp Rail

OML Curve
Override

This field lets you select a different OML curve, to override the
generated one.
When possible, users should override the OML rail and let Fibersim
compute the IML rail.
NOTE: If you do select an override curve, you will have to regenerate the PSO surface.

IML Curve
Override

This field lets you select a different IML curve, to override the
generated one.
When possible, users should override the OML rail and let Fibersim
compute the IML rail.
NOTE: If you do select an override curve, you will have to regenerate the PSO surface.

Area 2

This identifies one of the areas on either side of the rail. (This is
read-only.)

Next Rail 2

The connected rail that continues counter-clockwise around Area


2. (This is read-only.)

Thickness 2

The thickness of the rail where this rail meets Next Rail 2.

IML Status

This displays the status of the IML geometry of the child objects,
as either up-to-date or out-of-date.
The IML status goes out-of-date when either an OML or IML
override has been made. In this case, running a PSO surface
update is necessary to bring the status back up-to-date.

Chapter 8: Parametric Surface Offset (PSO) Elements

242

Chapter 9: Import/Export

9.1 Introduction
Fibersims special interfaces allow you to import data into Fibersim and export data out to
special formats and cutting machines. You can work with flat pattern data, Laser
Projections and Automated Tape Laying data.
On the main toolbar, under File there are two sections, Import and Export. This chapter
will show all of the options for each, as well as showing the user interfaces for each object.
SPECIAL NOTE: Each of the Interfaces is sold and licensed individually.

Chapter 9: Import/Export

243

9.2 Import Options

9.2 Import Options


Each of the following interfaces allows you to import ply analysis data into Fibersim.

9.2.1 Analysis Ply


The import objects used here include the following:

Ansys ACP
With this interface, you can import data into Fibersim to create (or update) plies and
layers from the CAE system. The interface allows you to map CAE Material names to the
proper Fibersim materials. You can also get the boundaries of the components in the CAE
data and use that as geometry in the CAD system, by creating curves-on-surface from the
CAE data.
This interface will also handle updates from the CAE. Once changes are made, the data
can be re-imported and the changes viewed.

MEMBER
Analysis Exchange File

DESCRIPTION
This is the CAE file to be reviewed and imported. The file must
be an HDF5 file format.
When you select the file and press View Analysis File, the file
contents will display in the window and a message will confirm
what was loaded.

File Creator

This will display the creator of the HDF5 file.

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9.2 Import Options

Import Reference
Transform

This is the reference coordinate system that will be applied to


the imported data.

Last Modified Date

This is the last modified date of the HDF5 file.

Import Options
Interpret Data As

This option controls whether plies or layers will be imported.


This also controls whether plies or layers will be used for
matching incoming data with existing data.

Import Boundary Type

Select either Net or Extended boundary.

Material Mapping
This window will display the list of materials from the HDF5 file, with the mapped materials
from Fibersim. Here you can change the Fibersim material that you would like assigned to
a given Analysis material. Upon importing, Fibersim will assign the materials based on the
chosen material mapping.

Chapter 9: Import/Export

245

9.2 Import Options

Analysis Rosettes
When an HDF5 file is viewed, a series of temporary rosettes is created. You can assign
permanent objects to each rosette. The temporary Fibersim components will link to these
temporary rosettes. You can create Fibersim rosettes from the analysis rosettes, or you
can choose to associate a given analysis rosette to an existing Fibersim rosette.
When you double-click on a rosette, the "Modify Rosette" window will open:

You have the option to create a permanent rosette from the temporary version
(using the Create New Rosette button). If a permanent rosette is created from
the temporary one, the temporary rosette's permanent link will be filled in as the
new rosette.

Or, you can elect to update the link to a permanent rosette (by selecting a rosette
from the Fibersim Rosette drop-down menu).

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9.2 Import Options

Component Review window (contents from the HDF5 file)


When a file is viewed, a series of display components (plies or layers) are created. These
objects are representations of what is in the HDF5 file, and allow linking to the permanent
Fibersim objects.
Or, if no objects exist as a match, then these CAE representations can be imported as new
plies. Existing Fibersim components that do not match any of the components in the CAE file
will be shown in the "Analysis name" column as <Not in File>.

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9.2 Import Options

Beta CAE ANSA


With this interface, you can import data into Fibersim to create (or update) plies and
layers from the CAE system. The interface allows you to map CAE Material names to the
proper Fibersim materials. You can also get the boundaries of the components in the CAE
data and use that as geometry in the CAD system, by creating curves-on-surface from the
CAE data.
This interface will also handle updates from the CAE. Once changes are made, the data
can be re-imported and the changes viewed.
SPECIAL NOTE: The Material Mapping, Analysis Rosettes and Analysis Components
windows work the same way as described in the Ansys ACP section (10.2.1).

MEMBER
Analysis Exchange File

DESCRIPTION
This is the CAE file to be reviewed and imported. The file must
be an HDF5 file format.
When you select the file and press View Analysis File, the file
contents will display in the window and a message will confirm
what was loaded.

File Creator

This will display the creator of the HDF5 file.

Import Reference
Transform

This is the reference coordinate system that will be applied to


the imported data.

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9.2 Import Options

Last Modified Date

This is the last modified date of the HDF5 file.

Import Options
Interpret Data As

This option controls whether plies or layers will be imported.


This also controls whether plies or layers will be used for
matching incoming data with existing data.

Import Boundary Type

Select either Net or Extended boundary.

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249

9.2 Import Options

CAE Exchange Format (Ply Import)


This object allows you to view data in an HDF5 file before any permanent Fibersim objects
are created. This import will display a list of objects in the file from which Fibersim objects
can be created.
You can assign laminates, materials and rosettes to the temporary objects, which will be
assigned to the new components upon creation. You can also link the temporary object to
a permanent Fibersim object, and provide the option to update the permanent object
based on the temporary one. This interface also allows you to refine CAE boundaries,
before importing and assigning them to Fibersim ply\layer objects.
NOTE: If any data already exists, links will be preserved where possible.
SPECIAL NOTE: The Material Mapping, Analysis Rosettes and Analysis Components
windows work the same way as described in the Ansys ACP section (10.2.1).

MEMBER
Analysis Exchange File

DESCRIPTION
This is the CAE file to be reviewed and imported. The file
must be an HDF5 file format.
When you select the input file and press View Analysis
File, the file contents will display in the Component
Review list and a message will confirm what was loaded.

File Creator

This will display the creator of the HDF5 file.

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9.2 Import Options

Last Modified Date

This is the last modified date of the HDF5 file.

Import Reference
Transform

This is the reference coordinate system that will be applied


to the imported data.

Interpret Data As

Set this option to control whether plies or layers will be


imported. This also controls whether plies or layers will be
used for matching incoming data with existing data.

Import Boundary Type

Select either Net or Extended boundary.

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9.2 Import Options

CAE Import to Overlay Zones


The CAE import object will allow you to import overlay zones from CAE data. This object
lets you preview the contents of the CAE file before creating or updating any Fibersim
objects. You can identify the different, perhaps intersecting, overlay zones contained in
the CAE file.
You can then match the overlay zones contained in the CAE file with the already existing
overlay zone objects. This allows you to see the difference between the two sets of overlay
zones.

If any data is already grouped into zones, Fibersim will group any new analysis
components with the same name into the same zones if possible.
If zones are missing any of their components, there will be a notifying message.
If an analysis overlay zone is missing all of its components that overlay zone will be
deleted and the user is notified. Any previously-imported Fibersim overlay zones
will not be deleted. Overlay zones can only be deleted outside of the import object.
The highlighting context for overlay zones will highlight all of the analysis
components that the zone contains. This a quick way to tell if any component
geometry of the zone has changed (but keeps the same name).
SPECIAL NOTE: The Material Mapping, Analysis Rosettes and Analysis Components
windows work the same way as described in the Ansys ACP section (10.2.1).

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9.2 Import Options

MSC Laminate Modeler Import


This object provides the ability to import an MSC Laminate Modeler Lay-up File.

MEMBER
Import File

DESCRIPTION
Name of the Laminate Modeler file, read into Fibersim.

Specified Objects
Laminate

This laminate serves as the parent of all imported plies and


rosettes.

Material

The material to use for the imported components.

Options (pop-up menu)


Curve Type

Specifies the type of curve (construction or result) to be


created for imported boundaries or holes.

Boundary Type

The component boundary type, either Net or Extended.

Add Surface Support

This option means that the laminate surface will be used as


a support for the created curves.

File Units

Specifies the units to display in the imported file.

Non-tangency Angle

Defines the angle, that defines the non-tangency for splines.

Sequence

Imported components will belong to this sequence.


(Corresponds to the selected laminate.)

Starting Step

Step value at which imported components will start.

Step Increment

Number by which imported components step values will


increment.

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9.2 Import Options

NX Laminate Composites
This object lets you import a file that contains NX laminate composite data.
SPECIAL NOTE: The Material Mapping, Analysis Rosettes and Analysis Components
windows work the same way as described in the Ansys ACP section (10.2.1).

MEMBER
Analysis Exchange File

DESCRIPTION
This is the CAE file to be reviewed and imported. The file must
be an HDF5 file format.
When you select the input file and press View Analysis File,
the file contents will display in the Component Review list and
a message will confirm what was loaded.

File Creator

This will display the creator of the HDF5 file.

Last Modified Date

This is the last modified date of the HDF5 file.

Import Reference
Transform

This is the reference coordinate system that will be applied to


the imported data.

Interpret Data As

Set this option to control whether plies or layers will be


imported. This also controls whether plies or layers will be used
for matching incoming data with existing data.

Import Boundary Type

Select either Net or Extended boundary.

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9.2 Import Options

9.2.2 Analysis - Zone


This section lets you import zone analysis data into Fibersim.

CAE Exchange Format


This object allows you to view data in an HDF5 file before any permanent Fibersim objects
are created. This import will display list of objects in the file from which Fibersim objects
can be created. You can import zone analysis data using this object.
The workflow is similar to the workflow for a ply-based CAE exchange:
1. Select a valid HDF5 file that fits the zone-based schema.
2. Press View Analysis File to display the relevant objects in the file, including
materials, laminate specifications (or material specifications), rosettes, zones, and
curves.
3. Match up objects in the file with Fibersim objects where appropriate (some
automated name-matching may occur). If you import a new file into an existing
import object, the links between analysis zones and Fibersim zones will be
maintained where possible.
4. Match up any analysis curves in the file with pre-existing features, or create
features from the analysis curves.
5. Selectively (or completely) update the Fibersim definition based on the analysis
zones/materials/laminate or material specification(s)/rosettes/curves.
Note that in the "Analysis Zones" window, the Stackup Change column indicates if the
laminate specification has changed. Options are "Not Linked", "No Change", "Different", "+
Thickness", or "- Thickness".

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9.2 Import Options

MEMBER
Analysis Exchange File

DESCRIPTION
This is the CAE file to be reviewed and imported. The file
must be an HDF5 file format.
When you select the input file and press View Analysis
File, the file contents will display in the Component
Review list and a message will confirm what was loaded.

File Creator

This will display the creator of the HDF5 file.

Last Modified Date

This is the last modified date of the HDF5 file.

Import Reference
Transform

This is the reference coordinate system that will be applied


to the imported data.

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9.2 Import Options

MSC SimXpert (Zone Import)


This object contains the MSC SimXpert file import options.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

File

The file containing zone data, generated from SimXpert.

Laminate

The parent laminate.

Rosette

The referenced rosette.

Options
(Pop-up menu)

The two import options are:

Import

Create New Objects always create new objects from


the import file, or update existing Fibersim objects.

Update Existing and Create New Objects update


existing Fibersim objects and create new objects

Performs the import.

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9.2 Import Options

10.2.3 Laser Projection


About Laser Projection
Fibersim-Laser Projection calculates the three-dimensional points used by laser
projection systems, to guide the laser path during projection for hand layup of composite
plies. Laser projection data is generated directly from the CAD model, ensuring projection
accuracy and reducing data management requirements. Generation of laser projection
data from the CAD model eliminates the teaching step often used to record the laser
points used for projection, significantly increasing laser projection productivity.
Laser Projection generates data for ply and core boundaries, displaying ply outlines on the
layup tool. These outlines aid in the location and orientation of plies during the layup
process. Fibersim also provides tools to include laser reference points, ply markers, and
ply names. Laser Projection also provides additional data that aids in the programming of
multi-head systems for very large or highly contoured parts, where a single projection
head may not meet requirements. You can define a customized laser format by generating
XML data, and then transforming it using an XSL file. Laser Projection currently supports
all proper laser projection systems:

Assembly Guidance LASERGUIDE


Laser Projection Technologies
GSI Lumonics OLT (Formerly from General Scanning, Inc.)
Virtek Vision LaserEdge

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9.2 Import Options

Accounts for Thickness Offset, due to Ply Buildup


As the layup of a composite part progresses, the offset thickness for the plies
accumulates. If this thickness increase is not accounted for, you will experience
considerable parallax error in the projected profile, especially in thick or highly contoured
parts.
Laser Projection automatically accounts for material thickness and offset due to ply buildup, when generating laser projection data, as seen below.

Aids in the Programming of Multi-Head Systems


Using the CAD model of the tool surface, Laser Projection provides additional data to aid in
the programming of systems for very large or highly contoured parts, where a single
projection head may not meet requirements.

Laser Projection Data Path

Chapter 9: Import/Export

Laser Projection Data (Showing


Offset of underlying ply stackup)

259

9.2 Import Options

Import Laser Projection Data (User Interface)


This object allows you to import Fibersim-generated laser projection results back into the
CAD system. This data can be used to verify that the user-created data has been correctly
configured, before the data is used on the manufacturing floor.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Data File

The laser projection file to be imported.

Reference
Coordinate System

The coordinate system used for importing laser projection data.


If this member is blank, Fibersim will use the CAD systems
master coordinate system.
NOTE: Before importing laser data, you should be sure that the
Reference Coordinate system matches the coordinate system
that was used to create the laser data.

Input File Type

Based on the data file selected, Fibersim detects the file type
being imported.

Import Units

Units of the file to be imported. Valid values are inches and


millimeters.

Review Imported
Data

Displays a list of components being imported. When selecting a


component, Fibersim highlights the laser data associated to the
selected component.
To create CAD geometry from the laser data, laser components
need to be edited.

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9.2 Import Options

9.2.4 Fiber Placement


The Fiber Placement section includes one object window, for the import of fiber path data.

ACE V2 Fiber Placement Import


The Report tab will contain summary data about the imported file, including:

Number of plies in the file, and the number of plies matching existing Fibersim
plies with material in the object's laminate.
Number of plies matching Fibersim plies that do not have a material assigned.
An indication of whether plies are out of order. This will state if the order of the
plies in the import matches the sequence/step order in Fibersim.
Number of plies that have warning or limit parameters exceeded.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Specifies the parent laminate.

Path Results File

Select the input file

Boundary Type

Whether fiber placement data will be exported for the plies Net
boundaries or Extended boundaries.

Reference
Coordinate System

Specify a non-default coordinate system.

Geometry Display
(Pop-up menu)

See section below.

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Geometry Creation
(Pop-up menu)

See section below.

Read Path Results

Performs the import of the fiber placement data.

Geometry Display (pop-up menu)

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Tow Add Point Style

Select the style for the displayed points.

Tow Drop Point Style

Select the style for the displayed points.

Show Course Edge

Toggle the display of course edges.

Show Centerlines

Toggle the display of path centerlines.

Show Path Direction

Toggle the display of path directions.

Show Course Labels

Toggle the display of path labels.

Centerline Width

Select the width of the path lines.

Producibility Controls
Fiber Angle Deviation

Toggle the use of fiber deviation in producibility results.

Roller Height

Toggle the use of roller height in producibility results.

Radius of Curvature

Toggle the use of radius of curvature in producibility


results.

Collision Angle Avoidance

Toggle the use in producibility results.

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Geometry Creation (pop-up menu)

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Non-Tangency
Angle

Specifies the angle when creating geometries.

Chord Tolerance

Specifies the chord tolerance when creating geometries.

Output Curve Type

Select the output curve type, either construction or result.

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9.2 Import Options

9.2.5 Preliminary Design Interface (Import)


The Preliminary Design Interface Import utility allows you to import an Excel file or
tab-delimited text file. The Import utility can setup a seed model, to modify an existing
design outside of Fibersim.
SPECIAL NOTE: After performing a PDI import, a Zone-to-Layer update needs to be
run, to ensure the model is correct.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

File

Select a valid Excel or tab delimited text file to be imported

Laminate

The utility works on a laminate-by-laminate basis, so child


laminates must be processed separately.

Rosette

Specifies the rosette to use when importing composite data, when


you have created new zones within exported data.

Options (pop-up menu)


Import File Type

The file type must be properly formatted:

Import Option

MS Excel file
Tab-delimited text file

Specifies the import method used by Fibersim:


Create New Objects - create all of the objects contained in the
import file as new objects.
In most cases the Update Existing and Create New option should
be used. This will update any existing objects and create new
objects when the data is specified in the import file.

Import Zone
Type

Options are Zones or Analysis Zones.

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9.2 Import Options

9.2.6 Ply Import from Excel


This utility lets you import a ply table from Excel, or a csv file.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

File

Select a valid Excel file to be imported.

Laminate

The parent laminate.

Rosette

Select a proper rosette.

Options (pop-up menu)


Import File Type

The file type must be properly formatted:

Import Option

MS Excel file
Tab-delimited text file

Specifies the import method used by Fibersim:


Create New Objects - create all of the objects contained in the
import file as new objects.
In most cases the Update Existing and Create New option
should be used. This will update any existing objects, and create
new objects when the data is specified in the import file.

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9.2 Import Options

9.2.7 Composite Part XML Import


Once composite part has been exported (and processed by a customer specific interface),
it can then be imported back into Fibersim, using Composite Part XML Import.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Import File

Specifies the composite data XML file to be imported.

Laminate
Surface

Surface applied to the top-level laminate. The surface is projected on


all imported component boundary curves.
If a laminate surface is not selected, boundaries are imported as
space curves.

Transform File

Optional XSL transform file used to format XML import files before
being read into Fibersim.
If no XSL file is specified the file is imported as is.

Options (pop-up menu)


Curve Type

Whether Fibersim will create Result curves or Construction curves.

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9.2 Import Options

Non-Tangency
Angle

The angle of non-tangency determines whether imported curve


segments will be treated as single or individual segments. Adjoining
curve segments that have a non-tangent angle below the set value
are treated as a single. Adjoining segments that have a non-tangent
angle above the set value will be treated as individual segments.
Default value is 15 degrees and the acceptable range is greater than
or equal to 10 degrees, and less than or equal to 45 degrees.

Import
Conflict Rule

Fibersims behavior when importing Composite XML data into a part


file that contains existing Fibersim data.

Ignore if Existing Fibersim will not import any component


data that has matching IDs. For example, if you export XML ply
data from a given model, then change a given plys step value,
and then try to import the change back into the existing model,
this will not work with this option, since the ply still has the
same internal ID.

Overwrite Existing imports data that does not exist in the


target model. This option always imports all data contained
within the composite XML import file.

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9.2 Import Options

9.2.8 Wind Blade Design Import


Manually creating a ply-based design of a wind blade is extremely time-consuming, due to
the number of plies. You can now set parameters in an excel spreadsheet, with minimal
geometry input, to describe the plies. That file can then be imported into Fibersim using
this utility.
You can access this from: File > Import > Wind Blade Design Import

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The parent laminate, for the imported plies and rosettes.

Rosette

Fiber directions will be measured relative to this rosette.

Input File

File containing the data, to be used in the wind blade design.

Leading Edge

This curve represents the leading edge of the part.

Trailing Edge

This curve represents the trailing edge of the part.

Spar Cap
Centerline

The centerline that runs the length of the spar cap area.

Spine

Specifies the wind blade spine, to be used as an axis.

Options (drop-down menu)


Result Type

Whether Fibersim will create layers or plies.

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9.2 Import Options

Add Prefix to Names


Prefix

In order to track the ply name independently from the layup


sequence, there spreadsheet columns called "Step" and "Sequence".
In the Step column, plies/layers are named based on the "Ply"
column (i.e. "1" becomes "PLY001" or "LYR001", "14b" becomes
"PLY014b" or "LYR014b").
This option lets you add the prefix, to specify the full ply name in the
spreadsheet. The "PLY" or "LYR" prefixes are used as the defaults.
You can also specify your own prefix, rather than the defaults.

Reverse Spine
Direction

Reverses the orientation direction of the spine.

Maximum Curve
Segment Length
Factor

Controls the number of points, for the creation of blade geometry.

Step Increment

The step increment value.

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9.2 Import Options

9.2.9 Composite Part STEP


A STEP file is a CAD-independent geometry data exchange file. Importing a STEP file
allows you to create a file with additional composite data.
SPECIAL NOTE: This feature requires a special license to access. Please contact
your Sales Representative for full details on this feature.

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9.3 Export Options

9.3 Export Options


The ability to export data from Fibersim provides a quick, reliable way of transferring
electronic composite part data to analysts or manufacturing personnel.

9.3.1 Analysis Ply

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select the parent laminate.

Components

Specify the components to be exported.

Output Directory

Directory where the output file will be located.

File Name

Select the filed to use to generate the output file name.

Boundary Type

Specify export of Net or Extended boundaries.

Reference
Coordinate System

Analysis data is written relative to this coordinate system.

Options (drop-down menu)


Allow Offset
Simulation

Check this option to use the offset simulation value (set from
the Ply simulation options menu).

Use Rosette Mapped


Directions

Exports rosette-mapped orientation directions without running


a simulation.

Export Boundary
Without Transitions

Trims the output mesh back to the nominal boundary,


removing applied zone transitions.

Use Manufactured
Part

This will remove cutouts from the final result.

Include nonStructural Materials

Include non-structural materials in the export.

Export Rosettes as a
Field

This lets you export field-based rosettes to HDF5 and CP XML.


If the rosette is currently a non-field-based rosette, it will be
exported as a field-based one.

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9.3 Export Options

This is a list of the interface options, all for exporting ply analysis data:
INTERFACE

DESCRIPTION

Altair
Hyperworks

Fibersim data can be exported to Altair Hyperworks.

Ansys ACP

With this new export interface, fiber compression information can be


transferred from Fibersim into Ansys.

Beta CAE Ansa


HDF5

This is an export object to the CAE ANSA tool, with zone support.

Beta CAE Ansa

This is an export object to the CAE ANSA tool.

CAE Exchange
Format

For large parts, Fibersim now makes it easier when exporting


analysis data for all plies at once. You can export multiple HDF5
files, consisting of subsections of the plies of the parts, and then
merge these files so that one HDF5 file contains all of the plies.

CATIA Analysis

Select the Laminate Surface and Update Parameter.

MSC Laminate
Modeler

The MSC Analysis Interface file format is compatible with PATRAN/


Laminate Modeler from the MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation (MSC).
It performs finite element analysis of composite structures. Two
types of analysis files are created:

The master file contains filenames of each ply layup file for
which analysis data was generated. The file has the extension
.fmd (Fibersim-MSC Directory file), and is named from the
Base File Name parameter (e.g., LAM001.fmd.) The file
contains a list of analysis interface output files that were
generated for the part, in the sequence they were exported.

This Ply Layup File contains analysis data for each individual
ply. Files use the extension .fml and are named from the Base
File Name parameter and the ply name, e.g., LAM001P001.fml. (Fibersim-MSC Layup File)
MSC Patran

Patran is a widely used pre/post-processing software for Finite


Element Analysis (FEA), providing solid modeling, meshing, and
analysis setup. Patran provides a rich set of tools that streamline the
creation of analysis ready models for linear, nonlinear, explicit
dynamics, thermal, and other finite element solvers.
From geometry cleanup tools that make it easy for engineers to deal
with gaps and slivers in CAD, to solid modeling tools that enable
creation of models from scratch, Patran makes it easy for anyone to
create FE models.

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9.3 Export Options

MSC SimXpert

Because Fibersim is completely integrated into commercial 3D CAD


systems, the Fibersim composite definition and SimXpert's FEA
definition are linked directly to the same CAD geometry.
This allows products to be designed, validated, and optimized
without having to translate volumes of data between different
software tools.

NX Laminate
Composites

For exporting NX Laminate Composite data.

PAM-RTM

The PAM-RTM Analysis Interface file format is compatible with


PAM-RTM from ESI GROUP. This tool simulates the manufacture of
composite parts via the resin transfer molding process.
A single file is generated for all selected plies, containing orientation
data for each ply. The data has the same coverage as the plies in
the CAD model, and allows orientation information to be supplied to
each element of the mesh generated by the analysis software.

Generic Format
BDF

BDF formats allow you to export the results of a detailed core


sample for a given point. The point used to obtain the data is
specified in the target Design Stations, that represent areas of
constant thickness, and then the laminate stack-up at the Design
Stations origin location can be exported into BDF format.
When exported, a single file (xx.bdf) lists all plies for which analysis
data has been created. This file also contains Layup information,
including XYZ locations of each node, as well as warp and weft fiber
angles.

Generic Format
XML

The XML format is used to transfer fiber orientation data to various


analysis packages. XML data can be converted to any other data
format using XSL transformations, allowing for seamless integration
with virtually any application capable of importing data. Since XML is
so flexible, XML Analysis Interface files can be converted into
various customized file formats for use with commercial or
proprietary software packages.

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9.3 Export Options

9.3.2 Analysis Zone


The interface options under this section, are all for exporting zone analysis data:

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select the parent laminate.

Zones

Specify the zones to be exported.

Output Directory

Directory where the output file will be located.

File Name

Select the filed to use to generate the output file name.

Reference
Coordinate System

Analysis data is written relative to this coordinate system.

Output Units

Select the units for the output.

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9.3 Export Options

This is a list of the interface options, all for exporting zone analysis data:
INTERFACE

DESCRIPTION

CAE Exchange
Format

You can export multiple HDF5 files, for your zone data.

Beta CAE Ansa

This is an export object to the BETA CAE ANSA tool.

Collier HyperSizer

This is an export to Collier Hypersizer.

MSC Patran

Patran is a widely used pre/post-processing software for Finite


Element Analysis (FEA), providing solid modeling, meshing, and
analysis setup.

MSC SimXpert

The Fibersim composite definition and SimXpert's FEA definition are


linked directly to the same CAD geometry. This allows products to be
designed, validated, and optimized without having to translate
volumes of data between different software tools.

Generic Format
BDF

BDF formats allow you to export the results of a detailed core


sample for a given point. The point used to obtain the data is specified
in the target Design Stations, that represent areas of constant
thickness, and then the laminate stack-up at the Design Stations
origin location can be exported into BDF format.
When exported, a single file (xx.bdf) lists all plies for which analysis
data has been created. This file also contains layup information,
including XYZ locations of each node, as well as warp and weft fiber
angles.

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9.3 Export Options

9.3.3 Analysis Core Sample


There are two interface options in this section, for exporting core sample analysis data.
Both interfaces share the same general layout.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select the parent laminate.

Components

Specify the components to be exported.

Output Directory

Directory where the output file will be located.

File Name

Select the filed to use to generate the output file name.

Output File Format

Select the output file format.

INTERFACE
Generic Format
BDF

DESCRIPTION
BDF formats allow you to export the results of a detailed core sample
for a given point. The point used to obtain the data is specified in the
target Design Stations, that represent areas of constant thickness,
and then the laminate stack-up at the Design Stations origin location
can be exported into BDF format.
When exported, a file (xx.bdf) lists all plies for which analysis data
has been created. This file also contains layup information, including
XYZ locations of each node, as well as warp and weft fiber angles.

Generic Format
FEMAP

The FEMAP Export allows you to generate a Neutral file (.neu) that
contains the composite data. You need to define either zones or
Design Stations that represent the constant gauge areas of the part.
Fibersim exports the data based on Design Stations or zones.
The created file (xx.neu) lists all plies for which analysis data has
been created. It also contains layup information, including XYZ
locations of each node, as well as warp and weft fiber angles.

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9.3 Export Options

9.3.4 Flat Pattern Export


The Flat Pattern Export interface generates flat pattern data files used by nesting and
cutting systems. Export files are generated for each flat pattern from information stored in
Fibersim. Files contain all necessary flat pattern geometry and manufacturing data for the
nesting or cutting system.
This tool reduces the risk of incorrect data being transferred to the manufacturing cutter
by automatically creating flat pattern data and eliminating manual intervention by the
user. This involves not only transferring geometric data, but also manufacturing ply
quantities, material types, orientations, and labeling information.
Optimizes Flat Patterns for Cutting
You can fillet corners with a specified radius in order to optimize manufacturing
productivity. Filleted corners decrease cutting time by eliminating stop/start sequences,
due to direction changes of the boundaries.
You can also specify a fillet radius and a non-tangency angle, which specifies how sharp a
corner must be before it will be filleted. Fibersim detects the sharpest corner of the flat
pattern and starts at that location.
Flat Pattern Export supports a variety of nesting and cutting system formats, including:

Cutting Edge
DXF
(A)GFM-NS2
IGES
Magestic
Optimation
JETCAM Expert

By creating flat pattern data files directly from the CAD model, data integrity is ensured by
providing an accurate representation of the geometry as stored in the CAD model.

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9.3 Export Options

Cutting Edge
Specify instructions for the exporting of flat pattern data to the Cutting Edge system.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
The laminate specifies which plies are eligible for exporting.
NOTE: If a top-level laminate is chosen, all plies are eligible for
export. If a child laminate is chosen only that laminate and any of
its own children are eligible.

Plies

Plies to be exported. Select a range of plies, or a random sequence


of plies.

Boundary Type

Flat patterns will be exported for the plies Net boundaries or


Extended boundaries.

Output Directory

Location on your file system where the file will be written.

File Name Prefix

This is the prefix given to the export files:

<Laminate Name>
<Laminate Part Number>
<Model Name>
User-specified name

File names are a combination of the prefix and ply name (PrefixP001).

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9.3 Export Options

Separator

The character that separates the prefix form the ply name. In this
example, the character used is a dash: PrefixP001

Export To

Check this option to export the data:

File - In the Output Directory field, define an on-disk location


to save the export.
Teamcenter - The Output Directory field will be read-only and
will display <Teamcenter> in the path field.

Options
(Pop-up menu)

See below.

Options (pop-up menu)

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Lines

Flat pattern is exported as Lines. If the cutting system can only


handle a polyline format, set to Lines.

Minimum Line
Length

Length of the smallest line segment in the flat pattern.


You can filter out small line segments in the exported pattern.
When exporting files, Fibersim removes all line segments smaller
than this value, and merges them into adjacent lines. This
produces a smoother flat pattern and optimizes it to increase
cutting speed.

Lines and Arcs

Flat pattern is exported as Lines and Arcs. In some cutting


systems, using arcs in curved regions of the flat pattern can speed
up the cutting process.

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9.3 Export Options

Minimum Line
Length

Specifies the length of the smallest line segment in the flat


pattern.
You can filter out small line segments in the exported pattern.
When exporting files, Fibersim removes all line segments smaller
than this value, and merges them into adjacent lines. This
produces a smoother flat pattern and optimizes it to increase
cutting speed.

Maximum Length
Ratio

Specifies a length ratio between two non-tangent segments of the


curve. If the ratio of the two curves is less than this value,
Fibersim attempts to create an arc to represent these two curves.
NOTE: Geometry Format must be set to Lines and Arcs.

Fillet Radius

Specifies the radius to fillet the flat pattern non-tangencies.


By default Fibersim fillets all non-tangencies greater than or equal
to 30 degrees, and preserves all those below 30 degrees.
NOTE: Geometry Format must be set to Lines and Arcs.

Fillet Start Point

Whether Fibersim will fillet the start point of the pattern. The start
point is found by locating the greatest non-tangency in the
pattern.
NOTE: Geometry Format must be set to Lines and Arcs.

Output Units

Specifies units of the generated Flat Pattern Export file. Options


are Inch (in) or Millimeter (mm).

Output File Format

The output file end-of-line style.

Offset Flat Pattern

Offset all ply information to first quadrant of the coordinate


system.

Export Origin

Whether Fibersim will export the origin point of the pattern.


NOTE: In certain export formats, Yes means the origin will be cut
into the flat pattern.

Export Direction

Whether Fibersim will export the direction of the flat pattern.


NOTE: In certain export formats, Yes means the direction will be
cut into the flat pattern.

Export Markers

Whether Fibersim exports markers defined on the flat pattern.


NOTE: In certain export formats, Yes means markers will be cut
into the flat pattern.

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9.3 Export Options

Customize Tessellation
Non-Tangency
Angle

Maximum angle of a non-tangency in the pattern, that will be


preserved upon export. Values above this angle are eligible for
filleting, as long as a value is defined for the fillet radius. Valid
values are 5 - 60 degrees. Default value is 15 degrees.

Chord Tolerance

Chord tolerance used when creating the file. Smaller tolerances


result in finer tessellation, larger ones in a coarser tessellation.
Values between 0.1524 mm (0.006 in) and 7.62 mm (0.30 in).

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9.3 Export Options

DXF
SPECIAL NOTE: The DXF format options are the same as in the section Cutting
Edge. The DXF-specific Options pop-up menu is shown below.
The members under the special DXF Options pop-up menu are listed here.

DXF Options (pop-up menu)

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Polyline Format

Specifies how the DXF file will be created:

Boundary Layer

Polyline - generic format that outputs flat pattern entities


(flat pattern, holes, markers, etc.) as individual polylines,
which can be output as lines or lines and arcs. Vertex
information must be included in the DXF file.

Primitive - generic format defining all geometry as a set of


individual lines or lines and arcs. Unlike Polyline, this does not
require vertex information.

AAMA - output is formatted in accordance with American


Apparel Manufacturers Association (AAMA) standards.
Requires all geometry to be generated as polylines and that
turn point information be included in the DXF file. The AAMA
standard requires two blocks of textual information. Fibersim
generates these two blocks of text annotations. When
importing AAMA files into a DXF reader, these annotations
appear as text elements.

Layer that the ply boundary will be placed on (in the export file).
Default is 0.

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9.3 Export Options

Holes Layer

Layer that ply holes will be placed on (in the export file). Default
value is 0.

Origin Layer

Layer that ply origin will be placed on (in the export file). Default
value is 0.

Direction Layer

Layer that ply direction will be placed on (in the export file).
Default is 0.

Markers Layer

Layer that the ply markers will be placed on (in the export file).
Default is 0.

Export Text

Whether Fibersim will include the ply name with exported


patterns. Ply names originate at the pattern origin and propagate
based on the direction curve. Text that is exported with the
pattern is determined by the ply objects name.

Height

Height of the ply name text that is exported with the flat pattern.
Default value is 25.4 mm or 1 inch.
NOTE: Only used when Export Text is set to Yes.

Layer

Layer that ply name text will be placed on (in the export file).
Default is 0.

Join laminate and ply names


Name separator

Specify the separator character between the names.

Auto format text


Constraints

You can use these options to have Fibersim automatically format


the text. It is no longer necessary to review each exported
pattern and manually fix text issues on small plies.
You can shift the position of the text, linearly along the direction
of the text. Or, you can shrink down the size of the text (resize),
and the third option is to rotate the text.

AAMA Grade Rule


Table Name

Grade rule table, used for the DXF input file. (See below.)
NOTE: Only used when Polyline Format is set to AAMA.

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9.3 Export Options

(A)GFM-NS2
SPECIAL NOTE: The (A)GFM-NS2 format options are the same as in Cutting
Edge. The (A)GFM-NS2-specific Options pop-up menu is shown below.
Members for the special Options pop-up menu are listed here.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

180

Allow for 180 degree nesting angles.

Polyline Format

Specifies how the file will be created:

Polyline - generic format that outputs flat pattern entities


(flat pattern, holes, markers, etc.) as individual polylines,
which can be output as lines or lines and arcs. Vertex
information must be included in the DXF file.

Primitive - generic format defining all geometry as a set of


individual lines or lines and arcs. Unlike Polyline, this does not
require vertex information.

Boundary Layer

Layer that the ply boundary will be placed on (in the export file).
Default is 0.

Holes Layer

Layer that ply holes will be placed on (in the export file). Default
value is 0.

Origin Layer

Layer that ply origin will be placed on (in the export file). Default
value is 0.

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9.3 Export Options

Direction Layer

Layer that ply direction will be placed on (in the export file).
Default is 0.

Markers Layer

Layer that ply markers will be placed on (in the export file).
Default is 0.

Export Text
Whether Fibersim will include the ply name with exported patterns. Ply names originate at
the pattern origin and propagate based on the direction curve. Text that is exported with
the pattern is determined by the ply objects Name.
Height

Height of the ply name text that is exported with the flat pattern.
Default value is 25.4 mm or 1 inch.
NOTE: Only used when Export Text is set to Yes.

Layer

Layer that ply name text will be placed on (in the export file).
Default is 0.

Join laminate and ply names


Name separator

Specify the separator character between the names.

Auto format text


Constraints

You can use these options to have Fibersim automatically format


the text. It is no longer necessary to review each exported
pattern and manually fix text issues on small plies.
You can shift the position of the text, linearly along the direction
of the text. Or, you can shrink down the size of the text (resize),
and the third option is to rotate the text.

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9.3 Export Options

IGES
SPECIAL NOTE: The IGES format options are the same as in Cutting Edge. The
IGES-specific Options pop-up menu is shown below.
Members for the special IGES Options pop-up menu are listed here.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Export Text

Whether Fibersim will include the ply name with patterns being exported.
Ply names will originate at the flat pattern origin and will propagate based
on the flat pattern direction curve.
NOTE: Text that is exported with the flat pattern is determined by the ply
objects Name.

Height

Height of the ply name text, that is exported with the flat pattern.
NOTE: Only used when Export Text is set to Yes. Default value is 25.4
mm or 1 inch.

Layer

The layer that the ply name text will be placed on (in the IGES export file).
Enter an integer value. Default value is 0.

Join laminate and ply names


Name
separator

Specify the separator character between the names.

Auto format text


Constraints

You can use these options to have Fibersim automatically format the text. It
is no longer necessary to review each exported pattern and manually fix
text issues on small plies.
You can shift the position of the text, linearly along the direction of the
text. Or, you can shrink down the size of the text (resize), and the third
option is to rotate the text.

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9.3 Export Options

Optimation
SPECIAL NOTE: The Optimation format options are the same as in Cutting Edge.
The Optimization-specific Options pop-up menu is shown below.
Optimation nesting systems require two separate files for each exported flat pattern.

IGES file contains geometry definition of the flat pattern


.ppi file contains additional information to nest flat patterns efficiently.
(ppi = Pre-Programmed Input.) The difference between the Optimation and
JETCAM ppi file is the addition of the (+ASSEMBLY LAM001,1+) line in JETCAM.

Members in the Optimation Options pop-up menu get output to the .ppi file.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Class

The class rating, and part shape. Valid values are:

Grain

1 a circular shape
2 a rectangular shape
3 an irregular shape

Whether the ply can rotate by 90 (N) or only by 180 (Y). This
member specifies whether the ply has a directional dependence based
on the materials warp and weft direction.
The Y/N indicates if the pattern is constrained to a grain direction.

180

Indication that the pattern can be rotated 180 degrees for nesting.

Work Center

The 5-character work center name.

Min Space
Between
Patterns

Whether there is a minimum space between patterns. This informs the


nesting system that adjacent patterns require spacing.

Revision

The revision level of the flat pattern file.

Num Holes

Number of internal holes. Should always be set to 0, which is the


default.

Gangform

The order requirement, if one final part is required. Default value is 1.


Modify this member as needed.

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Additional .ppi file parameters


There are three additional parameters in the .ppi file that are not part of the Optimation
Options tab:

PARTNO a combination of the part number and the ply name.


RAWMAT set depending on the material specified in the ply form.
NAMLOC specifies the location of the ply label text.

The values for these parameters are obtained from the Ply form.
Fibersim automatically exports the ply label text location for Optimation systems. Fibersim
uses the coordinates of the 2D Ply origin and ply direction to locate and align the ply label
text, since the ply origin is always within the flat pattern boundary. By default, Fibersim
generates flat patterns such that the 2D ply origin is positioned at the origin of the current
2D coordinate system (i.e., X,Y = 0,0).
Upon importing IGES files, Optimation translates all geometry to the first quadrant of its
coordinate system, such that all geometry X,Y values are at their minimum positive
values.
NOTE: Optimation does not translate the ply label text location contained in the
.ppi file to the first quadrant. If ply label text is being plotted by Optimation, the
text may occur outside the boundary of the flat pattern.

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JETCAM Expert

SPECIAL NOTE: The JETCAM Expert format options are the same as in Cutting
Edge. The JETCAM Expert-specific Options pop-up menu is shown below.
Members for the special JETCAM Expert Options are listed here.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

PPI Settings
Revision

The revision level of the flat pattern file.

Allowable
Rotation

Allowable rotation angles for nesting the flat patterns.

Material Call
Out

Attribute in the material database that that will distinguish that


material in the .ppi file's RAWMAT line.

Additional Options
Export Format

The export file format, DXF or IGES.

Origin Layer

Specified layer for the origin.

Boundary
Layer

Specified layer for the boundary.

Markers Layer

Specified layer for the markers.

Direction Layer

Specified layer for the direction.

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Closed Markers
Layer

Specified layer for the closed markers.

Export Text

Whether or not to export ply name text.

Height

Height of the export text.

Layer

Layer to contain the export text.

Join laminate and ply names


Name
separator

Specify the separator character between the names.

Auto format text


Constraints

You can use these options to have Fibersim automatically format the
text. It is no longer necessary to review each exported pattern and
manually fix text issues on small plies.
You can shift the position of the text, linearly along the direction of
the text. Or, you can shrink down the size of the text (resize), and
the third option is to rotate the text.

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9.3.5 Laser Projection


Assembly Guidance
Laser Projection supports the Assembly Guidance laser projection system.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
Select the laminate to export.
NOTE: For a top-level laminate, all children plies are eligible for
export. For a child laminate, only that laminate (and its children)
are eligible.

Start Component

The first ply to be exported.

End Component

The last ply to be exported.

Boundary Type

Whether laser projection data is exported for the plies Net


boundaries or Extended boundaries.

Output Directory

Location where the laser projection export file will be written.


SPECIAL NOTE: Avoid selecting a folder with an ampersand (&) in
the name, or anywhere in the directory path. This may cause
errors with data generation.

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File Name

Prefix of the laser projection data file. Options are:

<Laminate Name>
<Laminate Part Number>
<Model Name>
User-specified name

Reference Points

Defines the reference or target points used to calibrate the laser


system. You can select an unlimited number of points.

Reference
Coordinate System

The coordinate system used to generate XYZ values, for laser data
points. If blank, Fibersim uses CAD system master coordinate
system.
NOTE: Before exporting laser data, be sure that the Reference
Coordinate system matches the coordinate system being used on
the manufacturing floor.

Export To

Check this option to export the data:

File - In the Output Directory field, define an on-disk location


to save the export.
Teamcenter - The Output Directory field will be read-only and
will display <Teamcenter> in the path field.

Options
(Pop-up menu)

See below.

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Options (pop-up menu)

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Output Units

Units of the laser data file. Defaults are CAD display units.

Offset

Whether laser projection data will be offset from the laminate


surface.

Include Normals

Whether or not normal data will be included in the laser projection


file. Writing normal data to laser projection data file enables a
multi-head projection system to determine which head will project
each point.

Exclude Darts

Excludes darts.

Exclude Minimum
Course Corners

Excludes Minimum Course Corners.

Get Normals from


Surface

When Fibersim inserts points on a boundary, it will typically


average the normals of the two points between which the new point
is inserted. This option lets you override this behavior and have
Fibersim obtain the normal value from the surface directly.
NOTE: This may increase the time it takes to generate the export
data but it eliminates any approximation errors for the inserted
point normals.

Max Step Length

Maximum distance in between tessellated boundary points, on


relatively straight boundary sections. Fibersim first creates laser
data tessellation points, then applies additional points, based on
this value.
NOTE: On long flat surfaces, Fibersim only creates two points for a
line segment, which may not be enough for the laser projection
system. In these cases, the maximum step length should be used
to add points.

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Project Controls

Check options to determine if the laser file includes:

ply origin data


fiber direction data
marker data

Shrink Data

Whether or not the laser projection file will include a shrink factor.

Factor

Specifies the amount that the laser projection will shrink plies.
NOTE: Only applied if Shrink Data is set to Yes. Default is 1,
which will not shrink the data. You should specify a factor smaller
than 1 if the desired data is to be shrunk.

Location

The point in which all Plies will shrink around.


NOTE: Only applied if Shrink Data is set to Yes, and a Shrink
Factor other than 1 is specified. (Select a single 3D point.)

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List of the other Laser export format options


The list of remaining export laser options includes:
EXPORT FORMAT

DESCRIPTION

General Scanning

Create a file that will interface with the general scanning format.

LAP

Create a file that will interface with LAP.

LPT

Create a file that will interface with LPT.

SL

Create a file that will interface with SL.

Virtek

Create a file that will interface with Virtek.

Virtek v4

Create a file that will interface with Virtek v4.

XML

Create a file that will interface with XML.

Custom

Create a custom interface file.

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Defining Reference Points


Reference points are three-dimensional locations used to calibrate a laser system. These
points are defined in each laser projection format with the Reference Points member
(under the Standard tab). You can select an unlimited number of points to be used as
reference or target points.
Each laser projection system handles reference points in a different manner:
SYSTEM
Assembly
Guidance

HANDLES REFERENCE POINTS


Must have reference point data within the actual laser projection
data file. (Does not use a separate calibration file.)
If Reference Points are selected, they are included in the laser
projection file.

General Scanning
Laser Format

Can use either the calibration data within the laser projection data
file, or as a separate file.
If Include Reference Points is set to Yes (Options tab) reference
points are included in the laser projection data file.

LAP Laser Format


LPT Laser Format

Use separate files for laser projection data and calibration point
data.

SL Laser Format
Virtek Laser
Format
XML Based Laser
Projection Data

Fibersims laser data module can generate laser projection data in


XML to offer flexibility in creating specialized laser data formats.
A laser file created in XML format can be transformed using XSLT
into a desired format. After selecting an XSLT file, Fibersim
generates an XML file and then transforms it with the inputted
XSLT.
Notice in the $FIBERSIM_HOME/xslt_files directory there are four
other XSL files, that Fibersim uses to create the LPT file format,
and the Virtek V4.2 file format. If you wish to generate customized
file formats, then the a new XSL file should be used.
SPECIAL NOTE: We will work with customers on a consulting
basis for creating customized files. Contact your account manager
to inquire about consultation for customized laser projection XSL
files.

Custom Laser
Projection Data

A laser file created in XML format can be transformed using XSLT


into a desired format. With the Custom format, you can do this all
in one step.

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9.3.6 Fiber Placement Interface


The Fiber Placement Interface product acts as a data translator to the ACRAPLACE and
ACEV2 Fiber Placement software. You can generate input to the ACRAPLACE and ACEV2
systems directly from the composite part definition.
Fiber placement machines combine the advantages of filament winding, contour tape
laying, and computer control to automate the production of complex composite parts that
conventionally require extensive hand layup. Using fiber placement machines can reduce
costs, cycle times, structural weight, and handwork/rework when manufacturing
composite parts, but creating data files to drive the machines is tedious, time consuming,
and error-prone.

Fives Cincinnati ACRAPLACE


Exports three-dimensional part geometry, and Fibersim data to ACRAPLACE, Cincinnati
Machines (CM) fiber placement programming software, using CM's fiber placement
language (FPL).
Fibersim creates import files for ACRAPLACE that accurately represent part layup surfaces,
ply definitions, ply orientation information, region information, and unique fiber placement
entities.

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MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
Select the laminate to export.
NOTE: For a top-level laminate, all plies and its children are eligible
for export. For a child laminate, only this laminate (and its own
children) are eligible.

Laminate
Options
(Pop-up menu)

See below.

Boundary Type

Fiber placement data will be exported for Plies Net boundaries or


Extended boundaries.

Ply Information
Ply List

Plies to be exported.

Start Number

The start value for ply labeling in the generated fiber placement file.
Must be an integer > 1. Default is 10.

Increment

The increment for ply labeling in the generated file.


This must be an integer > 1. Default is 10, meaning each ply number
increments by ten.

Alignment Type
Alignment Type

Alignment
Points

Mandrel alignment definition used when generating the data file:

Frame: Also called the Design-To-Machine-Three-Point definition.


Used when relationship of the mandrel surface to the mandrel shaft
is not well known. Requires three points on the Laminate surface,
to describe the position of a prominent part feature or scribe line.
Points should be as widely spaced as possible, forming a triangle.

Shaft: Used when relationship of the mandrel surface to the


mandrel shaft is precisely known. Requires three points to describe
the relationship of the mandrel to the fiber placement machines
rotation axis. The mandrel shaft is defined by the first two points.
The first point should always represent the lowest Z value (machine
coordinate system) of the mandrel shaft as it is mounted in the
machines headstock and tailstock. The second point is created
along the shaft, in the +Z direction. The third point defines the
mandrels +X direction and establishes the Z=0 location along the
shaft for the NC program. It creates a vector perpendicular to the
mandrel shaft.

Multi Point: When relationship of mandrel surface to the mandrel


shaft is not well known. Designed to iteratively use frame
alignment techniques to better distribute alignment errors, and to
be expandable to more than three points.

3D points used in the alignment process. Select points, based on the


alignment type selected in Alignment Type.

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Fiber Axis

The ACRAPLACE system requires definition of a fiber axis, which


defines the zero degree orientation. Axis can be a 3D curve, line, arc
or spline.
Axis should be created in the direction such that the first end-point is
on the side of the fiber placement machines head stock. The other end
point will be on the side of the machines tail stock.

Reference
Coordinate
System

Specify a reference coordinate system.

Regions

Regions applied to the Fiber Placement export file. Regions control


specific machine parameters, in user-defined areas or regions.

Output
File Format

Designates the data file format of the fiber placement export file.

Standard - writes FPPL file as a stand-alone file to be used by


itself in ACRAPLACE. Used when creating a file for a new part.
Partial Translational - writes an FPPL file that must be appended
to an existing file in ACRAPLACE. This is used when replacing a
single ply boundary to an existing Standard file.
Directory

Location on your file system where the file will be written.

File Name

Name of the fiber placement export file. Options are Laminate Name,
Laminate Part Number, Model Name and user-specified.

Export To

Check this option to export the data:

File - In the Output Directory field, define an on-disk location to


save the export.
Teamcenter - The Output Directory field will be read-only and will
display <Teamcenter> in the path field.

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Fives Cincinnati ACE V2


Regions allow you to define machine parameters in specific areas of the tool surface. The
regions are assigned a priority to alleviate problems where more than one region shares
the same tool area.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
Select the laminate to export.
NOTE: For a top-level laminate, all plies and its children are eligible
for export. For a child laminate, only this laminate (and its own
children) are eligible.

Laminate
Options
(pop-up menu)

See below.

Boundary Type

Fiber placement data will be exported for Plies Net boundaries or


Extended boundaries.

Ply Information
Ply List

Plies to be exported.

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Start Number

The start value for ply labeling in the generated fiber placement file.
Must be an integer > 1. Default is 10.

Increment

The increment for ply labeling in the generated file. This must be an
integer > 1. Default is 10, meaning each ply increments by ten.

Alignment Type
Alignment Type

Mandrel alignment definition used when generating the data file:

Frame: Also called the Design-To-Machine-Three-Point definition.


Used when relationship of the mandrel surface to the mandrel shaft
is not well known. Requires three points on the Laminate surface,
to describe the position of a prominent part feature or scribe line.
Points should be as widely spaced as possible, forming a triangle.

Shaft: Used when relationship of the mandrel surface to the


mandrel shaft is precisely known. Requires three points to describe
the relationship of the mandrel to the fiber placement machines
rotation axis. The mandrel shaft is defined by the first two points.
The first point should always represent the lowest Z value (machine
coordinate system) of the mandrel shaft as it is mounted in the
machines headstock and tailstock. The second point is created
along the shaft, in the +Z direction. The third point defines the
mandrels +X direction and establishes the Z=0 location along the
shaft for the NC program. It creates a vector perpendicular to the
mandrel shaft.

Multi Point: When relationship of mandrel surface to the mandrel


shaft is not well known. Designed to iteratively use frame
alignment techniques to better distribute alignment errors, and to
be expandable to more than three points.

Alignment
Points

3D points used in the alignment process. Select points, based on the


alignment type selected in Alignment Type.

Fiber Axis

The ACRAPLACE system requires definition of a fiber axis, which


defines the zero degree orientation. Axis can be a 3D curve, line, arc
or spline.
Axis should be created in the direction such that the first end-point is
on the side of the fiber placement machines head stock. The other end
point will be on the side of the machines tail stock.

Reference
Coordinate
System

Specify a reference coordinate system.

Regions

Regions applied to the Fiber Placement export file. Regions control


specific machine parameters, in user-defined areas or regions.

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Output
File Format

Designates the data file format of the fiber placement export file.

Standard - writes FPPL file as a stand-alone file to be used by


itself in ACRAPLACE. Used when creating a file for a new part.
Partial Translational - writes an FPPL file that must be appended
to an existing file in ACRAPLACE. This is used when replacing a
single ply boundary to an existing Standard file.
Directory

Location on your file system where the file will be written.

File Name

Name of the fiber placement export file. Options are Laminate Name,
Laminate Part Number, Model Name and user-specified.

Export To

Check this option to export the data:

File - In the Output Directory field, define an on-disk location to


save the export.
Teamcenter - The Output Directory field will be read-only and will
display <Teamcenter> in the path field.

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Ingersoll
Transfer composite data from Fibersim directly into Ingersolls CPS software.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
Specifies which plies will be eligible for exporting.
NOTE: If the top-level laminate is chosen all plies are eligible for
export. But if a child laminate is chosen only child plies of the
child laminate are eligible.

Ply List

Plies to be exported.

Reference
Coordinate System

Specify a reference coordinate system.

Regions

Regions to be applied to the Fiber Placement export file. Regions


control specific machine parameters in user-defined areas or
regions.

Spine

The spine for the data being exported. You can select more than
one curve, but curves must be continuous.

Boundary Type

Whether Fiber Placement data will be exported for the plies Net
Boundaries or Extended Boundaries.

Directory

Location where the fiber placement export file will be written.

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Output File Name

Name of the fiber placement export file. Options are:

Export To

Laminate Name
Laminate Part Number
Model Name
User-specified name

Check this option to export the data:

File - In the Output Directory field, define an on-disk


location to save the export.
Teamcenter - The Output Directory field will be read-only
and will display <Teamcenter> in the path field.

Tools Information tab


MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Machine Alignment -Define Shaft Alignment Manually


This option lets you select the necessary three points manually, to define the shaft
definition. Choose a Reference Origin, Axis Point and Upward Direction.
Reference Origin

Reference Origin (and Axis Point) define the ends of the shaft.

Axis Point

Reference Origin (and Axis Point) define the ends of the shaft.

Upward Direction

This point defines the upward direction from the shaft axis.

Machine Alignment - Use Machine Coordinate System


This option lets you link to coordinate system already defined in the model. This greatly
simplifies the process.
Machine Coordinate
System

Specify a coordinate system from the model. Use this option


when Use Machine Coordinate System is chosen.

Tool Definition
Puck/Sphere
Diameter

Diameter of the alignment pucks/spheres.

Tool Alignment
Point

The XYZ location of the first puck/sphere.

Puck/Sphere
Orientation

Point or line that establishes a direction vector for the tool


orientation.

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CGTech - Vericut Composite Programming


This is the CGTech interface.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select a parent laminate for the plies to be exported.

Ply List

Select the plies to be exported.

Reference Coordinate
System

Select a machine coordinate system to specify alignment of


the machine.

Machine Coordinate
System

Select a machine coordinate system to specify alignment of


the machine.

Boundary Type

Whether to export net or extended ply boundaries.

Path Plan Controls


Boundary Lap

Percentage of tow width allowed to overlap the ply boundary.

Angle Tolerance

The angle tolerance value used when generating paths.

Course Lap

Percentage of tow width allowed to overlap between adjacent


courses.

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Output
Directory

Select the directory where the output file will be stored.

File Name

Select the field to use to generate the output file name.

Export To

Check this option to export the data:

File - In the Output Directory field, define an on-disk


location to save the export.
Teamcenter - The Output Directory field will be readonly and will display <Teamcenter> in the path field.

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9.3 Export Options

Coriolis CAD Fiber


This is an interface to the Coriolis CAD Fiber product.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select a parent laminate for the plies to be exported.

Ply List

Select the plies to be exported.

Boundary Type

Whether to export net or extended ply boundaries.

Reference Coordinate
System

Specify a reference coordinate system.

Reference Type - Options are Rosette or Curve.


Rosette - Alignment
Points
Curve - Fiber Axis
Curve - Alignment
Points
Output
Directory

Select the directory where the output file will be stored.

File Name

Select the field to use to generate the output file name.

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9.3 Export Options

Options (pop-up menu)


Output Units

Units are either inches or millimeters.

Boundary Lap

Percentage of tow width allowed to overlap the ply boundary.

Minimum Gap

The length value for the smallest allowable gap between


courses.

Sphere Diameter

Diameter value of he size of the reflector sphere, used for


laser positioning of the tool.

Maximum Angle
Deviation
Export To

Check this option to export the data:

File - In the Output Directory field, define an on-disk


location to save the export.
Teamcenter - The Output Directory field will be readonly and will display <Teamcenter> in the path field.

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9.3 Export Options

9.3.7 Automated Tape Laying Interface


Fives Cincinnati ACE V2
This interface lets you export a file from Fibersim into the ACEV2 Tape system.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
Plies eligible for exporting.
NOTE: If the top-level laminate is chosen all plies are eligible for
export. But if a child laminate is chosen only child plies of the child
laminate are eligible.

Laminate Options

See below.

Boundary Type

Whether tape laying data is exported for the plies Net boundaries
or Extended boundaries.

Ply Information
Ply List

Defines the plies to be exported.

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9.3 Export Options

Start Number

The start value for ply labeling in the generated tape laying file.
Must be an integer > 1. Default is 10.

Increment

Sets the increment for output ply numbers. Default is 10, meaning
each ply number increments by ten.

Output
File Format

Designates the data file format of the fiber placement export file.
Standard - writes FPPL file as a stand-alone file to be used by
itself in ACRAPLACE. Used when creating a file for a new part.
Partial Translational - writes an FPPL file that must be
appended to an existing file in ACRAPLACE. This is used when
replacing a single ply boundary to an existing standard file.

Directory

Directory where the output file will be located.

File Name

Field to use to generate the output file name.

Units

Either inches or millimeters.

Export To

Check this option to export the data:

File - In the Output Directory field, define an on-disk location


to save the export.
Teamcenter - The Output Directory field will be read-only and
will display <Teamcenter> in the path field.

Alignment Type

Mandrel alignment definition used when generating the data file:

Frame: Also called the Design-To-Machine-Three-Point


definition. Used when relationship of the mandrel surface to the
mandrel shaft is not well known.

Shaft: Used when relationship of the mandrel surface to the


mandrel shaft is precisely known. Requires three points to
describe the relationship of the mandrel to the fiber placement
machines rotation axis.

Multi Point: When relationship of mandrel surface to the


mandrel shaft is not well known. Designed to iteratively use
frame alignment techniques to better distribute alignment
errors, and to be expandable to more than three points.

Alignment Points

3D points used in the alignment process. Select points based on


the alignment type selected in Alignment Type.

Acraline Points

Allows for the definition of the machine alignment through the use
of three points, called Acraline Points.
This type of alignment is used by the tape-laying machine to make
small adjustments for positioning (i.e., fine tuning). Other
alignment types (i.e., frame align, shaft align, etc.) are for making
large adjustments.

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Fiber Axis

The tape laying system requires the definition of a fiber axis. This
axis defines the zero degree orientation. The axis can be a 3D
curve, line, arc or spline.
Preferably, the axis should be created in the direction so that the
first end-point is on the side of the fiber placement machines
headstock. The other end point is on the machines tailstock.

Regions

Regions to be applied to the tape laying export file. Regions control


specific machine parameters in defined areas or regions.

Reference
Coordinate
System

Specify the coordinate system.

Scrap Areas

Links a Scrap Area object to the ACEV2 Tape object.

Trim Reference

Trim lines are used for flat tape laying machines. These tape laying
machines will apply some number of layers then trim the part on
the table. The "trim lines" are the cuts that the machine will make
on the flat part.
This field allows you to select/create a "trim reference" object, and
pick a number of open curves (Trim Lines) and specify start
points (Trim Line Start Points) for the curves. Note that you do
not have to specify a complete boundary (you might just trim an
edge or part of a boundary).
By specifying an After Ply value using a ply sequence number,
you can indicate when the trim is applied. Currently, Fibersim only
applies one trim operation at a sequence. You should not create
trim operations with the same sequence number for the After Ply
value, since only the first trim will be applied.

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9.3 Export Options

MikroSam
This interface lets you export a file from Fibersim into the MikroSam Tape system.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select a parent laminate for the plies to be exported.

Select Plies

Select plies to include in the export.

Alignment Points

3D points used in the alignment process.


You must select three alignment points for this export to be
successful.

Course Boundary

Either the course net or extended boundary.

Output Directory

Select the directory where the output file will be stored.

Output File Prefix

Prefix given to the export file.

Export To

Check this option to export the data:


File - In the Output Directory field, define an on-disk location
to save the export.
Teamcenter - The Output Directory field will be read-only
and will display <Teamcenter> in the path field.

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9.3 Export Options

9.3.8 Broadgood (Tecnomatix)


This is an interface to export into Tecnomatix.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Parent laminate for the exported plies and rosettes.

Output Directory

Directory where the exported file will be placed.

Tool Surfaces

Select the tool surfaces.

Select Courses

Select the courses to include in the export.

Output File Prefix

Prefix given to the export file.

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9.3.9 Preliminary Design Interface (Export)


The Preliminary Design Interface lets you export composite data. You have the option to
export data directly to an Excel file, or to a tab-delimited text file.
The data that gets exported from Fibersim is broken into four blocks of information, all of
which you can make changes to once in Excel:

Material Specifications
Laminate Specifications
Zones
Layers

Once the changes are complete, you can import the date back into Fibersim.

Export (User Interface)


The Preliminary Design Interface Export utility lets you export to an Excel file or tab
delimited text file. The Export utility can be used to modify an existing design outside of
Fibersim, or the data can be used as desired.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Laminate for the utility. The utility works on a laminate-by-laminate


basis, so child laminates must be processed separately.

File Name

Specifies file for exporting. Select a valid Excel or text file.

Options (pop-up menu)


Export File Type

Specifies the type of export, either Zone or Analysis Zone.

Export Zone Type

Specifies the type of export file, MS Excel file or Tab-delimited


text file. Either file type must be properly formatted.

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9.3 Export Options

Layer Output
Format

Outputs Zone or Laminate Spec columns in the layer data block:

Export Layer
Sequence

Specifies whether or not Fibersim will output Layer Sequence


information in the layer data block.

Export Layer Step

Specifies whether or not Fibersim will output Layer Step information


in the layer data block.

Export Layer
Drop-Off Order

Specifies whether or not Fibersim will output Layer Drop-Off Order


information in the layer data block.

Export Layer
Material

Specifies whether or not Fibersim will output Layer Material


information in the layer data block.

Export All
Laminate
Specifications

If checked, this will export all laminate specifications. If not


checked, Fibersim will only export those laminate specifications
linked to existing zones.

Layers vs. Zones - outputs Zone columns


Layers vs. Laminate Specs - outputs Laminate Spec columns

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9.3 Export Options

9.3.10 Ply Export to XML


This lets you export composite ply data in XML format.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

File Name

Select the name and location for the generated output file.

Laminate

Specifies zones, plies and/or cores eligible for exporting.

Options (pop-up menu)


Export File Type

Specifies the type of export file, MS Excel file or Tabdelimited text file. Either file type must be properly
formatted.

Export All Child


Components

Check this option to have all child components exported.

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9.3 Export Options

9.3.11 Composite Part XML


Composite Part XML lets you export composite part data in XML format.
Exported XML data can be used as an input to a customer specific interface.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Output Directory

Location on the file system where composite data will be


written.

File Name

The field used to generate the output files name.

Objects to Export

Lets you select which objects to export, either:

All objects all Fibersim objects

Specified objects only selected zone/component


objects

All objects - Options (pop-up menu)


Boundary Type

Export of Net or Extended component boundaries (or both).

Export Laminate Surface


Max Step Length

Maximum triangle segment length allowed while creating a


triangulated surface representation of the underlying part. This
value controls resolution of the triangulated surface being
exported. Small values will generate more triangles, even in flat
sections of the model.
Default value is 76.2 mm (3.0 in) for the laminate surface. Valid
range for this value is 6.4 610 mm (0.25 24 in).
NOTE: Used when Export Laminate Surfaces is selected.

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9.3 Export Options

Chord Tolerance

Maximum distance allowed between the triangulated surface


representation and the Laminate surface. Small values will
generate more triangles in high curvature areas of the part.
Default value is 1.01 mm (0.040 in) for the Laminate surface.
Valid range is 0.25 51 mm (0.01 2 in).

Export Zone Adjacency Data - zone adjacency is included with the Composite Part XML
Export data.
Zone Table

Specifies whether a percentage or ply count is included for each


ply orientation.

Export Rosettes as a
Field

This lets you export field-based rosettes to HDF5 and CP XML. If


the rosette is currently a non-field-based rosette, it will be
exported as a field-based one by checking this option.

Selected objects
Laminate

Specifies zones, plies and/or cores eligible for exporting.

Components

Specific components to be exported.

Zones

Select which zones, if any, should be included in the exported


composite data.

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9.3 Export Options

9.3.12 Composite Part STEP


This interface allows you to export composite data from a STEP file.
SPECIAL NOTE: This feature requires a special license to access. Please contact
your Sales Representative for full details on this feature.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Boundary Type

You can only export either the Net or Extended boundary


information, but not both.

STEP File

Select the STEP file you want to export.

Export STEP File

Performs the export.

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Chapter 10: Volume Fill

10.1 Introduction
This utility allows you to create layers of materials to fill a structural volume on your
models laminates. Using this utility, the gap between an upper and a lower surface can be
filled with plies.

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320

10.2 Volume Fill Utility

10.2 Volume Fill Utility


This is the interface for the volume fill utility.

To open the utility:


Select Fill Volume from the Application Browser:

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select the parent laminate that contains the materials that need
a fill volume applied.

Rosette

Specify the proper rosette. Fiber angles will be measured


relative to the chosen rosette.

Fill to Surface

Select the surface that completes the volume to be filled.

Layer Orientation
Sequence

Enter the orientation repeat pattern that will be used to fill the
volume. (This is repeated through the thickness.) Enter a
comma-separated list.

Layers
Generate Layers

Generates the layers and fills in the volume. Note that the
layers will inherit the default material from the laminate.

Join Curves

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10.2 Volume Fill Utility

Generate/Update
Layer Surfaces

Generates the layer surfaces used to fill the volume.

Layer Surfaces
Layers will be colored by their orientation.

Methodology and Workflow


The Volume Fill utility uses the following methodology:
1. Select the proper Laminate, Rosette and the Fill to Surface.
2. Enter the sequence of orientations, for the layers to be created. This is a commaseparated list.
5. Generate the layers that will fill in the volume area. (They will inherit the default
material of the laminate.)
6. Review laminates with cross sections. Then press Update 3D Cross Sections.
7. Perform re-sequencing of the laminate, using the Composite Sequence Manager.
8. Update and review the results of the sequence changes, in the CAD window.
9. Compute surfaces for the re-sequenced layers (using the Update button).

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10.2 Volume Fill Utility

Details of Volume Fill Functionality


Changes in Normal Orientation of Fill To Surface (to define
volumes)
Prior to the 15 release, the orientation of the Fill To Surface normal was in the same general
direction as the Layup Surface. For the 15 release the orientation of the Fill To Surface normal,
must now point towards the volume to be filled.
This is necessary to provide better visual indications of the volume being filled. It also provides
consistency in defining normal orientations between the Layup surface and Fill To surface.

Part setup for pre-15 releases of Fibersim


For new parts, you will need to ensure that the surface normal points toward the volume being
filled. In this example, the Laminate and Fill To Surface for a legacy part are displayed.

Part setup with Fill To Surface normal reversed

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10.2 Volume Fill Utility

Multiple Fill To surfaces


Prior to the 15 release, Volume Fill did not handle volumes with either of the following:

Near perpendicular surfaces


Surfaces with a smaller cross section at lower step values than upper step values.

You can now fill such surfaces using multiple Fill To surfaces. For example, in the image below,
there are three Fill To Surfaces with their normal highlighted in magenta. The surfaces on the
left and right side are angled such that they are underneath the top surface.

Fill-To surface with near perpendicular faces


There are two steps involved in setting up the volume:
If you have a volume with a smaller cross section at lower step values than upper step values:
1. In cases where the normal from the laminate makes multiple intersections with the surface,
the volume needs to split as shown below.

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10.2 Volume Fill Utility

2. The multiple surfaces need to be selected as the Fill To Surface.

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10.2 Volume Fill Utility

Highlighting options
The highlighting controls for Laminate and Fill To surfaces provide visual feedback to verify
normal orientation and laminate boundaries.

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326

10.2 Volume Fill Utility

Ply simulations using Offset surfaces on by default


Plies created from layers generated from the Volume Fill process have the option of
running a simulation on the offset surface. Prior to the 15 release, the option to use the
offset surface was off by default. For newly created volume fill objects, this option will be
on by default.

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10.2 Volume Fill Utility

Also, the 'Traditional' method is the only valid simulation method for plies that are using
the offset layer surface. Plies that use the offset layer surface for the simulation will not be
allowed to change to any other simulation method.
The Simulation Surface member on the ply will indicate "Volume Fill Skin" for plies that
will be using the offset layer surface from Volume Fill.
These offset layer surfaces are trimmed to either the layer net or extended boundary. The
laminate's Design Boundary setting is used to define the boundary type. Therefore, a ply
that uses an offset layer surface for the simulation will only be allowed to simulate for the
boundary type for which the surface was created.

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10.2 Volume Fill Utility

Note that users can still control whether the ply will use the laminate surface or the offset
layer surface from the Volume Fill form. Check or uncheck the Enable for Simulation
option as needed.

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10.2 Volume Fill Utility

Additional full body layer is no longer generated (by default)


In prior releases, when Volume Fill generated layer surfaces, an extra full body layer was
created as the final layer. This layer was always created regardless of the height of the
volume.
In the current release, Volume Fill will no longer automatically create a full body layer as
the final layer. Only layers required to fill the volume will be created.

Laminate Design Boundary used for layer curve assignment


The layers generated by Volume Fill will have boundary curves assigned to either the Net
or Extended boundary. This is controlled by the Design Boundary setting on the laminate
to which it is linked.
In prior releases, generated layer curves were always assigned to the Net boundary.

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330

Index: Materials & Machine


Databases

A.1 Introduction
All Fibersim data is communicated using XML technology. XML defines the Materials
Database and the Machine Database.
The files, MaterialsDB.xml and MachineDB.xml contain default materials and machine
specifics are included with each distribution of Fibersim, at the following location:
$FIBERSIM_HOME/FiberSIM/databases
The materials describe a broad range of material types, and are representative of a typical
material in each category.
NOTE: You are encouraged to test the materials you are using, and enter the
appropriate values into the database.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

331

A.2 How to Edit a Database

A.2 How to Edit a Database


A.2.1 Editing XML
Editing XML files can be done with a variety of programs, such as a standard text editor.
Other editors, such as XML Spy, produced by the Altova Corporation, are designed
specifically for viewing and manipulating XML files.
Examining the structure of XML, it is easy to break up each part of the file into start
tags,<>, and end tags, </>. The information between start and end tags is said to be
contained within the tags.
In the Materials Database, this means that information contained between the start and
end tags will describe certain properties of the material. For example, each material is
contained within a material start tag, <Material>, and a material end tag, </Material>.
It is important to note that tags must always come in pairs. A file that is missing a start or
end tag will not function properly in Fibersim. An example material entry would look like
this:
<Material>
<Specification>T-6-in</Specification>
<MaterialForm>Uni</MaterialForm>
<WeaveAngle>90</WeaveAngle>
<BoltOrientation>Parallel</BoltOrientation>
<Warning>3</Warning>
<Limit>6</Limit>
<Thickness>0.007</Thickness>
<CuredThickness>0.005</CuredThickness>
<Width>6</Width>
<ArealWeight>0.0002</ArealWeight>
<CostPerWeight>95</CostPerWeight>
<Units>Inches</Units>
<LaminateRating>Yes</LaminateRating>
<ElasticModulusOne>26250000</ElasticModulusOne>
<ElasticModulusTwo>750000</ElasticModulusTwo>
<PoissonRatio>0.25</PoissonRatio>
<ShearModulus>375000</ShearModulus>
<ThermalExpansionOne>0.00000024</ThermalExpansionOne>
<ThermalExpansionTwo>0.00004</ThermalExpansionTwo>
</Material>
When you ready to design parts with Fibersim, it will be necessary to customize materials
specific to a part being designed.
Contained within each set of material tags is a series of tags for each material parameter.
Between each of the parameter tags will be the current value set for that parameter.

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332

A.2 How to Edit a Database

A.2.2 Adding a Material to the Database


The following steps are necessary to add a new material to the database:
1. Open the MaterialsDB.xml file, located at:
$FIBERSIM_HOME\FiberSIM\databases
2. Create a new material start tag, <Material>. This should be placed on a new line that
follows any material end tag, </Material>.
3. Insert each of Material tag, including the new values between each set of tags.
4. Complete the material definition by creating a material end tag, </Material>.
Or
1. Open the MaterialsDB.xml file.
2. Highlight and copy a previous material definition. Be sure to include the <Material>
start and end tags.
3. Paste the definition on a new line that follows any material end tag, </Material>.
4. Edit the parameter values to represent the new material being created.

A.2.3 Deleting a Material from the Database


The following steps are necessary to delete an existing entry in the database:
1. Open the MaterialsDB.xml file.
2. Find the <Specification> tag, that contains the name of the material to be deleted.
3. Locate the material start tag, <Material>, directly above the specification tag.
4. Highlight the material definition, being sure to include the material start tag,
<Material>, and the end tag, </Material>.
5. Delete the highlighted material definition.

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333

A.2 How to Edit a Database

A.2.4 Changing a Material in the Database


The following steps are necessary to modify an existing entry in the database:
1. Open the MaterialsDB.xml file.
2. Find the <Specification> tag that contains the name of the material that will be
modified.
3. Locate the parameter tag that will be modified.
4. Change the parameter to the desired value.

A.2.5 Accessing a Different Material Database file


NOTE #1: Altering the file name will cause Fibersim to improperly access the
database during future Fibersim launches. Make sure the file name remains
unchanged.
NOTE #2: When using a network version of the database, you need to check the
DBConfiguration.xml file to find the MaterialDB.xml location.
You can have Fibersim set up to access a different database file (one that is different from
MaterialsDB.xml). This is done by editing the DBConfiguration.xml file. This file is found
here:
$FIBERSIM_HOME/FiberSIM/databases
1. Open the file in WordPad or any other text editor program.
2. Locate the <DBFileName> field and enter data so that it points to the full network path
of the database file you want to access.
3. Save the modified file.

Sample section from the DBConfiguration file:


<EnCapta>
<DBConfiguration name="material">
<FileDatabase>
<DBFileName><C:\My_Materials.xml></DBFileName>
</FileDatabase>
<Key>
<KeyName>
<MemberName>Specification</MemberName>
</KeyName>
</Key>
</DBConfiguration>

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

334

A.2 How to Edit a Database

A.2.6 How to Edit the Defaults File


To locate and edit the Default file:
1. Locate the file Fibersim_Defaults.xml.
2. Open the file in WordPad, or any other text editor program.
3. Make the necessary changes and save the edited file.

4. Locate and edit FibersimConfig.xml (to make Fibersim_Defaults.xml active).


NOTE: Altering the file name can cause Fibersim to improperly access the file during
future launches of the software. Make sure the name of the file remains unchanged.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

335

A.3 Integrating CATMaterials with Fibersim

A.3 Integrating CATMaterials with Fibersim


Fibersim provides the option to use the CATIA V5 CATMaterials database. But in order
to use it, several steps must be accomplished, including customization of the CATMaterials
database.
This sections outlines the necessary information for using the CATIA V5 CATMaterials file
with Fibersim.
Those choosing to use the CATMaterials database must add various members that are not
contained within the default CATMaterials database.
NOTE: You should contact your CAD administrator in regards to customizing the
CATMaterials database with the necessary changes.

Fibersim uses the DBConfiguration.xml file to setup the connection and member mapping
from the CATMaterials database to Fibersim. Member mapping may or may not be
necessary depending on the naming used when customizing the CATMaterials database.
NOTE: The CATIA CD3 configuration with products CD1 and ST1 is necessary since
Fibersim uses some of the default CATIA members from the composite tab of the
CATMaterials database. If necessary, you should contact your CAD administrator to
install the additional CATIA configurations.
NOTE: In some cases, the Regional settings on your computer may need to be adjusted
to ensure proper operation of the CATMaterials database. You will need to ensure that
numbers use a point (.) as a decimal symbol and a comma (,) as a digit grouping symbol.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

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A.3 Integrating CATMaterials with Fibersim

A.3.1 Addition to CATMaterials Database


All members defined in the Fibersim materials database must exist in the CATMaterials
database. This database does include some of the members that are required for Fibersim.
For these members, Fibersim uses the DBConfiguration.xml file to map the CATMaterial
members to the Fibersim members. You will have to add the remaining members in order
for all Fibersim features to properly function.
When setting up the mapping between Fibersim and the CATMaterials database there are
two options:

If the member names used in the Fibersim materials database are maintained
in the CATMaterials database, then no mapping is necessary in the
DBConfiguration.xml file.

If you choose to name the members differently in the CATMaterials database,


then the DBConfiguration.xml mapping must be used.

For the valid values of these material database members, refer to section A.4.

Additional Members Necessary in the CATMaterials Database

MaterialCode
MaterialDescription
MaterialForm
WeaveAngle
BoltOrientation
Units
LaminateRating
DropOff
NonStructural
Color_0_Degrees
Color_45_Degrees
Color_90_Degrees
Color_135_Degrees
Color_Other_Angles
Line_Style_0_Degrees
Line_Style_45_Degrees
Line_Style_90_Degrees
Line_Style_135_Degrees
Line_Style_Other_Angles
Line_Thickness_0_Degrees
Line_Thickness_45_Degrees
Line_Thickness_90_Degrees
Line_Thickness_135_Degrees
Line_Thickness_Other_Angles

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A.3 Integrating CATMaterials with Fibersim

A.3.2 CATMaterial Members Used by Fibersim


This is a list of the CATMaterial members used by Fibersim.
CATMaterials Name

Fibersim Member Name

Name

Specification

CompMaxDeformation

Warning

CompLimitDeformation

Limit

CompUncuredThickness

Thickness

CompCuredThickness

CuredThickness

CompWidthOfFabrics

Width

CompWeightPerSurfaceUnit

ArealWeight

CompCostPerMassUnit

CostPerWeight

Longitudinal Young Modulus

ElasticModulusOne

Transverse Young Modulus

ElasticModulusTwo

Poisson Ratio in XY Plane

PoissonRatio

Shear Modulus in XY Plane

ShearModulus

Longitudinal Thermal Expansion

ThermalExpansionOne

Transverse Thermal Expansion

ThermalExpansionTwo

CATMaterial Members Used by Fibersim

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

338

A.3 Integrating CATMaterials with Fibersim

Fibersim DBConfiguration.xml Mapping


This is a sample setup for setting up the DBConfiguration.xml file for mapping:
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>Specification</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>Name</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>Warning</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>CompMaxDeformation</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>Limit</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>CompLimitDeformation</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>Thickness</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>CompUncuredThickness</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>CuredThickness</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>CompCuredThickness</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>Width</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>CompWidthOfFabrics</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>ArealWeight</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>CompWeightPerSurfaceUnit</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>CostPerWeight</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>CompCostPerMassUnit</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>ElasticModulusOne</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>Longitudinal Young Modulus</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>ElasticModulusTwo</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>Transverse Young Modulus</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>PoissonRatio</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>Poisson Ratio in XY Plane</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>ThermalExpansionOne</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>Longitudinal Thermal Expansion</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>
<MemberNameMap>
<ECMemberName>ThermalExpansionTwo</ECMemberName>
<DBMemberName>Transverse Thermal Expansion</DBMemberName>
</MemberNameMap>

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A.3 Integrating CATMaterials with Fibersim

A.3.3 Configuring the DBConfiguration.xml file


Configuring the DBConfiguration.xml is necessary in order to establish a connection
between Fibersim and the CATMaterials database. There are several ways to make a
connection:
1. Connect to a CATMaterials file using a network path.
2. Connect to a CATMaterials file from ENOVIA.
3. Connect to an In Session CATMaterials file.
This section will outline how to connect to the CATMaterials database using all three of
these methods.

Necessary DBConfiguration.xml Changes


NOTE: The line numbers referenced below may change for various reasons. If
confusion arises due to inaccurate line numbers, please contact Siemens PLM Global
Technical Access Center (GTAC).

For each installation of Fibersim:


1. Locate the DBConfiguration.xml file that is located in:
%FIBERSIM_HOME%\FiberSIM\databases
2. Open this file in a text editor, like WordPad or Notepad on Windows.
3. Edit Line Number 3 from:
<DBConfiguration name="material">
to:
<DBConfiguration name="hold">
4. Edit Line Number 13 from:
<DBConfiguration name="cad">
to:
<DBConfiguration name="material">

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A.3 Integrating CATMaterials with Fibersim

5. Edit Line Number 15 from:


<DBFileName><![CDATA[C:\My_Materials.CATMaterial]]></DBFileName>
to:
<DBFileName><![CDATA[Path_to_CATMaterial]]></DBFileName>
where Path_to_CATMaterial is one of three choices:
a. For Defining an explicit network path to the database file:
C:\any_dir\name_of_catmaterial_file.CATMaterial
b. For opening a database via ENOVIA:
ENOVIA5\name_of_catmaterial_file.CATMaterial
c. For using an in session database. If this method is chosen only one
database can be loaded in session at a time:
In Session
6. Edit Line Number 17:
<DBApplicativeSpecName>My_DB_Spec_Name</DBApplicativeSpecName>
My_DB_Spec_Name should be changed to the name given to the file used to
expand the properties in the CATMaterials database.
7. Save the file.
8. Copy the edited file to all other Fibersim installations.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

341

A.4 Materials Database Members

A.4 Materials Database Members


This section lists all members in the materials database with descriptions for each one.

Standard
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Standard Tab
Specification

Defines material names displayed in Fibersim.

<Specification>

NOTE: Names must be unique for every material in the


database file. Fibersim synchronizes materials based on names.

Material Code

A unique code for each material. Up to 72 characters.

<MaterialCode>
Material Description

A unique description for each material.

<Material
Description>
NCF Orientation
<NCF Orientation>

Fibersim supports the input of non-crimped fabric (NCF)


material orientations. NCF materials can contain two or more
layers of fiber tows, stitched together. You must specify a single
orientation to represent this material. The NCF orientations can
be positive or negative values.
NOTE: To use an NCF material with Fibersim, you need to
define the MaterialForm member as NCF:
<MaterialForm>NCF</MaterialForm>

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

342

A.4 Materials Database Members

MEMBER
Material Form

<MaterialForm>

DESCRIPTION
Material type used by Flat Pattern producibility. Values are:

Woven for bi-directional materials


Uni for unidirectional materials
Tow for fiber placement materials
Film, Mat, or Core for non-fabric materials

NOTE: For a non-fabric material, Fibersim defaults to Woven.


Warning
<Warning>

The deformation warning angle for the material used by Flat


Pattern/Producibility. Governs where Fibersim should alert you
that the material is being deformed a given amount (yellow
fiber paths). Valid values are in degrees, any real number
greater than 0.
NOTE: By convention, this value is usually half the limit angle.

Limit
<Limit>

The deformation limit angle for the material used by Flat


Pattern/Producibility. This angle specifies the angle after which
the material will wrinkle when deformed.
Fibersim uses this information to display red fiber paths on the
part where the material will wrinkle. Valid values are in
degrees.

Width
<Width>
Units
<Units>

Usable width of the material. Fibersim uses this value to


determine material width lines for Plies. Valid values are any
real number > 0. You must enter values in inches or
millimeters.
Specifies the unit system for the specific material. All
parameters for a material should be in the same unit system.

Crimp Warning

English use Imperial units for the material.


Metric use SI units for the chosen material.

Used with NCF materials.

<CrimpWarning>
Crimp Limit

Used with NCF materials.

<CrimpLimit>
Balanced By
<BalancedBy>

For balanced materials, this is the materials balanced pair. For


NCF materials.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

343

A.4 Materials Database Members

Thickness
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Thickness Tab
Specification

Defines material names displayed in Fibersim.

<Specification>
Thickness
<Thickness>

Thickness of the material prior to curing. The Laser Projection


Interface uses this value during data offset.
Valid values are real numbers > 0. Enter values in inches or
millimeters.

Cured Thickness

Thickness of the material after curing. Fibersim uses this value


when calculating the Design Station thickness.

<CuredThickness>

Valid values are any real number > 0. Enter values in inches or
millimeters.

Units

Specifies the unit system for the specific material. All


parameters for a material should be in the same unit system.

<Units>

English use Imperial units for the chosen material.


Metric use SI units for the chosen material.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

344

A.4 Materials Database Members

Architecture
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Architecture Tab
Material Form
<MaterialForm>

Material type used by Flat Pattern/Producibility. Values are:

Woven for bi-directional materials


Uni for unidirectional materials
Tow for fiber placement materials
Film, Mat, or Core for non-fabric materials

NOTE: For a non-fabric material, Fibersim defaults to Woven.


Drop-Off

Specifies whether or not a material will be included in a Zone


Transition drop-off. In some cases a given material needs to be
included in zone definitions, yet excluded from dropping-off.

<DropOff>

Values are Yes (included in drop-offs) or No (excluded).

Weave Angle

Defines the manufactured angle, in degrees, between the warp


and weft fibers of a fabric material.

<WeaveAngle>
Bolt Orientation
<BoltOrientation>
NonStructural

<NonStructural>

NOTE: Currently Fibersim only supports materials with a 90degree weave angle.
Defines whether a material is woven parallel (0 degrees) or
biased (45 degrees) to the roll direction. Valid values are
Parallel or Bias.
Specifies whether or not a material will be included in the
Analysis export data. Some materials are not included in the
structural analysis of the composite part, therefore these
materials shouldnt be output during the exporting of analysis
data.
You can define behavior on a material by material basis. Values
are Yes (excluded) or No (included).

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

345

A.4 Materials Database Members

Cost & Weight


MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Cost & Weight Tab


Areal Weight
<ArealWeight>
Cost Per Weight
<CostperWeight>
Units
<Units>

Weight of the material per unit area. Units must be either lb/in2
for the English system, or kg/mm2 for the Metric system. Valid
values are any real number > 0.
Cost of the material per unit weight. Weight must be in the
same units as those used in ArealWeight. Values are any real
number > 0.
Specifies the unit system for the specific material. All
parameters for a material should be in the same unit system.

Laminate Rating
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate Rating Tab


Laminate Rating
<LaminateRating>

Determines if a material will be evaluated in a laminate rating


core sample analysis. Options are Yes or No.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

346

A.4 Materials Database Members

Mechanical Properties A
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Mechanical Properties A Tab


ShearModulus 13

Specifies the shear modulus value in the XZ plane.

<ShearModulusOne
Three>
ShearModulus 23

Specifies the shear modulus value in the YZ plane.

<ShearModulusTwo
Three>
Density

Specifies the real mass density value.

<MassDensity>
Shear Modulus

<ShearModulus>
Poisson Ratio
<PoissonRatio>

Specifies the shear modulus of the material. Value is used


during Laminate rating Core sample analysis.
Units of this entry must be in lb/in2 for the English system or N/
m2 for the Metric system. Values are any real number > 0.
Specifies the poisson ratio of the material. Value is used during
a laminate rating core sample analysis. Valid values are any
real number 0 1.

Poisson Ratio 1-3

Specifies the poisson ratio of the material.

Poisson Ratio 2-3

Specifies the poisson ratio of the material.

Elastic Modulus One

Elastic or Youngs modulus of the material in the warp direction.


Value is used during a Laminate rating Core sample analysis.

<ElasticModulusOne>
Elastic Modulus Two

<ElasticModulusTwo>

Units must be in lb/in2 for the English system or N/m2 for the
Metric system. Values are any real number > 0.
Elastic or Youngs modulus of the material in the weft direction.
Value is used during a Laminate rating Core sample analysis.
Units must be in lb/in2 for the English system or N/m2 for the
Metric system. Valid values are any real number > 0.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

347

A.4 Materials Database Members

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Elastic Modulus Three


Units
<Units>

Specifies the unit system for the specific material. All


parameters for a material should be in the same unit system.

Mechanical Properties B
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Mechanical Properties B Tab


Tensile Stress 1

Allowable stresses in the tension (in longitudinal direction).

<AllowableTensile
StressOne>
Tensile Stress 2

Allowable stresses in the tension (in lateral direction).

<AllowableTensile
StressTwo>
Compressive
Stress 1

Allowable stresses in the compression (in longitudinal


direction).

<AllowableCompressiv
eStressOne>
Compressive
Stress 2

Allowable stresses in the compression (in lateral direction).

<AllowableCompressiv
eStressTwo>
Shear Stress

Allowable stress for the in-plane shear.

<AllowableShear
Stress>
Tensile Strain 1

Allowable strains in the tension (in longitudinal direction).

<AllowableTensile
StrainOne>
Tensile Strain 2

Allowable strains in the tension (in lateral direction).

<AllowableTensile
StrainTwo>
Compressive
Strain 1

Allowable strains in the compression (in longitudinal


direction).

<AllowableCompressiv
eStrainOne>

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

348

A.4 Materials Database Members

MEMBER
Compressive
Strain 2

DESCRIPTION
Allowable strains in the compression (in lateral direction).

<AllowableCompressiv
eStrainTwo>
Shear Strain

Allowable strain for the in-plane shear.

<AllowableShearStrain>

Units
<Units>

Specifies the unit system for the specific material. All


parameters for a material should be in the same unit
system.

Custom MAT8 Properties


MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Custom MAT8 Properties Tab


Structural Damping
Coefficient

Structural damping coefficient value.

<MAT8Structural
DampingCoefficient>
Tsai-Wu Interaction
Term

Interaction term (in the tensor polynomial theory of TsaiWu)

<MAT8TsaiWuInteracti
onTerm>
Stress/Strain Theory
<MAT8MaxStrain
Theory>
Units
<Units>

For maximum strain theory only. Indicates whether Xt,


Xc,Yt, Yc and S are stress or strain allowables.

Specifies the unit system for the specific material. All


parameters for a material should be in the same unit
system.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

349

A.4 Materials Database Members

Thermal Properties
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Thermal Properties Tab


Thermal Expansion
One

<ThermalExpansion
One>
Thermal Expansion
Two

<ThermalExpansion
Two>
Thermal Expansion
Reference
Temperature

Specifies the coefficient of thermal expansion in the warp


direction. Value is used during a laminate rating core sample
analysis.
Units must be in Fahrenheit for the English system, Celsius for
the metric system. Values are any real number > 0.
Specifies the coefficient of thermal expansion in the weft
direction. Value is used during a laminate rating core sample
analysis.
Units must be in Fahrenheit for the English system, Celsius for
the metric system. Values are any real number > 0.
Specifies the reference temperate for the calculation o thermal
leads, or a temperature-dependent thermal expansion
coefficient.

<ThermalExpansion
Reference
Temperature >
Units
<Units>

Specifies the unit system for the specific material. All


parameters for a material should be in the same unit system.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

350

A.4 Materials Database Members

Radius of Curvature
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Radius of Curvature Tab


ROC Warning

Desired radius of curvature warning value for the material used


by the simulation steering results display.

<TowROCWarning>

Governs where Fibersim should alert you when the material is


beginning to undergo a radius of curvature below a certain
amount (yellow fiber paths). By convention, it is usually half of
the radius of the curvature limit value.
Value should be in inches or millimeters.

Tow ROC Limit


<TowROCLimit>

Desired radius of curvature limit value for the material that is


used by the simulation steering results display.
Governs where Fibersim should alert you that the material is
being steered below the minimum radius of curvature allowed
for the given material (red fiber paths). Value should be in
inches or millimeters.

Units
<Units>

Specifies the unit system for the specific material. All


parameters for a material should be in the same unit system.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

351

A.4 Materials Database Members

Orientation Colors
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Orientation Color Tab


These colors defines the outline colors ply boundaries in Ply Books and 3D Cross Sections.
See Chapter 1, section 1.7 for a full list of colors used.
0 Degree Orientation
Color

Defines the outline color of 0 degree ply boundaries.

<Color_0_Degrees>
45 Degree Orientation
Color

Defines the outline color of 45 degree ply boundaries.

<Color_45_Degrees>
90 Degree Orientation
Color

Defines the outline color of 90 degree ply boundaries.

<Color_90_Degrees>
45/135 Degree
Orientation Color

Defines the outline color of -45 or 135 degree ply


boundaries.

<Color_135_Degrees>
+/45 Degree
Orientation Color

Defines the outline color of -45 or +45 degree ply


boundaries.

<Color_np45_Degrees>
0/90 Degree
Orientation Color

Defines the outline color of 0 or 90 degree ply boundaries.

<Color_090_Degrees>
Other Degree
Orientation Color

Defines the outline color of cores and any ply boundaries


that are not 0, 45, -45, 90 or 135 degrees.

<Color_Other_Angles>

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

352

A.4 Materials Database Members

Line Styles
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Line Style Tab


These options define the line styles for ply boundaries in Ply Books and 3D Cross Sections.

Options are Solid, Dashed, Dotted and Phantom (combination of dotted and
dashed).
0 Degree Orientation
Line Style

Defines the line style of 0 degree ply boundaries.

<Line_Style_0_
Degrees>
45 Degree Orientation
Line Style

Defines the line style of 45 degree ply boundaries.

<Line_Style_45_
Degrees>
90 Degree Orientation
Line Style

Defines the line style of 90 degree ply boundaries.

<Line_Style_90_
Degrees>
45/135 Degree
Orientation Line Style

Defines the line style of -45 or 135 degree ply boundaries.

<Line_Style_135_
Degrees>
/+45 Degree
Orientation Line Style

Defines the line style of -/+45 degree ply boundaries.

<Line_Style_np45_Degr
ees>
0/90 Degree Orientation
Line Style

Defines the line style of 0/90 degree ply boundaries.

<Line_Style_090_Degre
es>
Other Degree
Orientation Line Style

Defines the outline line style of cores and any ply boundaries
that are not 0, 45, -45, 90 or 135 degrees.

<Line_Style_Other_
Angles>

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

353

A.4 Materials Database Members

Line Thickness
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Line Thickness Tab


These options define line thicknesses for ply boundaries in Ply Books and 3D Cross
Sections.
Options are Thin (default), Medium and Thick.
0 Degree Orientation
Line Thickness

Line thickness of 0 degree ply boundaries.

<Line_Thickness_0_
Degrees>
45 Degree Orientation
Line Thickness

Line thickness of 45 degree ply boundaries.

<Line_Thickness_45_
Degrees>
90 Degree Orientation
Line Thickness

Line thickness of 90 degree ply boundaries.

<Line_Thickness_90_
Degrees>
45/135 Degree
Orientation Line
Thickness

Defines the line thickness of -45 and 135 degree ply


boundaries.

<Line_Thickness_135_
Degrees>

Line thickness of 135 degree ply boundaries.

+/45 Degree
Orientation Line
Thickness

Line thickness of +/- 45 degree ply boundaries.

<Line_Thickness_np45
_Degrees>
0/90 Degree
Orientation Line
Thickness

Line thickness of 0/90 degree ply boundaries.

<Line_Thickness_090_
Degrees>
Other Degree
Orientation Line
Thickness

Defines the outline line thickness of cores and any ply


boundaries that are not 0, 45, -45, 90 or 135 degrees.

<Line_Thickness_
Other_Angles>

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

354

A.4 Materials Database Members

Custom
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Custom
Replace With
<ReplaceWith>
Manufacturer

Define a material, used as an alternative to the selected


material.
Enter the manufacturer of the material. Optional.

<Manufacturer>
Customized data
(One Five)

Enter customized information, and information is displayed


under each column.
Values entered here can be output to ply books.

<ColumnNameOne>
<ColumnNameTwo>
<ColumnNameThree>
<ColumnNameFour>
<ColumnNameFive>

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

355

A.5 Machine Database Members

A.5 Machine Database Members


This section lists members in the machine database with descriptions for each one.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Standard
Name
<Name>

The model or internal name of the machine.

Manufacturer
<Manufacturer>

Machine manufacturer name

Machine Type
<MachineType>

Type of automated machine (acceptable values are


Automated Tape Layer or Fiber Placement).

Description
<Description>

Description of the machine and its capabilities.

Minimum Course Length


<MinCourseLength>

Shortest length of a course or tow (minimum cut length)

Roller Diameter
<RollerDiameter>

Diameter of the roller on the head of tape layer or fiber


placement machine.

Number of Tows
<TowsPerHead>

Number of tows that the fiber placement head can deposit.

Minimum Tape Width


<MinTapeWidth>

Smallest tape course width allowed by the machine.

Minimum Cut Width


<MinCutWidth>

Smallest tape width that is allowed by the machine to remain


when notched.

Minimum Across Cut


Angle
<MinAcrossCutAngle>

Minimum angle relative to a course centerline allowed to be


cut by the machine

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

356

A.5 Machine Database Members

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Tape Parameters
Minimum Course
Length
<MinCourseLength>

Shortest length of a course or tow (minimum cut length)

Roller Diameter
<RollerDiameter>

Diameter of the roller on the head of tape layer or fiber


placement machine.

Minimum Tape Width


<MinTapeWidth>

Smallest tape course width allowed by the machine.

Minimum Cut Width


<MinCutWidth>

Smallest tape width that is allowed by the machine to


remain when notched.

Minimum Across Cut


Angle
<MinAcrossCutAngle>

Minimum angle relative to a course centerline allowed to be


cut by the machine

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Fiber Placement Parameters


Max Roller Height
Travel
<MaxRollerHeight>

Maximum value for the roller height travel.

Warning Roller Height


Travel
<WarnRollerHeight>

Warning value for the roller height travel, prior to it reaching


its maximum.

Max Collision
Avoidance Angle
<MaxCollisionAvoid
Angle>

Maximum value for machine articulation that avoid contact


with the work piece.

Warning Collision
Avoidance Angle
<WarnCollisionAvoid
Angle>

Warning value for machine articulation that avoid contact with


the work piece.

Index A: Materials & Machine Databases

357

Index: Utilities

B.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses the utilities used with the Fibersim product.
Fibersim uses these utilities and tools to verify that design requirements are being met.
Ply listing, sorting, and visualization tools let engineers inspect all aspects of the layup,
including material types, stackup order and orientations.

Index: Utilities

358

B.1 Introduction

Accessing the Utilities in Fibersim


Most Fibersim utilities can be accessed from the toolbars that appear with each object
window. You can also access many of them from clicking on Tools on the Encapta menu:

Index: Utilities

359

B.2 The Main Utilities Toolbar

B.2 The Main Utilities Toolbar


There is a group of utilities that always appear on the object window toolbar, regardless of
what object is currently highlighted:

Design Checker
3D Cross Section
Composite Sequence Manager
Object Locator

Index: Utilities

360

B.2 The Main Utilities Toolbar

B.2.1 Design Checker


The Design Checker lets you run checks on the model to search for invalid geometry and
current design problems.
From the Geometry tab, when you press Check Geometry, the utility will interrogate
the model and report back any objects that have geometry issues to be resolved.
Flagged objects will be listed in the Flagged Objects member.
These objects will also be listed in the Geometry Report window, with a description of
the problem.
If you select the Extra Geometry Checks option, Fibersim will perform a check on any
geometry that is unintended, but is still valid for the model.

From the Design tab, select which boundary you want the utility to run a check on;
either Net or Extended.
When you press Check Design, the utility will interrogate the model and report back any
objects that have design issues to be resolved. Flagged objects will be listed in the
Flagged Objects member.
These objects will also be listed in the Design Report window, with a brief description of
the problem.

Index: Utilities

361

B.2 The Main Utilities Toolbar

B.2.2 Partial Boundary Editor


The Partial Boundary Editor helps to speed up the highlighting of layer boundaries.
It allows Fibersim to work with a reduced set of vertices/zone transitions, and then
calculate the boundaries only for this reduced set.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
Specify the laminate to be used with the given workgroup.
The choice of laminate determines the Zone Transition and
Transition Adjacency Vertices that can be worked on.

Status

Whether or not the given workgroup is valid or invalid.


Workgroups can become invalid when a design change occurs
that adds or removes a zone transition from a workgroup. Note
that using the Zone Transition Splitter can also result in an
invalid workgroup.

Zone Transition Locator


Positions

Indicate points on the CAD surface, next to Zone Transitions, to


be located.

Locate

Fibersim will locate zone transitions, based on the defined


Position points.

Start Over

This option clears the member values for the given workgroup,
which allows for redefining of the workgroup.

Index: Utilities

362

B.2 The Main Utilities Toolbar

Workgroup - Selected Objects


Transitions

Provides a list of located Zone Transitions, to be worked with for


the given workgroup.
Using the Zone Transition object list window, you can tiered edit
into Zone Transitions so that they can be manipulated.

Vertices

Provides a list of located Transition Adjacency Vertices, to be


worked with for the given workgroup.
Using the Zone Transition object list window, you can tier edit
into Zone Transitions so they can be manipulated.

Affected Layers

Displays the list of layers that get affected when Zone


Transitions or Transition Adjacency Vertices for the given
workgroup are edited.

Highlight Layers

Highlights the partial boundaries for each layer that is affected


by the given workgroup.

Index: Utilities

363

B.2 The Main Utilities Toolbar

B.2.3 Composite Sequence Manager


The Composite Sequence Manager (CSM) allows you to view a laminates hierarchy. All
components that have the current laminate as their parent will be shown, including
laminates, layers, plies, and cores. Note also that every shown child component is listed in
sequence step order.
NOTE: If accessed via a child laminate, Fibersim only displays children of the child
laminate.
SPECIAL NOTE: When Sequence Based Projection is turned on the CSM will list any
plies that have been projected as children of the override laminate, as long as that
laminate has been selected as the root laminate. When Sequence Based Projection is
turned off, the CSM shows only the plies that are explicitly parented to that laminate.
Sequence Based Projection is an option on the laminate object.

Index: Utilities

364

B.2 The Main Utilities Toolbar

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select the laminate to be read by the CSM.

Show Child
Components

The CSM will display all of the laminates child components.


NOTE: Child laminates are only listed if they have a different surface
than the parent laminate.
NOTE: If layers exist in the model, they are listed by default. But if
child plies exist, this option must be checked to view them.

Sequence Options (pop-up menu)


Initial Step

Defines the initial step value given to the child laminates of the parent
laminate that the resequence is initiated from. This value is not given
to the laminate that the resequence is based on. You must first
change the step value of the laminate that the resequence is based
on.
The first component on the Laminate that the resequence is based on
will be given the same step value as the parent Laminate. Then child
laminates will be given the Initial Step value, and the child laminates
first component will also be given the Initial Step value. The value
entered for the Initial Step must be an integer.

Step
Increment

Defines the step value increment for components that are sequenced
via the Composite Sequence Manager resequence icon. The value
entered for the Step Increment must be an integer.

Maintain Same
Step

The CSM will keep components that were on the same step before
resequencing on the same step after resequencing.
For example, if you have a ply pack that has 4 plies on step 40, then
all four plies will have the same step value after resequencing.

Resequence
Mode

Determines what the CSM will resequence:

Sequence and Step resequence both the sequence and


step values.

Step Only only resequence the step values and leave the
sequence values as defined by the user. The Step
Increment value increments Step values, and Fibersim will
increment the sequence values alpha numerically.

If the laminate sequence value is A, then child components ill all have
a sequence value of A, and child laminates will have sequence values
incremented alphanumerically (B, C, Detc).
Child components of top-level laminates and child laminates will
always be given the same sequence value as their parent laminate.

Index: Utilities

365

B.2 The Main Utilities Toolbar

Resequence Options
You can create, modify, and delete objects within the CSM. These are the options for
globally resequencing child components of the current laminate:
RESEQUENCE
OPTION
Drag and Drop
Resequencing

DESCRIPTION
Child components of a laminate can be moved to new locations in the
part hierarchy.
When moving objects, Fibersim automatically interpolates new Step
values based on existing steps above and below the new location. For
example, if a ply with step 50 is moved in between steps 30 and 40,
the new step value for this ply is 35.
NOTE: If all child components of a laminate have the same Step value,
Fibersim cannot move objects via the drag and drop method. You must
use the Resequence icon, which gives unique steps to each
component.
NOTE: When moving layers, Fibersim wants to change the parent of
the ply, which is not valid. You should use Ctrl+select to select a range
of layers individually, meaning plies will not be selected to move. Since
ply parents cannot be changed, the ply will follow the layer wherever it
goes.
NOTE: When Show Child Components is checked, resequencing by
drag and drop is disabled.

Manually
Resequencing

You can manually resequence child components of the Laminate by


editing components and manually entering new Sequence/Step values.

Resequence
Icon

The Resequence icon can globally update Sequence/Step values of


child components on the current laminate. This gives each ply a unique
step value (except when a ply is spliced via a layer). The resulting plies
will all inherit the Step value from the layer.
NOTE: Before using Resequence, you should enter an appropriate
Initial Step and step increment value, and set the appropriate step
values on the parent laminate.
Resequencing is useful once all laminate components have been moved
to the appropriate location in the part hierarchy. By default, Fibersim
gives the laminate and the laminates first component the same Step
value.

Index: Utilities

366

B.2 The Main Utilities Toolbar

B.2.4 Object Locator


The Object Locator lets you locate and highlight several different Fibersim entities. You
can highlight desired objects, and then indicate points next to the objects that Fibersim
will locate.

MEMBER
Parent
Object Type
Positions
Locate
Start Over

Index: Utilities

DESCRIPTION
The parent laminate of the objects to be located.
The type of object to populate in Highlighting.
Indicate next to each object that needs to be located.
Performs the location of the objects. The location is based on the
Object Type chosen, and user-indicated points.
Clears the Highlighting list, populates it based on Object Type.

367

B.2 The Main Utilities Toolbar

Highlighting
Highlighting

Specifies the list of objects that are highlighted. Includes:

System Datums (used with SBD)


Structure Interfaces (used with SBD)
Zones
Transitions
Vertices
Layers
Core Layers
Plies
Cores

Once you indicate points and locate the desired objects, these lists
display the located objects.
Boundary Type
Refresh Highlight
Highlight Scope

Boundary type for the plies, either Net or Extended.


Refreshes the highlight list.
Whether objects remain highlighted after exiting the utility:

Index: Utilities

Local highlighting stays on when Object Locator is open


Global highlighting stays on when you exit the utility.

368

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3 Tools > Operations


This section contains a list of individual Fibersim utilities and operations:

Material Substitution
Mirror Laminate
Zone to Layer Analysis
Step Utility
Drop Off Order Utility
Ply Drop Off
Splice Ply
Grid Based Zone maker
Zone Transition Splitter
Minimum Course Extension Utility
Minimum Course Vertex Utility
Formed Laminate Utility
Flat Pattern Layout
Course Generation Utility

Index: Utilities

369

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.1 Material Substitution


This utility lets you substitute materials used for zone based design. During the design
process a new material may be preferred over an existing one. Rather than change all
material specifications that reference the obsolete material, and run a zone to layer
update, the Material Substitution utility can be run.
A zone to layer uses material to match zones and create common layer shapes. Since all
previous zone transitions and layers reference a material that no longer exist, all of the
zone transitions and layers get deleted and new ones are generated. This utility prevents
zone transition customization from being lost.

MEMBER
Laminate
Old Material
New Material
Substitute
Material

Index: Utilities

DESCRIPTION
Laminate on which to perform the substitution.
The material to be replaced.
The new material to use.
Perform substitution of material specs and layer materials.

370

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.2 Mirror Laminate


This utility creates mirrored, or copied, plies based on a set of existing plies. This is
useful when many identical plies need to be defined. This utility aids in creating a laminate
schedule that is balanced, symmetric, or both balanced and symmetric.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
The laminate to be mirrored or copied
NOTE: For a top-level laminate, all child plies are also eligible.
For a child ply, only its own children are eligible.

Start Component

The first ply used for mirroring or copying.

End Component

The last ply used for mirroring or copying.

Mirror or Copy

Whether a mirror or copy is conducted on selected plies.

Pivot Component

Specifies whether the end component ply becomes a pivot.


If P005 is selected as a pivot ply, results are:
P001, P002, P003, P004, P005, P004, P003, P002, P001
If no pivot is specified for mirroring, results are:
P001, P002, P003, P004, P005, P005, P004, P003, P002, P001
If P005 is selected as a pivot ply for copying, results are:
P001, P002, P003, P004, P005, P001, P002, P003, P004
If no pivot is specified for copying, results are:
P001, P002, P003, P004, P005, P001, P002, P003, P004, P005

New Step

Index: Utilities

Starting step values. Based on how plies are stepped, Fibersim


applies Step values to new plies.

371

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.3 Zone to Layer Analysis


Zone-to-Layer Analysis automatically creates layers and plies from zone definitions.
Fibersim matches up material and orientation across all of the zones, and constructs
boundaries.
This utility is also used as an update utility when a design change is necessary. Zone-toLayer updates prevent you from losing any customizing that has been done to Zone
Transitions and Transition Adjacency Vertices. The update also maintains any sequencing
that has been applied to layers and plies.
When run, Fibersim creates necessary Zone Transitions, Transition Adjacency Vertices,
and the resulting layers/plies. You can customize each as the design requires. Fibersim
also provides a report that describes what objects were created/updated as a result of
running the analysis. This report lists any errors encountered during the analysis. Fibersim
also provides a Zone Checker, within the utility.
On parts where many zones are required, user error is likely when selecting zone
boundaries. The Zone Checker will analyze zones, and report if any overlap or void areas
exist. If the checker is not used, and you have made a mistake during zone definition,
Zone to Layer Analysis results will be incorrect.

MEMBER
Laminate
Run Zone Checker
Only

Index: Utilities

DESCRIPTION
Specifies the laminate(s) to be processed during the analysis.
Runs the Zone Checker only. Verifies that the geometrical Zone
setup is correct. Also checks for improperly defined and
overlapping zones.

372

B.3 Tools > Operations

Options
(Pop-up menu)

See below.

Generate

Generate or update plies/layers of the created zone transitions.

Default Stagger
Profile

Stagger Profile to be applied to all Zone Transition objects, created


as a result of running the Zone to Layer Analysis.
Fibersim will only apply selected Stagger Profiles to any existing
Zone Transitions. You can leave this member blank, and manually
apply Stagger Profiles to each Zone Transition.

Default Offset
Specification

This offset specification will be assigned to newly created


transitions.

Options (pop-up menu)


Result Type

Whether the analysis will create Layers or Layers and Plies.


Since layers drive plies, you could create the plies via the Layer object
as a final step.

Delete...

By checking the right boxes, you can delete obsolete layers,


obsolete plies, obsolete transitions or obsolete vertices.
Fibersim deletes these objects during the Zone to Layer update.
NOTE: In most cases, you will want all options selected.

Run Zone
Checker with
Analysis

Index: Utilities

Whether or not Fibersim will run the Zone Checker when the analysis
is run. The Zone Checker verifies that the geometrical Zone setup is
correct. It also checks for improperly defined and overlapping zones.

373

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.4 Step Utility


The Step Utility applies Step values based on layer areas. Layers that cover the largest
area will be furthest from the laminate centerline. Layers that cover the smallest area will
be closest.
This utility properly places non-overlapping layers of the same material and orientation on
the same Step. This provides a starting point, that is easily adjusted based on your
requirements.
Note that Step values can be adjusted, or you can use the Preliminary Design Interface to
export a data file to Excel. You can then change Step values and import the changes
back into Fibersim.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The utility works on a laminate-by-laminate basis, so child


laminates must be processed separately.

Material

Material used for assigning new Step values.


NOTE: If a laminate contains multiple materials, you must run the
utility separately for each material.

Orientation
Repeat Pattern

Specifies the repeating Orientation used when assigning Step


values to layers. Fibersim uses user-input patterns as a guide when
assigning Step values through the thickness of the part.
The orientation list should be comma-separated values. Default
pattern is 0,45,90,-45.

Initial Step Value

Defines the initial step value given to the first layer. Must be a valid
integer value. Default is 10.

Step Value
Increment

Defines the Step increment added first to the Initial Step value,
and then to each subsequent layers Step value.
Layers are given values starting at 10 and incrementally increased
by 10, resulting in 10, 20, 30, 40etc. This value must be a valid
integer value. Default is 10.

Index: Utilities

374

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.5 Drop-Off Order Utility


This utility assigns drop-off order values to layers for a given material. After running, you
can adjust the values as necessary. The Drop-Off Order specifies how a laminates layers
are dropped off from the thickest gage areas to the thinnest.
Fibersim uses the Drop-Off order when associating Zone Transition index curves to
corresponding Layers.
NOTE: It is recommended setting Drop-Off Order Pre-Sorting, in the Laminate form,
to No Pre-Sorting.
This utility applies Drop-Off Order values based on Laminate Spec and layer area
information. Layers that use the largest number of Laminate Specs, and cover the largest
area are given larger Drop-Off Order values. The number of Laminate Specs for a given
layer takes precedence over the layers area.
In many composite designs, disjoined overlapping pieces of composite fabric (of the
same material and orientation) exist at the same step in the stackup. These pieces or plies
should be treated as if they were all one continuous piece of material, meaning layers/
plies should have the same step value and Drop-Off Order. This utility assigns DropOrders for this condition.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Specifies the laminate. (Child laminates must be processed


separately.)

Material

Specifies material for assigning new Drop-Off Order values. If a


laminate contains multiple materials, you must run the utility
separately for each.

Orientation
Repeat Pattern

Orientation repeat pattern, for non-drop-off plies.

Initial Drop-Off
Order

Defines the initial Drop-Off Order value given to the first layer. Must
be a valid integer.

Drop-Off Order
Increment

Defines the Drop-Off Order increment added first to the Initial


Drop-Off Order value, then to each subsequent layers Drop-Off
Order value. Layers values start at 10 and increase incrementally
by 10 (10, 20, etc.) Must be a valid integer.

Index: Utilities

375

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.6 Ply Drop-Off


The Ply Drop-Off utility creates smooth transitions, along boundaries of pad-up of plies.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Plies

Plies that are to be dropped-off. Must all share the same


boundary.

Plies per Drop Off

The number of plies to be included in each drop-off.

Geometry Type

Specify either Boundary or Holes.

Offset Direction

Determines the direction in which drop-offs will be created.

Value Based On

Whether the offset distance is based on:

Index: Utilities

Inside Drop-offs occur toward the ply origin


Outside Drop-offs occur away from the ply origin

Distance distance between Drop-Off curves.


Material Thickness Drop-Off curve offset distance
is based on multiplying thickness of the chosen
material by this value.

376

B.3 Tools > Operations

Boundary Type

Determines where Ply Drop-Offs will be created:

Net Boundary or Extended Boundary specify that


Drop-Offs create along the respective boundary.
Net Holes or Extended Holes specify that Drop-Offs
create along every hole in the ply.

NOTE: Dropping-off both the boundary and the holes is a twostep process, that can be done consecutively.
Corner Type

The corner type to be applied to generated Drop-Off curves.


Options are Straight, Chamfer and Fillet.
Fibersim only applies a chamfer or a fillet to inside corners.
The fillet radius and chamfer distance is determined by, and
will vary by, the offset distance. The chamfer angle is always
set to 45.

Options

MEMBER

See below.

DESCRIPTION

Drop-Off Pattern

Plies are dropped off in an Ascending, Descending or a userdefined Custom order.

Custom Drop-Off
Sequence

Displays a custom sequence in which the plies will be droppedoff. Beginning with 0 and incrementing by 1, the sequence
number corresponds with plies in the order they were chosen
from ply list.
For example, if you define the sequence 0,3,4,2,1 for plies
P001, P002, P003, P004, P005, the drop off order will be:
P001, P004, P005, P003, P002
NOTE: Used when Drop-Off Pattern is set to Custom.

Index: Utilities

377

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.7 Splice Ply


The Splice Ply utility lets you splice selected plies based on predefined boundaries. In
many cases, a fullbody ply may not meet design standards, for reasons such as
unacceptable fiber deviation, or because the material width cannot accommodate for the
size of the laminate.
This utility is useful in these scenarios, since multiple plies can be generated in one quick
step.
USAGE REQUIREMENT: The ply's origin point must be between the laminate net
boundary and the first splice curves. Also, the splice curves must be selected in order.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Ply

The ply to be spliced. Remember that the plies origin must be in


between the first splice curve and the Net Boundary.

Splice Curves

Curves to be used as splice boundaries. Curves must lie on the


laminate and both ends should intersect the specified ply boundary.
The curves must be selected in order.
NOTE: Splice curves will be created away from the origin point.

Ply Name
Separator

Separator character to use.

Overlap

Specifies whether spliced plies overlap.

Distance

If Overlap is checked, this specifies the distance in which the


created Plies will overlap each other.

Toggle Region
Display

Turn on/off display of No Splice Regions.

Index: Utilities

378

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.8 Grid-Based Zone Maker


This utility creates a set of zones, based on inputting a set of curves and origin points.
This is useful on grid based parts that have horizontal and vertical grid lines with an origin
point inside of each bay. Fibersim will create zones based on the order that the origin
points are selected or indicated.

MEMBER
Laminate
Rosette

DESCRIPTION
The parent laminate of the created zones.
The rosette used for the created zones.

Use Names from


Origins

When checked, zones will be generated and given the same name
as their origin.

Indicate Origins

You can select and un-select points that are picked using the
digitization process. This means that you can pick a ply origin and
it will use the laminate surface as the support automatically
(existing point is turned on as well). You can also trap select
existing points.
Note that the order in which the points are indicated is the order
in which Fibersim creates zones.

Boundary Curves

Index: Utilities

Curves to create Zone Boundaries. Fibersim creates zone


boundaries based on closing selected curves around selected
origins.

379

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.9 Zone Transition Splitter


In many cases the initial set of defined zones are based on stress data and the parts
substructure. Zone transitions will then be computed based on the inputted zones. In
some cases a large zone boundary may need to represent several zone transitions, and
you may need to go back and redefine zone setups.
The Zone Transition Splitter allows zone transitions to be split based on a ratio, nontangency, curve, points, or distance along the transition. Once run, Fibersim will create
additional zone transitions and apply them to the appropriate layers.

MEMBER
Zone Transition

DESCRIPTION
The transition to be split.

Splitting Methods
Ratio
Non-Tangency Angle
Curves or Points
Distance
Repeat Splitting

Index: Utilities

Length ratio for splitting.


Non-tangency angle for splitting.
Curves or points at which to split the transitions.
Split transition at this distance.
Repeats splitting of split transitions at specified distance.

380

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.10 Minimum Course Extension Utility


B.3.11 Minimum Course Vertex Utility
SPECIAL NOTE: Each of these utilities is discussed in Chapter 6.

Index: Utilities

381

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.12 Formed Laminate Utility


The Formed Laminate utility allows you to run a simulation that incorporates
linterlaminar sliding, due to thickness of the material and the different layers conforming
to the part surface.
With this utility, you can document a relationship between a given laminate and its plies,
when the laminate represents a formed laminate part. (Note that a formed laminate part
is a composite part made of a single mat composed of several layers of the same material,
each with its own orientation, held together by fibers stitched through the thickness of the
laminate.)
The utility outputs a series of stitch length contours, which are displayed based on the
stitch length being some multiple of the laminate thickness. The image below shows the
results of running the composite producibility on a model:

Note how the stitch length is changing, as the laminate is draped on the part surface. This
utility can assist you with where stitches should be placed in 2D, such that the necessary
change in length for 3D is minimal.
The utility can also create a flat pattern that represents the maximum (or minimum)
material condition for the formed laminate. This is done by overlaying the flat patterns and
intersecting them to create the formed laminate flat pattern.

To open the utility:


1. Go to Tools > Operations > Formed Laminate Utility.

Index: Utilities

382

B.3 Tools > Operations

Select the proper radio button of either the Net or Extended boundary, for which you
want to run the utility.
MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select a laminate for forming.

Contour Spacing

This value is the stitch length as some multiple of the laminate


thickness. Contours will display based on this value.
For example if the laminate is 1mm thick and you enter a value of
2 here, a contour will be created each time a set of points has
stitches that are twice the laminate thickness.

Warning

The stitch length warning value. This will determine the blue/
yellow/orange/red coloring of the contours in the CAD window.

Limit

The stitch length error limit value. This will determine the blue/
yellow/orange/red coloring of the contours in the CAD window.

Composite
Producibility

Runs the simulation and generates the producibility of the formed


laminate.

Index: Utilities

383

B.3 Tools > Operations

Formed Flat Pattern


Creation Method

Select an option to determine how the composite flat pattern


should be created:
Max - Created by the union of maximum flat pattern shapes
Min - Created by the union of minimum flat pattern shapes

Composite Flat
Pattern

Generates the composite flat pattern

Stitch Report
Spacing X

Controls the stitch report sampling density in the X-direction,


where X is based on the flat pattern zero direction.

Spacing Y

Controls the stitch report sampling density in the Y-direction,


where Y is orthogonal to the X-direction.

Stitch Report File

Specify the stitch report file.

Stitch Report Points

Indicate the points on the surface that you want to show up in


the stitch report.
NOTE: This will override the normal behavior of the stitch report
if this member is set.

Generate Stitch
Report

Index: Utilities

Generates the stitch report in the window.


The report will always be in millimeters.

384

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.13 Flat Pattern Layout


This utility allows you to manipulate how flat patterns display in the CAD window. By
setting the parameters, such as cell width/height values and origin coordinates, you can
ensure that the flat patterns properly display in the CAD window in a grid fashion.
SPECIAL NOTE: This utility is discussed in detail in Chapter 7.

Index: Utilities

385

B.3 Tools > Operations

B.3.14 Course Generation Utility


This utility allows you to generate courses on a given layer. The utility takes a layer and a
starting centerline, and is used to progressively generate course objects starting there,
and moving out to the part edges.
This utility runs a simulation out from a given centerline, out to the material width on each
side. The centerline may be the layer's centerline or an adjacent course centerline,
computed from a given course lying on a layer.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Layer

Specify the layer on which you want to generate courses.

Centerline

Centerline of the layer. Must be specified to generate the


courses.

Overlap

This value is the overlap distance between a course, and any


adjacent courses.

Fiber Spacing Factor

This value controls simulation cell size. A default of 1.0 is


usually sufficient for an accurate simulation, and to generate
an accurate flat pattern.

Generate Course

Creates the course, which consist of a centerline, boundary


and material/step information from the layer.

Material

Material that makes up the layer.

Index: Utilities

386

B.3 Tools > Operations

Generate Right/Left
Adjacent Centerline

Check these options and can you select a material for the
adjacent courses.

Left/Right Adjacent
Course Material

Select the material for the right/left adjacent course.

Courses

Displays a list of generated courses.

Report

Displays a report of the course creation actions.

Index: Utilities

387

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates


This section includes a list of tools used for special laminate creation:

Symmetric Laminate
Merge Models
Surface Transfer
Manufacturing Laminate Creation
2D Laminate Creation

Index: Utilities

388

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates

B.4.1 Symmetric Laminate


The Symmetric Laminate utility creates a duplicate dataset of a laminate, by mirroring
information about a symmetry plane. This is useful when creating left and right parts that
are symmetric about a given plane.
To use the utility:
You must mirror the laminate surface and boundaries manually, as well as the rosette
origin/direction.
Note also that valid laminate and rosette objects must be created in Fibersim prior to
running the utility.
This utility will duplicate the geometry associated to the laminate and rosette objects.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Source Laminate

The laminate whose components will be mirrored. Child


laminates are not carried over by this utility (each one needs to
be generated separately).

Source Rosette

The rosette for the source laminate data.

Symmetric Laminate

The destination laminate that source information will be copied


to.
NOTE: This must be an actual laminate that has already been
created, prior to running the utility.

Index: Utilities

389

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates

Symmetric Rosette

The rosette for the symmetric laminate data.


NOTE: This must be an actual rosette that has already been
created, prior to running the utility.

Symmetry Plane

The plane in the part file. Components will be generated on the


other side of this plane.

Options (pop-up menu)


Delete Existing
Components

Deletes all existing components before generating new ones.

Delete Obsolete
Components

Deletes any components that are no longer being used.

Index: Utilities

390

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates

B.4.2 Merge Models


The Merge Models utility merges together matching zone-based layers on adjacent
segments of a part that has been split up to allow for concurrent design. Before merging
the segments back together, the following requirements should be met:

Ensure Sequence, Step, and Drop-Off order is set in all segment models.
Ensure that layers that merge across segments are collinear at edge of the
segments.
Part segments should not overlap, or have a gap at the split lines.
Adjoining segments should all meet at the same split line.

It is recommended using Merge Model in an assembly that contains the part segment files
and the part that will contain the results of the merging.
You should create Result Boundary Features for the layers before using the Merge Model
utility. (This can reduce Merge Model running time.)

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Source Laminates

The laminates whose layers are to be merged.

Merged Laminate

Laminate that merged Layers will be created on.


NOTE: The appropriate Net Boundary and laminate surface
must be set up. The Net Boundary should be equivalent to
merging together the Laminate Net Boundaries from part
segments.

Merged Rosette

Rosette for the merged part. (The rosette must already exist
before Merge Models is run.)

Delete Existing Layers

Deletes layers that already exist in the merged part.

Index: Utilities

391

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates

B.4.3 Surface Transfer


The Surface Transfer utility transfers project layers or plies from one laminate to
another. This is useful when the initial design may have been done on an OML surface and
then needs to be transferred to the IML (or vice versa). This utility is also useful to
transfer layers from an under core surface to an over core surface.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Source Laminate

Laminate that the layers or plies are being transferred from.

Source Rosette

Specify the source rosette.

Target Laminate

Laminate that layers or plies are being transferred to.

Target Rosette

The rosette for the part that will contain the transferred layers or
plies.

Options (pop-up menu)


Transfer Method

Specifies the method when transferring layers or plies:

Direction uses the surface normal from the From Laminate


and pushes the layers/plies over to the new surface.
Offset-Projection first offsets all Layers/Plies into 3D space
based on the surface normal of the From Laminate, then uses
the surface normal of To Laminate to pull Layers/Plies over to
the new surface.

Object Type

Specifies whether Fibersim will transfer Layers or Plies.

Reverse Step
Values

When you have designed on the OML, and need to transfer to the
IML, it is often necessary to invert Step values. This option inverts
Step values when transferring layers or plies to the new laminate.

Delete Existing
Component

Deletes all existing layers/components before generating new ones.

Index: Utilities

392

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates

Delete Obsolete
Components

Deletes any layers/components that are no longer being used.

Collinear Angle

Angle that determines when Fibersim will consider two adjoining line
segments collinear. When encountering two line segments that have
a collinear angle equal to or less than this value, Fibersim considers
the segments collinear.
In most cases, default of 5 degrees is sufficient. Values are 0 15.

Index: Utilities

393

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates

B.4.4 Manufacturing Laminate Creation


The Manufacturing Laminate Creation utility lets you create a manufacturing dataset
(a child) from an engineering dataset (the parent). The parent is then linked to the
child dataset and can be updated as necessary.
NOTE: If parent datasets change, rerun this utility, and Fibersim will update the
children.
Ply data will transfer to the new laminate so that a new simulation can be run.

MEMBER
Engineering Laminate

DESCRIPTION
The engineering (or original) laminate that will provide the
data for the new laminate.
NOTE: Child laminates are not carried over.

Engineering Rosette

The rosette for the engineering laminate data.

Manufacturing
Laminate

The manufacturing (or destination) laminate. (The laminate


must already exist.)

Manufacturing Rosette

The rosette for manufacturing laminate data. (Rosette must


already exist.)

Options pop-up menu


Type

The component type at which to stop, either Layer or Ply.

Delete Existing
Components

Fibersim will delete all child components and create new


ones.
NOTE: No updates are run on the child dataset.

Index: Utilities

394

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates

Delete Obsolete
Components

When a change to the parent dataset involves deleting a


component, you will most likely want the same component
deleted in the child. This option ensures this happens.

Last Component - Controls the last component used for Manufacturing Laminate
Creation. The Manufacturing Laminate will be created up to the selected layer or ply.
Last Layer

Provides access to the layer list.

Last Ply

Provides access to the ply list.

Index: Utilities

395

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates

Springback Tab
These options let you specify the new manufacturing laminate. Ply data will transfer to the
new laminate so that a new simulation can be run.
SPECIAL NOTE: When running with Springback, the Manufacturing Laminate created
must not have a net or extended boundary. It must be physically larger than the
engineering laminate. If the Manufacturing Laminate has a net or extended boundary
defined, Fibersim will generate these automatically upon running the utility.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Engineering
Simulation Boundary

Boundary for the simulation to map to the springback


Laminate. Should be larger than the Net Boundary, to ensure
transfer of boundaries to the springback laminate.

Springback
Simulation Boundary

Boundary for the simulation, to map from the engineering


laminate. Should be larger than the Net Boundary, to ensure
the simulation can transfer boundaries from the engineering
laminate.

Fiber Spacing factor

Accepts a value 0.01 10. Controls mapping simulation cell


size. Default value is 1.

Propagation Method

Choose the propagation method. Either Standard, Geodesic,


To Curve or About Curve.

Constraint Curve

Curve used as a constraint, for the To Curve or About Curve


propagation methods.

Index: Utilities

396

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates

Propagation Direction

Choose a Propagation Direction, either Parallel, Bias (-45),


Bias (+45) or Orthogonal.

First Stage Region

Select a boundary curve, to define the first region in which the


Multi-Stage simulation will run.

Index: Utilities

397

B.4 Tools > Derivative Laminates

B.4.5 2D Laminate Creation


This utility allows you to create a 2D representation of the 3D laminate, by flattening the
3D laminate data to a 2D laminate. The 2D laminate makes the generation of laser
projection data much easier.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

3D Laminate

The original 3D laminate, provides data for the new laminate.

3D Rosette

Specifies the reference rosette for the 3D Laminate.

3D Simulation
Boundary

Simulation boundary of the 3D Laminate. Should select a


slightly bigger boundary than the laminate Net Boundary.

2D Laminate

The new 2D Laminate, receives information from the 3D


Laminate.
NOTE: This laminate must be already created.

2D Rosette

Specifies the reference rosette for the 2D Laminate

Options (pop-up menu)


Delete Existing
Components

Fibersim deletes all child components and creates new ones.

Delete Obsolete
Components

When a change to the parent dataset involves deleting a


component, you will most likely want the same component
deleted in the child. This option ensures this happens.

Use Plies Flat


Patterns

Use existing flat patterns as boundaries of the 2D plies.

Index: Utilities

NOTE: No updates are run on the child dataset.

398

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation


This section includes a list of individual utilities for manipulating curves.

Fiber Path Curve Creation


Curve Creation
IML Curve Creation
Boundary Simplification
Curve Offset

B.5.1 Fiber Path Curve Creation


The Fiber Path Curve Creation utility lets you create curves after receiving producibility
results. Red lines in the model will show fiber deviations that are out of spec. This utility
lets you make geometry to contain the deviations.
These created curves can then be added to a parts Net Boundary.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Specifies the parent laminate.


NOTE: For a top-level laminate, all child components are
eligible for Fiber Path Curve Creation. For child laminates,
only its own children are eligible.

Ply

Specify the ply, to show its producibility.

Update Ply
Producibility

Updates the selected ply producibility.

Fiber Path Position

Specifies the fiber path along which a new curve will be


created.
Once producibility has been run on the selected ply, indicate
a point beside the desired fiber path.

Generate

Index: Utilities

Generates the curve along the selected fiber path.

399

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation

B.5.2 Curve Creation


The Curve Creation utility creates curves and boundary geometry based on user-input
points. Select or indicate points on a desired surface, and Fibersim will fit a curve through
these points.
This utility is handy when you need to quickly create a curve, perhaps to add a virtual core
on top of a ply.
Curves can then be used for boundaries, section cuts, or any other purpose that
necessitates curve creation.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Surface

Surface on which the curve lies.

Points to Connect

Points used to create the resulting curve. Points can be selected


or indicated.
NOTE: The order that points are selected/indicated determines
the order in which Fibersim fits a curve through the points.

Close Curve

Whether Fibersim will close the curve or leave the curve openended.

Generate

Generates the curve on the surface, from the selected points.

Index: Utilities

400

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation

B.5.3 IML Curve Creation


The IML Curve Creation utility creates a set of boundary curves (IML curves), based on
the laminate thickness at each layer boundary in the part.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Select a parent laminate.

Status

Whether the IML curve is out of date.

Boundary Type

IML Curves are created based on Net or Extended Boundaries.

Laminate Surface
Component Type

Select the component type for the laminate surface, either


Layers, Plies, or Layers & Plies.

Layers

The layers to use to generate IML Curves.


NOTE: When Laminate Surface Component Type is set to
Layer or Layer & Ply.

Plies

Plies used to generate IML Curves.


NOTE: When Laminate Surface Component Type is set to
Layer or Layer & Ply.

Options (pop-up menu)


Internal Boundary
Curves Only

Whether Fibersim will create closed curves for each IML curve
(No), or an open curve that breaks against the Net/Extended
boundary (Yes).

Remove Minimum
Course Vertices

Remove minimum course vertices from the layer boundary.

Index: Utilities

401

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation

B.5.4 Boundary Simplification


The Boundary Simplification utility creates CAD geometry from component and zone
boundaries. This helps create organized curves from each components definition. Curves
can be closed curves, or curves that break to the laminate boundary.
NOTE: It is recommended using curves that break against the laminate boundary. This
utility lets you associate created geometry back to Fibersim objects.
NOTE: Fibersim-generated curves will be overridden by curves created from this utility.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
Specifies the parent laminate.
NOTE: For a top-level laminate, all child components are eligible
for Boundary Simplification. For a child laminate, only its own
children are eligible.

Components

List of components to be exported. Displayed components are


determined by selection of a parent laminate.

Zones

List of eligible zones. Zones are determined by the parent


laminate.

Layers

Layers to be exported.

Index: Utilities

402

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation

Component
Boundary Type

Determines boundary type generated by this utility:

Net curves based on Net boundary.


Extended curves based on Extended boundary.
Net & Extended curves based on Net & Extended
boundaries.

Options (pop-up menu)


Associate
Geometry

Whether Fibersim will associate the created curves back to


Fibersim components.
NOTE: Use caution before associating this data back to objects. If
original curves are parametrically defined to handle updates, this
behavior is lost if these curves associate back to Fibersim.

Internal Boundary
Curves Only

Whether Fibersim will create closed curves, or curves that break


against the Laminates Net/Extended boundary.
NOTE: If curves will define plies/layers, it is recommended to set
this to Yes. We do not recommend using closed curves for ply/
layer definitions, unless plies/layers are multi-domain.

Match Existing
Curves

Yes means that Fibersim tries to create the boundary curves


based on pre-existing curves in a model.

Non-Tangency
Angle

Curve non-tangencies with an angle equal to or greater than the


specified angle will be maintained in the result curve.

Index: Utilities

Lower the angle if the desired non-tangencies are being


smoothed out.
Increase the angle if the result curve becomes too facetted.

403

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation

B.5.5 Curve Offset


In composite design, often times a series of similar curves need to be generated at a
constant distance, or offset, away from each other. Most common cases are where a padup of plies are located on a part, or where a zone-to-zone thickness transition requires a
smooth drop-off of plies.
Since these pad-ups and thickness transitions may require the creation of many curves
over complex surfaces, it can be time-consuming and problematic. The Curve Offset
utility quickly generates 3D offset curves on the laminate surface, with a base curve input
and offset rules.
There are two types of curve generations available:

Constant Offset type generates curves at a constant distance in all directions


away from the base curve.

Directional Offset type is used when a different offset distance is desired in the
0 and 90 directions, relative to a selected rosette.

RO SETTE

C o n s ta n t O ffs e t

D ir e c tio n a l O ff s e t

Constant Offset vs. Directional Offset

Index: Utilities

404

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation

Constant Offset Tab

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Curves to Offset

The base curve(s) from which offset curves are created. Selected
curves must be chainable, with respect to each other and on the
surface.

Direction Point

Determines the direction when the offset curves are created:

For a point on the inside of the base curve, curves


generate inward.
For a curve on the outside of the base curve, curves
generate outward.

Number of Curves

Specifies the desired number of offset curves.

Surface

Surface on which the offset curves are to be generated.

Boundary Curves

Curves on the surface, that define the bounds of the offset


generation. Generated curves will be trimmed to the boundary
curves.
Curves must be closed and chainable with respect to each other,
and on the surface.

Index: Utilities

405

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation

Offest Value Based


On

Determines what the offset distance is based on:


Distance distance the curves are offset, in model units.
Material Thickness value is based on multiplying thickness
of the chosen material by the Offset Value. You must specify a
Material.

Offset Value

Specifies distance or value between generated curves.


NOTE: Used when Offset Value Based On is set to Distance.

Material

Material (from database) to determine the offset distance of the


curves.
NOTE: When Offset Value Based On is set to Material
Thickness.

Multiple of
Thickness

The distance or value between the generated curves. The


distance is the result of multiplying the cured thickness of the
chosen material and the value entered here.
NOTE: When Offset Value Based On is set to Material
Thickness.

Corner Type

Determines the corner type to apply to generated curves. Either


Straight, Chamfer or Fillet. Arrows indicate the direction that
the offset curves were created in.
Note how Fibersim only applies chamfers or fillets to inside
corners. Fillet radius and chamfer distance is determined by, and
varies by, the offset distance.
Chamfer angle is always set to 45.

Straight

Offset Value

Cham fer

Fillet

Specifies distance or value between generated curves.


NOTE: Used when Offset Value Based On is set to Distance.

Output Curve Type

Index: Utilities

Create the output curves as either a construction output curve,


or a result output curve.

406

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation

Directional Offset Tab


Directional Offsets are used when a different offset distance is desired in the 0 and 90
directions relative to a selected rosette.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Curves to Offset

Base curve or curves from which the offset curves are to be


created. Curves must be chainable with respect to each other, and
on the surface.

Direction Point

Determines the direction for the offset curves. For a point on the
inside of the base curve, curves generate inward. For a curve on
the outside, curves generate outward.

Number of
Curves

Desired number of offset curves.

Rosette

At generation of offset curves, the offset direction of a given part


is compared to the rosettes 0 and 90 directions.
If the offset direction is closer to the 0 direction, the 0 Offset
Value offsets that part of the curve. If closer to the 90 direction,
the 90 Offset Value is used.

Surface

The surface on which the offset curves are to be generated.

Boundary Curves

Curves on the surface, which define bounds of the offset


generation. Curves are trimmed to boundary curves, and must be
closed and chainable.

Index: Utilities

407

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation

Non-Tangency
Angle

Whether adjoining curves are treated individually or as one curve.


Wherever a non-tangency is present, curves that chain at that
non-tangency are treated as individual curves. Each curve is
treated separately, when Fibersim determines to use the 0 degree
or the 90 degree offset value.
When the curves chain together and a non-tangency is not
present, curves are treated as a whole when determining the
offset value, so all curves are offset the same amount.
The image below shows how the non-tangency angle determines
the varying distance of the resultant offset curves. (Values
between 30 and 60 degrees are recommended.) If the nontangency between adjoining curves is greater than 60, then curves
should be offset individually.

Offset Value Based On - Distance


Offset Value
Based On

Determines whether offset value is based on:

(0 Degree) Offset
Value

Distance distance the curves are offset in model units.


Material Thickness curve offset distance is based on
multiplying the chosen material thickness by this value. You
must specify a Material.

Distance or value between generated curves, in 0 degree


direction.
NOTE: When Offset Value Based On is set to Distance.

(90 Degree)
Offset Value

Distance or value between the generated curves, in 90 degree


direction.
NOTE: When Offset Value Based On is set to Distance.

Offset Value Based On - Material Thickness


Material

Material (from database) to determine the offset distance of the


curves.
NOTE: When Offset Value Based On is set to Material
Thickness.

(0 Degree)
Multiple of
Thickness

Distance or value between generated curves in the 90 degree


direction. Distance is the result of multiplying the cured thickness
of the material, and this value.
NOTE: When Offset Value Based On is set to Material
Thickness.

(90 Degree)
Multiple of
Thickness

Index: Utilities

Distance or value between generated curves, in 0 degree


direction.
NOTE: When Offset Value Based On is set to Material
Thickness.

408

B.5 Tools > Curve Creation

The non-tangency between the input curves is 55. If you specify a 60 non-tangent angle,
all curves will be treated as one entity and no directionality will be applied to the offset.
But, if you specify a 50 non-tangent angle, curves will be treated as separate entities and
a directional offset will be performed.
ROSETTE

55 non-tangency

125

Result if a 60 non-tangency
angle is specified

125

Result if a 50 non-tangency
angle is specified

How Non-Tangency Angle Affects Directional Offset

Index: Utilities

409

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation


This section includes utilities used to create and manipulate surfaces and solids.

Parametric Surface Offset


Constant Surface Offset
Explicit Surface Offset
Ply-Based Explicit Surface Offset
Section-Based Surface Offset
Parameter Thickness Location
Zone-Based Solid
Stepped Solid

B.6.1 Parametric Surface Offset


The parametric surface offset behaves in a similar manner to the explicit surface offset,
with the exception being how the data is output in the CAD system.
The parametric surface offset uses a constant region curve generated by Fibersim to drive
a surface split and offset in the CAD system. This provides you with a fall back approach if
Fibersim generates an undesirable constant region. The data structure for the parametric
surface offset allows you to override the surface split with a modified curve, which will
then update the offset surface parametrically in the CAD system.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The parent laminate to offset.

Status

Whether the surface feature is out of date.

Index: Utilities

410

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

Boundary Type

Specifies whether the Surface Offset will be generated based on


Net boundaries or Extended boundaries.

Update Method
Sets the strategy for
replacing geometry
when a PSO is re-run:

The options are:

Replace Surfaces - Regenerates all geometry, replaces


the result surfaces, and deletes the old wireframe (current
default)
No Replace - Regenerates all geometry, while replacing
none

SPECIAL NOTE (NX): On the NX CAD platform, there will not


be any support for replacing surfaces. As such, when using NX,
this field will be set as read-only, and automatically set to "No
Replace". Please note that ramps will not replace. Each time you
run a PSO or a PSO with ramps in NX, the old result will be
deleted and a new result is created.
When using CATIA v5, Fibersim will support the replacing of
surfaces.
Ramp Generation
Check this option to ensure that the PSO ramps get created when the PSO utility is run.
Invert RAMP
Sections and Guides

When the PSO ramps are created, checking this option will invert
the locations of the sections and guides on the ramp loft
surfaces.

Invert RAIL
Sections and Guides

When the PSO utility is run, checking this option will invert the
locations of the sections and guides on the rail swept offset
curves.

Create Solid to Net

When generating results, this option lets you generate a solid


(not just an IML) from the composite model. You can generate a
solid feature trimmed to the net boundary after the PSO surface
is generated. When this option is checked, the boundary type is
set to "Extended" and made read-only.

If the PSO surface fails to complete or has gaps between


the constant regions and ramps, Fibersim stops and
generates an error message. Users will have to fix the
surface and manually create the solid.

If this option to is checked when the PSO object already


has an up-to-date PSO surface object, a solid feature will
be created off the existing surfaces. It will not re-run PSO
surface generation.

Options (pop-up menu)


Last Component

Index: Utilities

The last component in the laminate to offset. Fibersim generates


explicit results up to this last component.

411

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

Crossing Layers

Sometimes layers that are made up of the same zones and zone
transitions cross one another. This option enables Fibersim to
handle this condition.

Minus-One Offset

Trims back constant gage surfaces, by one offset distance.

Joined Surface

Generates a joined surface.

Overwrite Thickness
Value

This option ensures that thickness values will be overwritten


when Generate is pressed.

Index: Utilities

412

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

B.6.2 Constant Surface Offset


This utility allows you to offset a region or an entire laminate surface by a specified
amount. This is useful for offsetting constant thickness areas of a composite part that can
then be sewn together into a continuous surface. You can offset the desired region by the
distance reported by a Fibersim core sample.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The laminate to offset.

Status

Whether the surface feature is out of date.

Create Surface
Boundary

Whether or not to create an offset surface boundary.

Boundary Type

Specifies whether the Constant Surface Offset will be generated


based on Net Boundaries or Extended Boundaries.

Region Type

The type of region to generate the Constant Surface Offset.

Surface a Region Surface surface. Default uses the


laminate surface.
Curves a Region Boundary Curve. Default is the laminate
boundary.

Index: Utilities

413

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

Region Surface

The region surface for the Constant Surface Offset. Default uses
the laminate surface.
NOTE: When this is smaller than the surface, Fibersim only
offsets data for the chosen region.

Region Boundary
Curves

Region boundary curves for the Constant Surface Offset. Default


is the laminate boundary.
NOTE: When curves are smaller than the boundary, Fibersim
only offsets data for the chosen region.

Offset Thickness
Based On

Specifies whether the Offset Thickness is based on:

Offset Thickness

Specifies the Offset Thickness.

Design Station

Specifies the Design Station to obtain a laminate thickness. This


thickness is the distance that Fibersim offsets the Constant
Surface.

Generate

Whether Fibersim will output a Surface or Solid.

Index: Utilities

Value enter a value in Offset Thickness


Core Sample select a Design Station

414

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

Options (pop-up menu)

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Material Thickness
Type

Specifies whether the Constant Surface Offset will be generated


based on the Cured or Nominal material thickness.

Cured create based on Cured material thickness


values.
Nominal create based on Nominal or uncured
material thickness.

NOTE: When Offset Thickness Based On is set to Core


Sample.
Result Type

Whether Fibersim will output a Surface or Solid.

Allowance Type

Whether Thickness Variation Allowance will be based on:

Absolute
Allowance Value

Absolute input an Absolute Allowance Value


Percentage input a Relative Allowance Value

Absolute allowance thickness added to the Constant Surface


Offset.
NOTE: When Allowance Type is set to Absolute.

Relative
Allowance Value

Specifies the percentage of the Offset Thickness.


NOTE: When Allowance Type is set to Percentage.

Heal Offset

Index: Utilities

When enabled, Fibersim attempts to heal surface gaps that


result from offsetting.

415

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

B.6.3 Explicit Surface Offset


The Explicit Surface Offset utility creates an offset for each constant thickness area of a
composite part. The constant thickness areas generated by this function are offset to the
correct thickness based on all layers.
Using the generated constant thickness regions, you can then model the ramp areas as
desired. Once the ramp areas are modeled and filleted, the result is a very accurate and
small data size IML surface. Since this utility replicates the surface topology of the parent
laminate, the surface quality of the Explicit Offset is sufficient for tooling purposes.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

The laminate used for the Explicit Surface Offset. Choose more
than one, as long as laminates are parented to each other.

Status

The status of the Explicit Offset surface.

Boundary Type

Explicit Offset results will be generated based on:

Index: Utilities

Net Boundaries
Extended Boundaries

416

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

Ramp Generation
These options allow you to create ramps, as well as select the type of ramp geometry to
use in creation.
Ramp Geometry
Type

Constant Gage
Boundaries

These options are active when Ramp Generation is checked.


Select the option to use for ramp geometry construction:

Rule Surface Ruled surfaces work well for parts that


don't need a high level of accuracy for layer or core ramps.

Free Form Free Form ramps use underlying surface


topology of the parent surface when constructing ramp
surfaces. (More accurate in regards to the true ramp
shape.)

Creates constant gage construction boundaries, on the laminate


surface.

Options (pop-up menu)


Last Component

The last component in the laminate to offset. Fibersim generates


explicit results up to this last component.

Offset Region

Select a region for outputting Explicit Surface results. Curves


must form a closed loop.
NOTE: Fibersim only outputs results for the defined region.

Joined Surface

Generates a joined surface.

Break Boundary at
Curvature
Discontinuities

When this option is enabled, Fibersim will segment the constant


gage boundary curves at locations where the curvature is
discontinuous.

Crossing Layers

Sometimes layers that are made up of the same zones and zone
transitions cross one another. This option enables Fibersim to
handle this condition.

Minus-One Offset

Trims back constant gage surfaces, by one offset distance.

Heal Offset

When enabled, Fibersim attempts to heal surface gaps that result


from offsetting.

Constant Gage Boundaries (pop-up menu)


Internal Curves
Only

This option means that only curves will be generated that are not
shared by the Net/Extended boundary.

Minus-One Offset

This option trims back constant gage surfaces, by one offset


distance.

Error Checker

Checks for any potential layer problems. (Results display in the


Report tab.)

Index: Utilities

417

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

B.6.4 Ply-Based Explicit Surface Offset


This utility allows you to generate explicit surface results for ply based designs. You
identify the constant thickness areas using digitized points or Design Stations, and then
Fibersim uses ply data to calculate the proper offset thickness.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Laminate for the offset. You can select more than one laminate as
long as they are parented to each other.

Status

Whether ply-based explicit surface object is up to date or not.

Boundary Type

Whether the Ply-Based Explicit Offset is generated based on Net


or Extended boundaries.

Constant Area
Constant Gage
Origins

Select or indicate origin points to represent the location of each


constant gage region.

Design Stations

Select design stations that represent where the constant regions


are.

Toggle Ply
Display

Toggles on and off the display of all ply boundaries.

Options (pop-up menu)


Last Component

Index: Utilities

Specify the last component.

418

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

Region Boundary
Curves

Select a region for outputting Explicit Surface results. Curves must


form a closed loop.
NOTE: Fibersim only outputs results for the defined region.

Constant Gage
Boundaries

Outputs a boundary curve for each constant gage surface.


Fibersim will output a point at each non-tangency in the constant
gage surface and boundary curves split at each of these nontangencies.

Joined Surface

Generates the joined surface.

Heal Offset

When this is enabled, Fibersim attempts to heal surface gaps that


result from offsetting.

Index: Utilities

419

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

B.6.5 Section-Based Surface Offset


Ply-based parts with crossing boundaries can have complex IML surfaces. It is important
to have accurate IMLs, for mating regions. This utility allows you to create smooth IML
section curves, through which you can loft the offset surface.
Note also that relative surface accuracy can be controlled by the number/position of the
section curves, as well as the spacing of control points. To use this utility:
1. Define section curves on the laminate surface to be projected into 3D space.
Fibersim creates IML curves from the section curves.
2. The CAD system is used to loft a surface through the offset sections.
3. Specify the number of points per section curve and the distance between
points.
You can find this utility here: Tools > Surface/Solid Creation > Section-based
Surface Offset.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

Parent laminate for the offset.

Last Component

Specify the last component.

Section Curves

Select the curves, to create smooth IML section curves, through


which you can loft the offset surface.

Index: Utilities

420

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

Curve Point Spacing Points per Curve


This option forces each section curve to use the same number of points (i.e. a short curve
will have a tighter spacing than a long curve).
Number of Points

Specify the number of offset points, for the creation of IML


surfaces.

Curve Point Spacing Fixed Distance


Distance Between
Points

Index: Utilities

Defines the spacing of points along each section curve, to control


the density (and the accuracy) of the IML curves.

421

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

B.6.6 Parameter Thickness Location


This object lets you produce a CAD thickness parameter via a Design Station. This
parameter represents the constant thickness areas, and can be used to drive the surface
offset distance. This parameter can also be added to the CATIA spec tree.
Each Parameter Thickness Location object manages the parameter link for each Design
Station/Zone location.
NOTE: When a Design Station is updated, the parameters also update.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Laminate

References the parent laminate.

Design Station

The design station or zone providing the thickness at this


location.

Start Component

Specify starting component for limiting design station results.

End Component

Specify ending component for limiting design station results.

Excluded
Components

The components selected here will be excluded from the


thickness calculation, at this location.

Thickness

The thickness value, at this location.

Generate...

Generates or updates the thickness parameter.

Status

Thickness parameter is out-of-date or up-to-date.

Use Components on
Selected Laminate
Only

When enabled, Fibersim will ignore the laminate hierarchy, and


only use components from the selected laminate.

Index: Utilities

422

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

B.6.7 Zone Based Solid


The Zone Based Solid utility allows you to create a solid based on composite data
entered for zone definitions. Zone boundaries and laminate specification data are used to
create the Zone Based Solid.

MEMBER
Laminate

DESCRIPTION
Specifies the laminate that the Zone Based Solid is based on.
NOTE: Child laminates are not automatically inherited for this
utility.

Match Zone
Boundary Curves

Uses the existing CAD curves that represent the zones, when
splitting the laminate surface and creating the solid.

Unselected = Fibersim tessellates the Zone curves and


uses the tessellated geometry for splitting the Laminate
surface and creating the solid.
Selected = Fibersim uses the existing CAD curves to split
the Laminate surface and create the solid.
NOTE: Use only if default behavior fails to create the desired
solid.
Generate
Status

Index: Utilities

Generates the solid.


Provides a status for the zone-based solid. Fibersim displays Up
to Date if the solid is current per the zone definitions.

423

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

B.6.8 Stepped Solid


Based on a ply-based explicit, Fibersim lets you generate a step solid for plies (a unioned
solid of the ply stack up). This solid will reflect ply build ups and approximate ramp areas.
This provides insight into geometric problem areas, during composite layup.
The new utility is here: Tools > Surface/Solid Creation > Stepped Solid
1. Once you have a ply stack-up (with or without core), create a new Stepped Solid object.
2. Select a Laminate, boundary type, and a last component, if it is applicable.
3. Click Generate Solid.

MEMBER
Laminate
Status

DESCRIPTION
Select the parent laminate.
Indicates whether the solid feature is up-to-date or out-of-date.

Boundary Type

Select either a Net or Extended boundary type for the offset.

Last Component

Specify the last component in the laminate, to include in the


solid.

Match Existing
Curve

Index: Utilities

Check this option, and solid construction curves will be created


by matching existing boundary curves.

424

B.6 Tools > Surface/Solid Creation

Index: Utilities

425

Index: Tools > Options >


Fibersim Options

C.1 Introduction
These options let you set options that will apply to Fibersim globally. Access these
members by clicking on Tools > Options > Fibersim Options.

Index C: Tools > Options > Fibersim Options

426

C.2 Display Colors

C.2 Display Colors


These options turn highlighting on and off, only when an object is in list view (not when an
object is in edit mode).
During edits, highlighting is context sensitive and is always on. Only the Net Geometry
and Extended Geometry views will show/highlight results like the producibility and flat
patterns. The other views will show object definitions (i.e. boundaries, origins), but no
results will be displayed.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Display Colors
Use Material/
Orientation Color

Use the specified color, line type or line thickness indicated in the
material database for Core, Core Layer, Layers & Plies.

Failed Boundary
Color

This color will highlight failed boundaries.

Failed Boundary
Endpoint Color

This color will display the endpoints of failed boundaries in a


layer.

First Stage Region


Color

This color will highlight first stage regions.

Region Highlight
Color

Controls highlighting color for regions.

Index C: Tools > Options > Fibersim Options

427

C.3 Naming Conventions

C.3 Naming Conventions


Components
The behavior of the Splice Group functionality for naming conventions works as follows:
After reaching the final letter (Z), the convention is now that the next series of splices
will be AA, AB, AC, etc. So, if the first 26 splice plies are named (A thru Z) then the 27th
would be named as AA, AB, and so on.
You can set the Name Spliced Plies Alphabetically option to set this condition.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Name Spliced
Plies
Alphabetically

When enabled, Fibersim will follow the AA, AB, AC, naming
convention after the A-Z indexes are used up.

Disallowed
Characters

Enter characters that should not be used when naming Fibersim


objects.

Apply Naming
Conventions to

The "Disallowed Characters" will be applied to the objects here.

Index C: Tools > Options > Fibersim Options

428

C.3 Naming Conventions

Geometry
This feature allows for geometries to be named after their parent. Previous behavior
meant that CATIA-created geometry could be created as a series of un-named items in a
geometry set.
When the Name geometry after parent feature option is enabled, geometry is named
after the geometry set.
Example: If the geometry set is called "P001_Boundary", the geometry in that set is
named "P001_Boundary.1", "P001_Boundary.2", etc. This allows you to search for and
find the geometry by name.
NOTE: This option was previously only available on NX. Remember that in NX there are
groups instead of geometry sets.
NOTE: No renaming takes place when you create a geometry set feature for an already
existing group.

Index C: Tools > Options > Fibersim Options

429

C.4 Zone Text Display

C.4 Zone Text Display


These options turn highlighting on and off, only when an object is in list view (not when an
object is in edit mode).

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Zone Text Display


Zone Name

Display the zone name, once the zone is highlighted.

Zone Actual
Thickness

Display the zones actual thickness value, once the zone is


highlighted.

Zone Actual Ply


Count

Display the zones actual ply count, once the zone is highlighted.

Zone Laminate
Specification

Display the zones laminate specification, once the zone is


highlighted.

Text Separator

Text separator character.

Index C: Tools > Options > Fibersim Options

430

C.5 Flat Pattern Placement Options

C.5 Flat Pattern Placement Options


These options let you choose the location and orientation of Fibersim-generated flat
patterns. Fibersim will orient the plys fiber direction on the placement plane based on the
Orientation field, under the Net/Extended Placement Parameters.
Fibersim will also match up the flat pattern origin and the placement plane origin. As a
result, flat pattern origins will be placed at the placement plane origin, which are
characteristic of CAD system created planes.
How CAD systems define the origin of the planes varies for each CAD system. As long as
you provide valid input for the placement plane and orientation, Fibersim will always
correctly generate flat patterns on the selected planes, no matter how the flat patterns
look relative to the tool surface.
NOTE: Once flat patterns are generated you should not alter the placement plane. If it
is altered, be sure to regenerate flat patterns to ensure they are oriented correctly.

Flat Patterns Tab

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Net Placement - define a placement plane and orientation for Net flat patterns. If no
plane or orientation is chosen, Fibersim uses the models XY plane as the default placement
plane, and the X direction as the default orientation.
Plane

Defines the plane that the net flat patterns will be placed on. Choose a
geometric plane that is defined in the CAD system.

Index C: Tools > Options > Fibersim Options

431

C.5 Flat Pattern Placement Options

Orientation

Orientation of the Net flat patterns on the net placement plane.


If a plane is chosen for the orientation then the orientation direction
will be the line that is formed from the intersection of the placement
and orientation planes. Flat patterns will be oriented based on the
positive direction of the line formed from the intersection of the two
planes.
NOTE: Planes should not be parallel. They need to form an
intersection.

Extended Placement - define a placement plane and orientation for Extended flat
patterns. If no plane or orientation is chosen, Net Placement options are inherited.
Plane

Defines the plane that the extended flat patterns will be placed on.
Choose a geometric plane that is defined in the CAD system.

Orientation

Orientation of Extended flat patterns, on the extended placement


plane.
The orientation direction will be the line that is formed from the
intersection of the placement plane and the orientation plane. The flat
pattern will then be oriented based on the positive direction of the line
formed from the intersection of the two planes.
NOTE: Planes should not be parallel. They need to form an
intersection.

Orient Flat
Patterns By

Specifies whether flat patterns will be oriented by Fiber Direction or by


Zero-Degree Direction. (Default is the Fiber Direction option).

Fiber Direction - rotates the flat patterns based on orientation,


which ensures the flat patters will be cut correctly.

Zero-Degree Direction - orient all flat patterns in 2D as if they


were all zero degree plies. (Only used for visualization purposes,
and should not be used to generate flat patterns for automated
cutting systems.)

Index C: Tools > Options > Fibersim Options

432

C.5 Flat Pattern Placement Options

Tolerances Tab
Tessellation tolerances affect how Fibersim tessellates a 3D curve. In limited cases, these
tolerances may have to be adjusted in order for Fibersim to process a 3D curve in an
appropriate manner.

MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Tolerance Setting

Whether Fibersim will use Automatic (default values) or Usercustomized tessellation tolerances.
NOTE: It is recommended using Automatic. In limited cases
these tolerances may have to be adjusted for Fibersim to process a
3D curve in an appropriate manner.

Chord Tolerance

Defines the maximum allowable chord tolerance used by


Fibersims 3D curve tessellation. It defines the maximum distance,
in terms of the chord height of an arc that is acceptable when
tessellating non-straight parts of a 3D ply boundary.
Lowering the tolerance results in a finer tessellation of 3D curve
boundaries in non-straight sections. Increasing tolerances results
in a coarser tessellation of 3D curve boundaries in non-straight
sections. In general, the default value for is optimized for
Fibersim. In limited cases this tolerance may have to be adjusted
in order for Fibersim to process a 3D curve in an appropriate
manner.
The valid range of tolerance values is from 0.1524 14.986 mm or
0.006 - 0.59 inch. The default is 0.3 mm or .012 inch.

Index C: Tools > Options > Fibersim Options

433

C.5 Flat Pattern Placement Options

Coincidence
Tolerance

This tolerance is used as a basis for determining if geometric items


are touching one another or if points are identical. (The chord
tolerance is also based off this tolerance.) This is automatically
generated by Fibersim, but can be overridden.
This tolerance must be greater than or equal to the CAD model's
distance tolerance. Decreasing the tolerance will cause Fibersim to
generate more data to represent curves and/or surfaces.
Increasing the tolerance will cause Fibersim to generate less data
for curves and surface tessellations.
Note that a looser tolerance can be specified for parts that are
large and tighter tolerances for smaller parts.

Constant Gage
Overlap Tolerance
Factor

This value controls the tolerance that Fibersim uses when


computing constant gage regions for surface offset utilities. See
section b) below for details.

Curve Offset
Accuracy Factor

This value controls the tolerance that drives point density. See
section c) below for details.

Non-Tangency
Angle

Defines the maximum angle of a non-tangency in a 3D boundary


curve that will be preserved. Fibersim will not preserve a nontangency between two adjoining curve segments if the nontangency is below the specified non-tangency angle.
Conversely, Fibersim will preserve a non-tangency between two
adjoining curve segments if the non-tangency is above the
specified non-tangency angle. Valid range of non-tangency angles
is from 5 to 60 degrees. Default is 15 degrees.

Actual Tolerance

This is the computed value based on the Constant Gage Overlap


Tolerance Factor value.

Curve On Surface

This option allows you to turn Fibersims on surface validation


feature on and off. When enabled, Fibersim will check userselected boundary curves to validate whether or not they are on
the laminate surface. When disabled, Fibersim will not perform this
check.
SPECIAL NOTE: This option is not used when advanced curvature
mode is used.

Advanced Curvature
Mode

See sections a1) and a2) below for details.

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a1) Upgrade Curve Accuracy (Advanced Curvature Mode)


All new parts in Fibersim should be designed using advanced curvature mode, so this
option will be checked by default.
This upgrade feature allows you to upgrade the model to use the Fibersim curve accuracy.
It includes a design check that validates that all boundaries entered in Fibersim adhere to
the new tolerances. The check includes, laminates, plies, cores, core layers, layers, zones,
regions, cutouts, etc.
After running the check, Fibersim displays on the screen where there is a gap or overlap in
the current boundaries, when they are selected in the report.
Using the information in the report, you should fix any CAD curves that do not follow the
enhanced tolerances, and link them to Fibersim as needed.
SPECIAL NOTE: This feature means that the entire model will use the enhanced curve
accuracy. This is permanent.
After performing upgrades you must save the model, close it, and reopen it. The Design
Checker runs automatically to report any problems with existing boundaries.
Usability Notes: Pre-14 parts that have not been upgraded will continue working in
compatibility mode. But pre-14 parts will still have the option to be upgraded.

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a2) Benefits of ACEE Advanced Curvature Mode


Advanced curvature mode allows Fibersim to create high quality CAD curves that can then
be leveraged for subsequent behaviors. One of the largest advantages is the use of
advanced curvature mode with the Parametric Surface Offset utility. This utility creates
a high quality on surface curve and then leverages the CAD API's for splitting and
offsetting surfaces. This approach provides several benefits:

High quality constant region curves result in high quality surfaces that can be used
for undercore, overcore, sacrificial and IML surface creation.

Leveraging CAD API's for splitting and offsetting allows for the offsetting of complex
surfaces. For example, creating offsets of overcore surfaces to get the final IML
surface. Intermediate surfaces, such as overcore surfaces, tend to have
complicated topology due to core ramps and fillets. Using the CAD APIs provides a
robust way of offsetting these surfaces. If these offsets fail, there is generally a
fundamental problem with the surface that needs to be fixed. This approach also
makes it possible to offset stringer, beam and other substructure type surfaces,
which can be very challenging due to the complex topology.

Partial results still provide much benefit to the surface creation process. If a curve
generated by Fibersim is not well formed, you can override the curve and then
update the CAD split and offset operations. The generation of composite part
surfaces is a complicated process, so it is prudent to support partial results that
bring value to the process.

Advanced curvature mode also provides benefits to the general creation of CAD curve data
in all areas of Fibersim. The exception is any data created from plies. Plies use lower
accuracy representations so resulting CAD curves will not be as clean. Advanced curvature
benefits the following data when driven from these representations:

Constant gage boundaries for Parametric Surface Offset.


Result curve features for layers
IML curve generation for layers
Boundary Simplification for layers.
Derivative Laminate curve generation for layers

PLEASE NOTE: Explicit Surface Offset (ESO) does not fully use advance curvature
mode, so ESO results will not be of the high quality like the PSO. Parametric Surface
Offset was specifically developed to leverage advanced curvature mode.

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b) Constant Gauge Overlap Tolerance Factor


This value controls the tolerance that Fibersim uses when computing constant gage
regions for surface offset utilities.
The default will be adequate for most cases. In some cases, slivers may end up where
layers shapes are not positioned such that the plus-one of one layer matches the ramp of
another layer shape, as seen in the image below. In most cases this should be corrected
by proper transition positioning. When this is not possible, this factor can be increased.

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c) Curve Offset Accuracy Factor


This value controls the tolerance that drives point density. In most cases, the more points
that are used leads to more accurate curve representations. This factor should be reduced
if cases arise that need increased curve refinement.

If you increase the factor - In general, this will reduce the number of points used
for curve creation. This tends to decrease computation time for operations that offset
curves. But usually increasing the factor leads to a less accurate curve
representation. But for cases where the definition can be captured with a coarse
point representation this is not true.

If you decrease the factor - In general, this will increase the number of points
used for curve creation. This tends to increase computation time for operations that
offset curves. Usually decreasing the factor leads to a more accurate curve
representation. But for cases where the definition can be captured with a coarse
point representation, this is not true.

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Release Management Tab


Fibersim includes special Release Management functionality. This functionality helps
ensure that your data is locked when storing the model.
This is useful when you require a complete set of geometry to release the part. By locking
down the model, layer/ply boundary definitions become read only, and you can control
editing of the model.
In general, all objects that modify or create new components (i.e. laminates, plies, cores,
layers) or modify the composite part definition (i.e. modify or create flat patterns, surface
offsets) become read-only. Objects used for verification, documentation or export of the
composite part definition can still be modified or created.

Checking the Released Part option will generate features for objects that compute their
boundaries dynamically, and make read-only all the members of all objects that control
the definition of the composite part.
This helps to ensure that layer/ply boundary definitions become read only, and remain as
is, when Fibersim is upgraded.
NOTE: Upon unselecting this option, and un-releasing the part, Fibersim will make
members non-read-only as appropriate, and if the CAD geometry has changed since the
part was released, will also set the corresponding features, cross-sections, DSs, surface
offsets, etc. to out-of-date.

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MEMBER

DESCRIPTION

Released Part

Signifies that the layer\ply boundary definitions should be locked at


this time.
By checking Released Part, Fibersim will generate features for
objects that compute their boundaries dynamically, and make readonly all the members of all objects that control the definition of the
composite part.
Details of the released part will also be displayed in the Report.

Feature Angle
Tolerance

Angle tolerance to be used when generating features.

Release Notes

User-entered comments and notes.

Report

Fibersim will make members non-read-only as appropriate, and if


the CAD geometry has changed since the part was released, will
also set the corresponding features, cross-sections, DSs, surface
offsets, etc. out-of-date.

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