Part 3 Design of Structural
Elements
3.1 Columns
3.1.1 Assumptions
f 'C
Concrete (column):
Concrete (slab): f C =32 MPa , Ec =30100 MPa
Steel:
Lateral loads such as wind and earthquake were ignored.
The most critical interior column was 3D; the corresponding
column
=32 MPa , Ec =30100 MPa
'
slab
f sy =500 MPa , E s=200 GPa
exterior column was 3E.

The column size:
Steel reinforcement(column): 8N16 (3layers)
Stirrups: R10
Concrete cover(column): 40mm
To allow for creep resulting from sustained loading, flexural
stiffness is reduced by an empirical factor, d=0.7
400 mm 600 mm
3.1.2 Column Section Capacity
The column section capacity line diagram was developed in Excel
with different steel reinforcement ratios (Figure 31).
Sample Calculation Assume 8N16
a) Point A  Squash Load
d pc =
D 6 00
=
=3 00 mm(symmetric section)
2
2
2
A s 1= A s 3 =
A s 2=
16
3=603.5 mm2
4
1 62
2=402.3 mm2
4
A s = A s 1+ A s 2 + A s3 =603.5 2+402.3=1609.3 mm
total
A s 603.5 2+402.3
=
=0.0 0 670
bd
400 6 00
'
fC
column
=32 MPa
1=1.00.003 f 'c =1.00.003 32=0. 90 0.85
Therefore,
1=0.85
N uo= 1 f 'c A g + A s f y =(0.85 32 400 6 00+160 9.3 500) 103=7333 kN
M uo=0 kNm
b) Point B  Decompression Point ( k u =1 , d n=D )
d n=D=6 00 mm
=1.050.007 f 'c =1.050.007 32=0. 82
(0.67 0.85)
'
2=1.00.003 f c =1.00.003 32=0. 90 0.85
2=0.85
C c = 2 f 'c d n b=0.85 32 0. 82 6 00 400 103=5353 kN
dc=
d n 0. 82 600
=
=246 mm
2
2
c =0.003
s=0.0025
sc 1=
0.003(d n d 1) 0.003 ( 6 0058)
=
=0.002 71
dn
6 00
sc 1=0.002 71> sy=0.0025
sc 1=f sy =500 MPa
(Steel in layer 1 has already yielded)
(yield stress)
C sc1= sc 1 A s 1=500 603.5 103=30 2 kN
Forces developed in other layers (23) can be estimated similarly as
given below
Table 3.1 Forces at Decompression Point (B)
d pc =
dc=
D 6 00
=
=3 00 mm
2
2
d n 0. 82 6 00
=
=246 mm
2
2
N u=C c + C sc 1+ C sc2+ C sc 3=5353+30 2+12 1+ 53=5829 kN
M u=C c ( d pcd c ) + Csc 1 ( d pc d sc 1 ) +C sc 2 ( d pcd sc 2 ) C sc 3 ( d sc 3d pc )=[5353 (3 00246 ) +30 2 ( 3
c) Point C  Balanced Point ( k u =k ub=0 . 545 for 500MPa steel)
k ub=
d nb
=0 . 54 5
d0
d 0=6 004010
16
=5 42 mm
2
d nb =k ub d 0 =0.545 5 42=295.39mm
'
C c = 2 f c d n b=0.85 32 0.77 295.39 4 00 10 =2474.65 kN
dc=
d n 0. 82 295.39
=
=121.10 mm
2
2
c =0.003
s=0.0025
sc 1=
0.003(d n d 1) 0.003 ( 295.3958)
=
=0.002 41
dn
295.39
sc 1=0.002 41< sy =0.0025
(Steel in layer 1 has not yielded)
sc 1= sc 1 Es =0.002 41 200000=4 82.2 MPa
C sc 1= sc1 A s 1=4 82.2 603 103 =2 90.76 kN
Forces developed in other layers (23) can be estimated similarly as
given below
Table 3.2 Forces at Balanced Point ( point C)
d pc =
dc=
D 6 00
=
=3 00 mm
2
2
d n 0. 82 295.39
=
=121.10 mm
2
2
N u=C c + C sc 1+ T st 2+T st 3 =2474.65+290.763.76301.4=2460.25 kN
M u=C c ( d pcd c ) + Csc 1 ( d pc d sc 1 ) +T sc 2 ( d pcd st 2 ) +T sc3 ( d st 3d pc )=[2474.65 ( 30012 1.10 ) +29
d) Point D  Pure Bending
N u=0
dn was obtained using goal seek function in excel, by making Nu=0
Table 3.3 Forces at Pure Bending (Point D)
d n=22.36 mm
C c =201kN
C sc=301.4 kN
T st =20 1.0+301.4=502.4 kN
N u=C c + C sc 1+ T st 2+T st 3 =201+ 301.4201301.4=0 kN
M u=C c ( d pcd c ) + Csc 1 ( d pc d sc1 ) +T sc 2 ( d pcd st 2 ) +T sc3 ( d st 3d pc )=[201 ( 3 0022.36 ) +301.4
e) Summary
Table 3.4 Section Capacity of Column (8N16)
3.1.3 Design for One Interior Column (3D)
and One External Column (7D)
The column forces were obtained from ETABS.
Table 3.5 Column Forces for story 1
Story 1 (1.2G+1.5Q)
Axial Force (kN)
Moment (kNm)
Interior Column  3D
2056
27
Exterior Column 7D
1303
63
Step 1: Calculation of second moment of area for columns and slab
panel, I c and I b
I c =0.8 I g
I c =0.8
1
400 6 003=5760 10 6 mm 4
12
Lcolumn=3600mm
I b=0.4 I g
I b=0.4
1
3
6
4
3098 300 =2789 10 mm
12
Step 2: Calculation of effective length for columns

For interior column 3D (Grid D):
slab =4790 mm
L
Lslab =7600 mm
( L )c
( IL )
=1
for rigidly connected beams
5760 106
)
3600
c
2=
=
=3.3
6
6
I
2789 10 2789 10
(
)
L
+
4790
7600
b
( LI )
2(
1=1
For unbraced frame, Figure 10.5.3
k =1.5
Le =k Lu=1. 5 ( 36003 00 )=4950 mm
For exterior column 7D (Grid D):
slab =5875 mm
L
Lslab =0 mm
( L )c
( IL )
=1
2=
for rigidly connected beams
( LI )
( IL )
b
5760 106
)
3600
=6.74
6
2789 10
5875
2 (
=
1=1
For unbraced frame, Figure 10.5.3
k =1.75
Le =k Lu=1.75 ( 36003 00 )=5780 mm
Step 3: Calculation of slenderness ratio

For interior column 3D (Grid D):
r=0.3 D=0.3 6 00=1 8 0 mm
Le
495 0
=
=27.5>22
r
180
interior
Designed as a slender column.

For exterior column 7D (Grid D):
r=0.3 D=0.3 6 00=1 8 0 mm
Le
5780
=
=32.11> 22
r
1 80
exterior
Designed as a slender column.
Step 4: Calculation of the buckling loads
Try N16 bars for longitudinal bars and R10 for fitments. Also, the
required cover is taken as 40mm. To allow for creep resulting from
sustained loading, flexural stiffness is reduced by an empirical
factor, d=0.7
Table 3.6 Column Forces for story 1
Story 1 (1.2G+1.5Q)
Axial Force (kN)
Moment (kNm)
Interior Column  3D
2056
27
Exterior Column 7D
1303
63
Adopting,
=0.010048(8 N 16) .
M ub=369.5 kNm
d 0=6 004010

16
=5 42 mm
2
For interior column 3D (Grid D):
Le
=4950 mm
N c=
2 182 d0 M ub
(
)
1+ d
L2e
Nc
interior
interior
182 5 42 369.5 10
103=8636.3 .5 kN
2
1+0.7
4950
For exterior column 7D (Grid D):
Le
=5780 mm
Nc
exterior
exterior
2 1825 42 369.5 106
103=6334 kN
2
1+ 0.7
5780
Step 5: Determination of moment magnification factor for the
column
As it is an unbraced column, moment magnifier factor for braced
and unbraced column must be calculated. Moments are in opposite
direction therefore the sign convention must be used.
For braced condition
For interior column 3D (Grid D):
k m =0.60.4
b=
b=
M 1
27
=0.60.4
=1. 19 0.4
M 2
1 8.13
( )
km
1.0
N
1
Nc
1. 19
=1. 57 1.0
2056
1
8636.3
For exterior column 7D (Grid D):
M1
63
k m =0.60.4
=0.60.4
=1.41 0.4
M 2
31.07
( )
b=
b=
km
1.0
N
1
Nc
1.41
=1.775 1.0
1303
1
6334
For unbraced condition
1
s=
1
s=
1.5
Nc
1
=1. 28 1.5
1091+2231.32+3239.28+1452.01+2934.89+1303.87
1(
)
2 6334+5 8636.3
s=1. 28
=larger of ( b , s)
interior =larger of ( 1. 57 , 1.28 )=1.57
exterior =larger of ( 1.775 , 1.28 )=1.775
Step 6: Calculation of reinforcement requirement
For interior column 3D:
M max=1. 57 27=42.39 kNm
N =2056 kN
For exterior column 7D:
M max=1. 775 6 3=111.82kNm
N =1303 kN
Plot the above (M,N) in the section capacity line diagram
Figure 34 Design Moment vs Design Axial Load
The above (M,N) is below the line,
=0.010048(8 N 16)
A st =0.010048 400 6 00=2411.52 mm2