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Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1: Conceptual Background

1. 1. ST (Source Text) Analysis

1.2. Text-Typology

1.3. Parallel Corpora

Chapter 2 Translation Methods and Strategies

2.1. Types of Translation

2.2. Translation Methods and Procedures

2.2.1. Translation Methods

2.2.2. Translation Procedures

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Chapter 3: Applications

13

3.1. Unit 1

13

3.2. Unit 2

15

3.3. Unit 3

17

3.4. Unit 4

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3.5. Unit 5

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References

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Introduction
Introduction
Translation studies, a relatively young domain of research, has been
acknowledged as an academic discipline which concerns itself with analyzing
translation on different coordinates: Translation studies is now understood to refer
to the academic discipline concerned with the study of translation at large, including
literary and non-literary translation, various forms of oral interpreting, as well as
DUBBNG and SUBTITLING[]. Translation studies is also understood to cover
the whole spectrum of research and pedagogical activities, from developing
theoretical frameworks to conducting individual case studies to engaging in practical
matters such as training translators and developing criteria for translation
assessment. (Pym and Turk, 2005: 277).
Translation studies has also its contribution to sharing wide-world
knowledge: Evidence from literature shows a spectacular perspective on the concept
of translation, both synchronically and diachronically, translation theorization and
practicalities providing a generous frame of intercultural communication worldwide,
triggering dialogues between big and small countries as well.(Dima, 2012: 117).
A perfect interdiscipline, interfacing with a host of other fields (Hatim,
Munday, 2004: 169), translation studies has particularly contributed to the
development of intercultural communication through the most complex of all
linguistic acts, using its own methods, procedures, strategies and techniques, as Bell
states, we live in a changing world in which knowledge is expanding and
information transfer is vital; therefore translation has become of utmost
importance(1991: XVI), adapting frameworks and methodologies from other
disciplines. The phenomenon of translation, as Manfredi (2008) calls it, has
become crucial in a world rushing towards globalization. We should, therefore, say
that whether for expressive, informative, persuasive and pedagogical purposes,
communication nowadays relies heavily on translation.
An incursion into the translation studies lab will reveal both the interactive
desk where an array of concepts will help target-readers understand the way in which
translation as a product has been processed, and the translator as the agent of this
enterprise.

Chapter 1: Conceptual Background


The present chapter aims at presenting a selection of the most representative
key concepts used in translation studies. These will be illustrated in the chapter of
applications of the present course.
1. 1. ST (Source Text) Analysis
The Source Text (ST) is the input of any translation and bears the
characteristics of the Source Language (SL) system, being for the translator a
pattern to write as he supposes the author would have done, had he lived in our age
and in our country (Munday 2001:23).
ST analysis can be achieved along the following dichotomies:
a. Form /vs/ Content
The form of any ST is shaped along its sentential arrangement according to
the syntactic laws of the respective SL system. In English, word order is fixed, of the
type SVO, the subject occupying the first position within the hierarchy of the terms
gravitating around the Predicate: S>DO>IO, followed by adjuncts as non-terms.
Nevertheless, this word order is subject to modifications dictated by pragmatic and
rhetorical effects created by the speaker/writer of the message.
The content of any ST to be translated is centered around the types of the
contexts displaying the meaning and intentions of the message producer: local,
sentential, topical or global: Translation, on the other hand, is a dynamic process
which involves the manipulation of textual substance in one language to create
textual substance in another language. Part of the production process in translation
consists of matching units of meaning which arise in one culture with those of
another culture before finding their textually and situationally appropriate linguistic
expression. (Nkwenti-Azeh 2005: 251).
An important role is played by the lexical density of the text which can help
the translator find out the type and number of both content and function words, the
prominence of collocations etc. This can be done using, for example, the computer
tool, textalyser.net., keeping in mind the fact that the translator should be careful in
being as faithful as possible both to the form and the meaning of the original text.
(Croitoru 2007, Dima 2009).
b. Denotation /vs / Connotation
This dichotomy is central to the translation process, it decides on the ST type
and the methods and strategies of translating it.
The meaning of words is first and foremost defined through their denotation.
The concept of denotation is viewed in a larger sense as referring also to the
grammar of words, their forms and sentential order, subordination and grammatical
synonymy (Levichi, 1994: 47). Denotation comes first in a dictionary entry and it
helps the translator find both the literal meaning of the word and its frequency of
usage. Connotation comes second to denotation and it stands for the
emotional associations that words or expressions may carry, in addition to their
explicit or literal meaning. Understanding both denotation and connotation, the
translator can raise himself, so to say, beyond words and sentences, searching for the
true meaning in the originators message.
Denotation and connotation can be analyzed within lexical/semantic fields
which are precious instruments in finding instances of either appropriateness or
3

Introduction
inadvertencies between the SL and TL, or, to hint at non-equivalencies, in Ricoeurs
opinion: Not only are the semantic fields not superimposed on one another but the
syntaxes are not equivalent, the turns of phrase do not serve as a vehicle for the same
cultural legacies; and what is to be said about the half-silent connotations, which
alter the best- defined denotations of the original vocabulary, and which drift, as it
were, between the signs, the sentences, the sequences, whether short or long.
(Ricoeur, 2006: 6)
c. Core /vs/ Non-Core Words
The concept of coreness can contribute to the translators registerial choice
when recreating meaning in the TT. If the words in the ST have a high degree of
coreness, it would be easier for the translator to get equivalence. In contrast, a lower
degree of coreness would make the translators search for equivalent words more
difficult, the necessary step to take is to resort to the dictionary.
1.2. Text-Typology
According to Websters Third New International Dictionary the word
translation first entered the English vocabulary via Middle English translacioun,
coming from Middle French or Latin translation. In point of meaning, the dictionary
makes three derived distinctions from the more general meaning an act, process or
instance of translating:
a. a rendering from one language or representational system into another ~ is an
art that involves the re-creation of a work in another language for readers with a
different background (Malcolm Cowley); also: the product of such a rendering;
b. the removal, transfer, or conveyance from one place or condition to another;
c. a change or alteration to a different substance, form or appearance: transformation,
transmutation, conversion (1996: 2429).
Out of all these meanings we have selected the first one on purpose and
underline the connection with the text-type as being representational for a linguistic
system to be translated into a representational text-type belonging to another
linguistic system: According to Reiss (1977/1989) each text-type is identified by its
semantic, lexical, grammatical and stylistic features (see Nord 1996:84), which
influence the way a text is translated and also serve as a basis for translation
criticism. In the case of each text-type, these features reflect the primary function
which the text serves, and which, she argues, should be preserved in the translation
(as quoted in Dictionary 2014:56).
There have been given various classifications of text-types, but we have
chosen the one which has a strict connection with text-translation, as found in the
Dictionary of Translation Studies 2014. Thus, text-types could be expressive,
informative, operative and multi-medial.
Expressive texts comprise an aesthetic component, as the speaker/writer
exploits the expressive and associative possibilities of the language in order to
communicate his thoughts in an artistic, creative way (Reiss, 1977/1989:109, as
quoted in Dictionary 2014: 56). In Nords opinion, the translator should try to
produce an analogous aesthetic effect, as well as reproducing the semantic content of
the original (1996:83, as quoted in Dictionary 2014:56). Examples of expressive texttypes belong primarily to literary genres: poetry, novel, biography etc.
Operative texts are distinguished by their functionality reflected in the written
language. They include messages which have as a main purpose to persuade the
receiver to undertake a certain course of action, for instance, read a book, learn to
cook, buy a house, apply for a job etc. In operative texts both content and form are
subordinated to the extralinguistic effect which the text is designed to achieve (Nord
1996: 83, as quoted in Dictionary 2014: 117). In the same line of thought, Reiss
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considers that a translators main aim should be the production of a TT with an


equivalent persuasive force to that of the original and the same basic semantic
content, political manifestos, advertisements and sermons, being some examples of
operative texts (1977/1989:111, as quoted in Dictionary 2014: 117).
Informative texts have as a main aim to convey information, so a translator
should concentrate on establishing semantic equivalence ( Reiss & Vermeer
1984:157, as quoted in Dictionary 2014:79). Among this kind of texts, there are
included reference works, business letters, official documents and academic articles.
Multi-medial texts are characterized by the fact that the verbal content
overlaps with elements from other media, for instance, songs, comic strips, plays,
and writing for radio or television are all examples of this type [] and the translator
of such texts will need to ensure that the translation is equally suited as
the original for use in the relevant medium(Reiss 1977/1989:111, as quoted in
Dictionary 2014: 109).
The features of these texts are presented in the table below, synthesized in
Munday 2001:74).
Text types

Informative

Expressive

Language
function

Represent objects
and facts

Express senders
attitude

Operative
Make an
appeal to the
text receiver

Language
dimension

Logical

Aesthetic

Dialogic

Text focus

Content-focused

Form-focused

transmit referential
content
Plain prose,
explicitation as
required

transmit aesthetic
form
Identifying method,
adopt perspective of
the ST author

TT should
Translation
method

Appellativefocused
elicit desired
response
Adaptive
equivalent
effect

Table 1: Features of text-types identified by Reiss

1.3. Parallel Corpora


Parallel corpora represent a sound basis for the theory and practice of translation and
an effective means to emphasize the points of contrast between the syntactic and
semantic behavior of text-types in translation.
We have chosen as an illustration the linguistic material analyzed in Dima 2011,
a fragment from the short story Breakfast at Tiffanys by Truman Capote, text which
is of an expressive, including the description of the physical qualities of the major
character, Holly Golightly.
The parallel corpus delineated is described below:
a. The ST is an online variant of Breakfast at Tiffanys as mentioned in the Corpus
Sources.
b. The first Romanian version (TT1), entitled Sandviuri cu diamante belongs to
Catinca Ralea and was published in 1967 in the volume Harfa de iarb i alte
povestiri, Universal Literature Publishing House, Bucharest.

Introduction
c. The second Romanian version (TT2) has been translated as Mic dejun la Tifanny
by Constantin Popescu and is included in the volume Mic dejun la Tifanny i alte
povestiri, published in 2006, Universe Publishing House, Bucharest.
d. The two Romanian versions belong to different periods of time, fact which has
influenced the selection of vocabulary in both translations.
e. One Romanian variant has been translated by a female, the other by a male. We
aim at identifying the equivalents which make the difference.
f. We have presented the corpus by aligning the sentences in both Romanian versions
and the English text above.
ST Corpus: Truman Capotes Breakfast at Tiffanys
Sample Analysis 1
ST1:I went out into the hall and leaned over the banister, just enough to see without
being seen. She was still on the stairs, now she reached the landing, and the ragbag
colors of her boy's hair, tawny streaks, strands of albino-blond and yellow caught the
hall light.
TT1: Sandviuri cu
diamante by Catinca
Ralea ( page 379-380)
Am ieit pe palier si mam aplecat peste ramp,
att ct s pot vedea fr
s fiu vzut.
Era inc pe scar; dar
curnd ajunse pe palier.
Lumina de pe palier se
reflecta n culorile variate
ale prului ei de biat cu
uvie decolorate de
soare, unele de un blond
albicios, altele galbene.

TT2: Mic dejun la


Tifanny by Constantin
Popescu ( page 17)
Am ieit pe palier i
m-am aplecat peste
balustrad ca s-i pot
zri far s fiu vzut.
Holly era pe scar i
ajunsese la palierul ei,
iar prul ei n toate
culorile, tiat bieete,
cu uvie armii, de un
blond aproape alb, sau
galbene, lucea n
lumina din hol.

The viewer who is the author himself, starts watching without being seen,
fact which makes the description focalized on Holly and her physical qualities: ST: I
went out into the hall and leaned over the banister, just enough to see without being
seen/ TT1: Am ieit pe palier si m-am aplecat peste ramp, att ct s pot vedea
fr s fiu vzut.
/ TT2: Am ieit pe palier i m-am aplecat peste balustrad ca s-i pot zri far s
fiu vzut.
In Raleas translation of this first clause there is a shift in the word order
introducing Hollys appearance, due to the fact that Romanian is much more flexible
than English. Fronting of Lumina de pe hol as an equivalent to hall light placed at the
end of the ST operates as a syntactic device marking the circumstances of the
writers watching. It is the pivotal word anticipating Hollys description into
Romanian, acting both as an instrument and location.
In Popescus translation of the clause the ragbag colors of her boy's hair,
tawny streaks, strands of albino-blond and yellow, caught the hall light, the complex
NP centered around the noun pr and its metonymical counterpart uvie follow the
ST determination ordering, but unlike in the ST, the translator has chosen to unload
the sentence by selecting a single translational equivalent for streaks and strands.
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And has been translated by sau supposing that the translator might have imagined
that the evening dark made the colors not so clear. Instead of tiat bieete as an
equivalent for her boys hair, we think that tuns bieete could have also been a
good variant obtained by domestication from the Romanian expression a se tunde
bieete. Popescus translation stands for a males direct way in expressing thoughts
and making evaluations. His variant is a case of semantic translation, keeping to all
the facets of meaning implied by the writer.
In Raleas translation the genitival construction her boys hair has been
rendered by prului ei de biat followed by the use of the participial construction
decolorate de soare as an equivalent for tawny. We could say that Raleas translation
bears the female mark of gentleness and love of explicitness through thematization
which consists in arranging words in a particular way so that readers will pay
attention to specific key concepts in the sentence. This aim could be achieved by
marking specific words instead of others in a sentence and this procedure could be
regarded as being a way for the author to express his or her ideology(Leonardi:
2007: 102).
Sample Analysis 2
ST2: For all her chic thinness, she had an almost breakfast-cereal air of health, a soap
and lemon cleanness, a rough pink darkening in the cheeks.
Cu toat silueta ei
subire i elegant,
avea un aer sntos de
om care mnnc bine
dimineaa, un aer
ngrijit, care amintea de
spun i de lmie i o
roea violent care-i
ntuneca obrajii.

Cu toat silueta ei
elegant, fata avea un
aer de om sntos, care
mnnc zdravn
dimineaa, un aspect
ngrijit, care te ducea cu
gndul la spun i
lmie, iar n obraji i
struia o not
trandafirie.

The sentential context ST2 has been translated almost similarly in both
variants, being an occasion for the author to express her/ his esthetic evaluation of
what she/he is looking at or a commentary on the effect the sight has on her/him. The
ST metaphorical adjunctions have been rendered into Romanian with a slight change
in the translators lexical choice for rendering the expression had an almost
breakfast-cereal air of health. Popescu translates by a grammatical shift, using the
adverbalized adjective zdravn modifying the verb mnnc, while Ralea prefers
domestication using the Romanian expression a mnca bine with a temporal
specification dimineaa. Both translators use addition and shift to render the meaning
of health, but while Popescu uses the noun om modified by the adjective sntos,
Ralea uses it to modify aer, which she reiterates in aer ngrijit, for the sake of
symmetry. We can still notice some difference in the Romanian equivalents to a
rough pink darkening in the cheeks. Popescus translation is more poetical and mild
in tone, a subjective evaluation coming from admiring young females with rosy
cheeks e.g. iar n obraji i struia o not trandafirie. Raleas translation o roea
violent care-i ntuneca obrajii tries to be nearer the cold meaning of the ST
modifier epithet rough and the participle darkening as a means of intensifying the
characters powerful reaction at external stimuli. (Dima 2011: 305-308)
7

Introduction
Chapter 2. Translation Methods and Strategies
2.1. Types of Translation
The translation process includes certain stages which the translator follows
taking into account the text-type and target users. Thus, a diachronic view on the
matter will reveal the fact that specialists in translation studies have focused on the
function of translation and its typology. Terms, such as general /vs/ specialized
translation, pragmatic translation, literary translation, academic translation,
professional translation, semantic translation, communicative translation etc. occur in
the majority of the studies according to the aim of the research and the domain of
specialization: A complete theory of translation [] has three components:
specification of function and goal; description and analysis of operations; and critical
comment on relationships between goal and operation. (Kelly, 1979: 1)
The synthesis in Table 2 shows the variety of labels attributed to translation
by some of the scholars interested in translation issues.
Linguists
Jean Delisle (1980)

Criteria of classification
- function of the source
text
- degree of specialization
in the source text
- general purpose of
translating
- translation approach

Peter Newmark (1981,


1988 and 1991)

- function of the source


text

- style of the source text

- content or subject matter


of the source text

- general purpose of
translating

Barbara Snell and Patricia


Crampton (1983)

Translation Typology
- pragmatic translation
- literary translation
- general translation
- specialized translation
- academic translation
- professional translation
- transcoding
- translation
- translation of an
expressive text
- translation of an
informative text
- translation of narration
- translation of description
- translation of discussion
- translation of dialogue
- scientific-technological
translation
- institutional-cultural
translation
- literary translation
- translation for language
teaching
- translation for
professional purposes

- translation approach

- semantic translation

- content, degree of style,


and function of the source
text

-communicative
translation
- literary translation
- translation of
promotional and
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- general purpose of
translating
- function of the
translation

- degree of style involved


in the translation

- direction of the
translation

- medium of translation

instructional material
- translation of
informatory material
- non-commercial
translation
- professional translation
- translation for
publication
- translation for
information
- literary translation
- translation of
informatory material
- translation of
promotional and
instructional material
- translation into the
mother tongue
- translation out of the
mother tongue
- written translation
- oral (or spoken word)
translation

Table 2. A Synthesis of Translation Types

2.2. Translation Methods and Procedures


A research on translation methods and procedures will be a demanding
pursuit since the opinons are different among specialists. Still, there are some authors
whose studies have influenced much the development of the discipline of translation
studies: Tyler, Nida, Catford, Venuti, Newmark, Baker, to quote just a few.
2.2.1. Translation Methods
Newmark asserts that there is an essential difference between translation
methods and translation procedures: while translation methods relate to whole
texts, translation procedures are used for sentences and the smaller units of
language. (1998/2001: 78). It is still Newmark to quote when listing methods of
translation which have been used frequently in translation studies.(1998/2001: 80):
word-for-word translation, literal translation, faithful translation, semantic
translation, addaptation, free translation, idiomatic translation, communicative
translation.
Word-for-word translation: the SL word order is preserved and the words are
translated by their most common meanings, out of context.
e.g. And she seized her bag and coat and ran upstairs to the nursery.
i-i lua/nfc haina i geanta i fugi pe scri spre camera copilului.

Introduction
Literal translation: the SL grammatical constructions are converted to their
nearest TL equivalents, but the lexical words are again translated out of context. It is
the easiest and simplest form of translation. It occurs whenever word-for-word
translation is possible without breaking (grammatical) rules in the target language. A
SL text mechanically reproduced in a TL text can:
- distort the grammatical and stylistic patterns of the receptor language.
- distort the message (misunderstanding).
e.g. I like things that appeared;then one is sure.
Imi plac lucrurile care se vd; atunci eti sigur.
Faithful translation attempts to produce the precise contextual meaning of the
original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures.
e.g. I liked them--I felt, quite as their friends must have done--they were so simple;
and I had no objection to them if they would suit.
Imi plceau, mi ddeam seama, cum, desigur, plceau prietenilor lor. Erau att
de simpli. i nu aveam nici o obiecie mpotriva lor, dac s-ar fi potrivit.
Semantic translation which differs from 'faithful translation' only in as far as
it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text.
e.g. The reason that solar power is not used widely today is that solar energy is more
expensive to use than other forms of energy.
Energia solar nu este folosit pe scara larga n zilele noastre, deoarece este
mai costisitoare dect alte forme de energie.
Adaptation is the freest form of translation, and is used mainly for plays
(comedies) and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL
culture is converted to the TL culture and the text is rewritten.
e.g. Sir Toby: Will you encounter the house? my niece is desirous( that) you should enter, if
your trade be to her.
Doreti s intri? Nepoata mea dorete. Aa c , dac ai treab cu dnsa,
poftete.

Free translation produces the TL text without the style, form, or content of
the original.
Idiomatic translation reproduces the 'message' of the original but tends to
distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do
not exist in the original.
e.g. I had seized their type- I had already setttled what I would do with them.
Le-am descifrat tipul- tiam deja ce-a putea scoate din ei.
Communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning
of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable
and comprehensible to the readership
2.2.2. Translation Procedures
Among translation procedures, Newmark (1988) includes: transference,
naturalization, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, lexical synonymy, throughtranslation, modulation, paraphrase
Transference or transcription is the process of transferring a SL word to a TL
text.
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e.g. They knew that I was do the first of the books, Rutland Ramsay
tiau c eu fceam primul volum, Rutland Ramsay
Naturalization adapts the SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to
the normal morphology of the TL.
e.g. Then, everybody came to the meeting.
Apoi, toat lumea a venit la meeting.
Cultural equivalence means replacing a cultural word in the SL with a TL
one.
e.g. He took his A-level in 2000.
A luat bacalaureatul in anul 2000.
Functional equivalent requires the use of a culture-neutral word. (1988: 83)
e.g. Sarmalele sunt bucate tradiionale romneti.
Stuffed cabbage rolls is a traditional Romanian dish.
Lexical synonymy is a "near TL equivalent." (1988: 84), where a precise
equivalent may not exist.
e.g. The control tower presented an ultimatum to the pilot.
Turnul de control i-a dat un ultimatum pilotului.
Through-translation is the literal translation of common collocations, names
of organizations and components of compounds. It can also be called: calque or loan
translation. (1988: 84)
e.g. Security Council of United Nations
Consiliul de Securitate al Naiunilor Unite
Modulation a semantic procedure that changes the category of thought, the
focus, the point of view and the whole conceptualization.
e.g. I had taken Mrs. Prest into my confidence; without her in truth I should have
made but little advance, for the fruitful idea in the whole business dropped from her
friendly lips.
O alesesem pe doamna Prest drept confident; fr ea, sincer s fiu, n-a fi
rezolvat mare lucru, pentru c ea a binevoit s-mi sugereze soluia inspirat de toat
povestea aceasta.
Paraphrase - sometimes called periphrasis, is a translation procedure
whereby the translator replaces a word in the source text by a group of words or an
expression in the target text.
e.g. He paid some attention to the management of his collieries in the Midland
counties, excusing himself for this taint of industry on the ground that the one
advantage of having coal was that it enabled a gentleman to afford the decency of
burning wood on his own hearth.
Se ocupa ntr-o oarecare msur de administrarea minelor sale de crbuni din
regiunile centrale ale rii, gsind drept scuz pentru aceast urm de slbiciune
pentru industrie faptul c singurul avantaj de a fi proprietarul unei mine era acela
c i ngduia unui gentleman s-i permit decena de a arde lemne n propriul su
cmin.

11

Introduction
Some authors use other terms and classifications, overlapping with or
distinguishing from those of Newmarks, but what is important to emphasize is the
fact that all have had their contribution to the development of translation studies.

12

Chapter 3: Applications
UNIT 1
Romanian ST
n mileniul internautic, globalizant i repezit n care te afli, cltoria i-a
pierdut frisonul iniiatic. Aternerea la drum nu mai are aplomb picaresc sau smbure
de mister. Totul s-a redus la o deplasare eficient, cu economie de timp i abunden
de mijloace. Nimeni nu mai pleac n direcii incerte, nimeni nu mai caut sensuri
pitite n mecanica pailor. Cltorul de azi e o vietate decis, care trebuie s ajung
repede din punctul A n punctul B. El are un aer posac, preocupat sau febril, n
funcie de agenda zilei. Stilistica voiajului, fie el de plcere sau de afaceri, a srcit
metodic, pe msur ce s-a mbogit recuzita tehnic. Autobuzele, trenurile,
avioanele i metrourile transport cohorte de pasageri plecai, vorba lui George
Bernard Shaw, la ntlniri cu ei nii, la care se tem s nu ntrzie". Ei bine, de ce
s ngdui, tu, nesimitule, posomoreala ulcerant a acestor venici hoinari? Chiar nu
poi face nimic? Ba vezi bine c poi, dac tii s-i alegi instrumentele i momentul
optim al interveniei.
Radu Paraschivescu, Nesimitul cltor n Ghidul nesimitului, p 10
https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B1CumSvXYQc5SUVYTnNSbEkxZlU/edit?pli=1

A. Source Text Analysis


1. Read and specify the text type.
2. Analyse the words according to their frequency of usage.
3. Delineate lexical fields within the text.
4. Find synonymic series and distinguish among the components.
5. Explain the meaning of posomoreala ulceranta.
B. Source Text Translation
1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentences.
n mileniul internautic, globalizant i repezit n care te afli, cltoria i-a pierdut
frisonul iniiatic.
a. In the rushy, globalizing, web surfing millennium where we live, the journey has
lost its initiatic tremor.
b. Our hasty, globalizing and web-dominated millennium has caused journeys lose
their initiatory enthusiasm.
c. In the impetuous, globalizing and internet-governed millennium where we live,
journeys have lost their initiatory enthusiasm.
2. Translate the text into English.
C. Translation Awareness
a. Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.
b. Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.
c. Comment on the dictionaries used.

13

Introduction
English ST
As for the acquaintance which is to be sought in travel, that which is most of
all profitable, is acquaintance with the secretaries and employed men of
ambassadors; for so in travelling in one country he shall suck the experience of
many: let him also see and visit eminent persons in all kinds, which are of great name
abroad, that he may be able to tell how the life agreeth with the fame; for quarrels,
they are with care and discretion to be avoided: they are commonly for mistresses,
healths, place, and words; and let a man beware how he keepeth company with
choleric and quarrelsome persons; for they will engage him into their own quarrels.
When a traveller returneth home, let him not leave the countries where he hath
travelled altogether behind him; but maintain a correspondence by letters with those
of his acquaintance which are of most worth; and let his travel appear rather in his
discourse than in his apparel or gesture; and in his discourse, let him be rather
advised in his answers, than forward to tell stories: and let it appear that he doth not
change his country manners for those of foreign parts; but only prick in some flowers
of that he hath learned abroad into the customs of his own country.
Francis Bacon, Of Travel
http://grammar.about.com/od/classicessays/a/Of-Travel-ByFrancis-Bacon.htm
A. Source Text Analysis
1. Read and specify the text type.
2. Provide the modern spelling of the text.
3. Discuss the differences between the synonymic pairs: acquaintance and relative;
travel and journey.
4. Explain the meaning of but only prick in some flowers.
B. Source Text Translation
1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence.
When a traveller returneth home, let him not leave the countries where he hath
travelled altogether behind him;
a. Cnd un calator se ntoarce acas, nu-l ncurajai s dea uitrii locurile pe care le-a
vzut.
b. La ntoarcerea acas, ncurajai-l pe cel care a cltorit s vorbeasc despre
locurile vizitate.
c. Odata ntors acas, amintete-i cltorului de locurile pe care le-a vzut i nu-l lsa
s le uite.
2. Translate the text into Romanian.
C. Translation Awareness
a. Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.
b. Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.
c. Comment on the dictionaries used.

14

UNIT 2
Romanian ST
Dar pentru c te-am vzut iubitor de curse de cai, ca i mine, d-mi voie s fac
o comparaie care are s-i dovedeasc definitiv, dac mai era nevoie, c nu a putea
deveni niciodat scriitoare [...]. tii c sunt, n general luate, dou categorii de cai.
Cei pretendeni la marile premii clasice i cei care se mulumesc s-i ncerce norocul
numai n handicapuri modeste. Se ntmpl ns n unii ani c se gsete pe hipodrom
cte un cal cu snge foarte aristocratic i cu toi muchii necontenit gata de ntrecere,
care ctig toate premiile mari, nelsnd celor care sunt abia cu puin inferiori lui
nici unul. Fiecare dintre aceti cai nenorocoi ar putea ctiga orice handicap, rareori
ns, sau din pricina regulamentelor, sau a mndriei proprietarilor, alearg n aceste
curse. Aa c ei nu se aleg n unii ani cu nici un premiu. Ei bine, ntr-un orel de
provincie, toate fetele frumoase sunt fa de cea mai frumoas - chiar cnd
deosebirea e tot aa de mic - n situaia acestor nenorocoi candidai. Cea mai
frumoas recolteaz toate visurile, toate ambiiile adolescenilor din ora [...]. Eram
deci, n strmtul i proasptul nostru orel de munte, cea mai frumoas fat, iubit
de elevii liceului, curtat de tinerii magistrai i obiectul cavalerismului ofierilor din
garnizoan.
Camil Petrescu, Patul lui Procust, p 8/19
https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B1CumSvXYQc5N3Y1RXJuSWppcWs/edit?pli=1

A. Source Text Analysis


1. Read and specify the text type.
2. Explain the meaning of handicap in the text.
3. Find instances of words changing from denotative to connotative meaning.
3. Build up synonym essays for frumoasa and beautiful. Use dictionaries.
B. Source Text Translation
1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:
Se ntmpl ns n unii ani c se gsete pe hipodrom cte un cal cu snge foarte
aristocratic i cu toi muchii necontenit gata de ntrecere
a. It so happens that in certain years, on the horse racing track, there may appear a
horse of a most noble breed and a great conformation ready for confrontation.
b. In certain years, it happens to find on the show ring a horse of an outstanding
bloodline and a great bone ready for competition.
c. In some years, there can be found on the hippodrome a horse of a most noble breed
and with steel in his muscle always ready for competition.
2. Translate the text into English.
C. Translation Awareness
a. Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.
b. Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.
c. Comment on the dictionaries used.

15

Introduction

English ST
A young member of the band turned her head at the exclamation. She was a
fine and handsome girl--not handsomer than some others, possibly--but her mobile
peony mouth and large innocent eyes added eloquence to colour and shape. She wore
a red ribbon in her hair, and was the only one of the white company who could boast
of such a pronounced adornment. As she looked round Durbeyfield was seen moving
along the road in a chaise belonging to The Pure Drop, driven by a frizzle-headed
brawny damsel with her gown-sleeves rolled above her elbows. This was the cheerful
servant of that establishment, who, in her part of factotum, turned groom and ostler at
times. Durbeyfield, leaning back, and with his eyes closed luxuriously, was waving
his hand above his head, and singing in a slow recitative-- []
Tess Durbeyfield at this time of her life was a mere vessel of emotion
untinctured by experience.
Thomas Hardy, Tess of the d'Urbervilles, p.9-10
http://www.literaturepage.com/read/tess-of-thedurbervilles-9.html

A. Source Text Analysis


1. Read and specify the text type.
2. Find archaic words in the text and provide modern equivalents.
3. Explain the meanings of chaise and ostler using English dictionaries.
4. Find antonyms for innocent, cheerful, slow.
B. Source Text Translation
1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:
Tess Durbeyfield at this time of her life was a mere vessel of emotion untinctured by
experience
a. La acest moment din viaa ei, Tess Durbeyfield cunostea pentru prima dat
adevratele sentimente i emoii.
b. Pe vremea aceea, Tess Durbeyfield vibra ca un cristal, datorit unei sensibiliti
nealterate de experien.
c. La vrsta ei, Tess Durbeyfield strlucea asemenea unei comori nepreuite de
sensibiliti nealterate de experiena vieii.
2. Translate the text into Romanian.
C. Translation Awareness
a. Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.
b. Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.
c. Comment on the dictionaries used.

16

UNIT 3
Romanian ST
Aprinse lampa cu abajur de mtase bleu i trandafiri mici din catifea. Din patul
de bronz, pictat cu ngerai, te ateptai s rsar o scufi cu panglici i dantele. n
bufetul vienez cu dou vitrine, modern prin anii '80-'90, un instantaneu al epocii ar fi
surprins sticle de ap de Vichy, flacoane de colonie Cuir de Russie, pastilele
ntritoare ale doctorului Blow sau elixirul bunicilor Cristal de munte. Berzele de
argint susineau cndva o tipsie unde tineri domni de acum o jumtate de veac i
lsau crile de vizit, pendula anuna orele de bal sau de primire, n oglind,
nglbenit acum, se reflectau chipuri gingae ntr-o cascad de bucle, zulufi, pene i
flori, umeri goi, cobori dup cum cercau canoanele frumuseilor contemporane cu
Eugenia de Montijo. n scrinul de cire lustruit, lenjeria delicat, lucrat n mnstiri,
emana arome dulci, mitenele fine de antilop alb adstau alturi de dantela scump
Valenciennes ori mai modest de Bruxelles...
Melania Lupu trase mnerul de bronz i scoase o jumtate de cozonac, un
borcan de dulcea i cteva pastile de ciocolat pe care motanul le prinse din zbor.
Rodica Ojog-Braoveanu, Bun seara, Melania, p.4
http://www.girlshare.ro/2381001.7
A. Source Text Analysis
1. Read and specify the text type.
2. Explain the meanings of mitene and adastau.
3. Find synonyms for frumusetilor contemporane.
B. Source Text Translation
1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:
Din patul de bronz, pictat cu ngerai, te ateptai s rsar o scufi cu panglici i
dantele
a. Out of the bronze bed, painted with cherubs, you were expecting a ribboned,
embroidered nightcap to turn up.
b. Out of the bronze bed on which little angels were painted, you might have
expected a ribbonned, laced nightcap to turn up.
c. A nightcap trimmed with ribbons and lace might have appeared from the bronze
bed painted with cherubs.
2. Distinguish among nightcap, bonnet, hood.
3. Translate the text into English.
C. Translation Awareness
a. Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.
b. Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.
c. Comment on the dictionaries used.

English ST
Laura put back the receiver, flung her arms over her head, took a deep breath,
17

Introduction
stretched and let them fall. "Huh," she sighed, and the moment after the sigh she sat
up quickly. She was still, listening. All the doors in the house seemed to be open.
The house was alive with soft, quick steps and running voices. The green baize door
that led to the kitchen regions swung open and shut with a muffled thud. And now
there came a long, chuckling absurd sound. It was the heavy piano being moved on
its stiff castors. But the air! If you stopped to notice, was the air always like this?
Little faint winds were playing chase, in at the tops of the windows, out at the doors.
And there were two tiny spots of sun, one on the inkpot, one on a silver photograph
frame, playing too. Darling little spots. Especially the one on the inkpot lid. It was
quite warm. A warm little silver star. She could have kissed it.
Katherine Mansfield, The Garden Party, p.5
http://www.eastoftheweb.com/short-stories/UBooks/GardPart.shtml

A. ST Analysis
1. Read and specify the text type.
a. Comment on the use of auditory images in the text.
b. Distinguish between tiny and little.
c. Explain the meaning of were playing chase in Little faint winds were playing
chase, in at the tops of the windows, out at the doors.
B. Source Text Translation
1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:
The house was alive with soft, quick steps and running voices.
a. Intreaga cas era animat de pai uori, repezi i voci nentrerupte.
b. Intreaga cldire era un freamt de pai uori, grbii, de crmpeie de glasuri.
c. Casa rsuna de pai uori, grbii i glasuri fremttoare.
2. Translate the text into Romanian.
C. Translation Awareness
a. Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.
b. Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.
c. Comment on the dictionaries used.

18

UNIT 4
Romanian ST
Bunicul e gata mbrcat, cu plria de pai negru, mnuile de a i bastonul
de trestie n mn. Poarta din fa e deschis. A tras la scar trsura muscalului. Calul
face ni-ha-ha-ha. Cnii din mahala s-au strnit la ltrat. Perdelele albe se leagn
uneori cu atta avnt ondulat c ajung pn departe n odaie.
Potaie, s nu te miti de-acas! Te las paznicul avutului nostru. E mare
cinste pentru un neisprvit ca tine, vorbete bunica, n timp ce-i ncheie mnuile
lungi cu bumbi de sidef. Miroase stins a liliac pe sfrite, i proaspt (foarte aproape
de nar), a ap de flori, a papier d'Armenie, a paciuli, a vetiver, a afion. Toate acestea
se revars din sertarele bunicei. Mai miroase i a bomboane acre. Nepotul prizeaz
cu dinadins, pn la strnut.
Ce-i cu nasul tu? Ai gutunar?
mi miroase a bomboane englezeti...
Preri, zice bunica i nchide sertarul. Hai, Alecule!
Trsura cu bunicii pleac: la doamna Bo. Un ultim strnut de rs, i nepotul
rmne singur, de capul lui, paznicul avutului bunicilor".
Ionel Teodoreanu, Bunicii. Cele patru anotimpuri, p. 5
http://ro.scribd.com/doc/39980157/Ionel-Teodoreanu-Bunicii-Cele-Patru-Anotimpuri
A. Source Text Analysis
1. Read and specify the text type.
2. Explain the meanings of gutunar.
3. Identify foreign words in the text and explain their usage by the author.
B. Source Text Translation
1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:
Nepotul prizeaz cu dinadins, pn la strnut.
a. The nephew is smelling until he starts sneezing.
b. The nephew inhales until he sneezes.
c. The nephew keeps smelling and ends in sneezing.
2. Translate the text into English.
C. Translation Awareness
a. Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.
b. Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.
c. Comment on the dictionaries used.

English ST
It never occurred to me in those days to write about Holly Golightly, and
probably it would not now except for a conversation I had with Joe Bell that set the
whole memory of her in motion again. Holly Golightly had been a tenant in the old
brownstone; she'd occupied the apartment below mine. As for Joe Bell, he ran a bar
19

Introduction
around the corner on Lexington Avenue; he still does. Both Holly and I used to go
there six, seven times a day, not for a drink, not always, but to make telephone calls:
during the war a private telephone was hard to come by. Moreover, Joe Bell was
good about taking messages, which in Holly's case was no small favor, for she had a
tremendous many. Of course this was a long time ago, and until last week I hadn't
seen Joe Bell in several years. Off and on we'd kept in touch, and occasionally I'd
stopped by his bar when passing through the neighborhood; but actually we'd never
been strong friends except in as much as we were both friends of Holly Golightly.
Joe Bell hasn't an easy nature, he admits it himself, he says it's because he's a
bachelor and has a sour stomach. Anyone who knows him will tell you he's a hard
man to talk to. Impossible if you don't share his fixations, of which Holly is one.
Truman Capote, Breakfast at Tiffanys, p.2-3
http://www.onread.com/fbreader/191739/
A. ST Analysis
1. Read and specify the text type.
a. Specify elements of textual cohesion and coherence.
b. Distinguish between the uses of past perfect.
c. Explain the meaning of Joe Bell hasn't an easy nature, he admits it himself, he
says it's because he's a bachelor and has a sour stomach.
B. Source Text Translation
1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:
Both Holly and I used to go there six, seven times a day, not for a drink, not always,
but to make telephone calls: during the war a private telephone was hard to come
by.
a. Aveam obiceiul ca, mpreun cu Holly, s mergem acolo de ase, apte ori pe zi,
nu neaprat ca s bem, ci mai ales ca s dea ea telefoane; n timpul rzboiului era
greu s-i instalezi telefon acas.
b. Impreun cu Holly obinuiam s mergem acolo de ase sau apte ori pe zi, nu ca s
bem ceva, ci pentru a da telefoane: deoarece n timpul rzboiului cu greu aveai
telefon acas.
c. Att eu ct i Holly ne duceam acolo de ase, apte ori pe zi, nu ca s bem ci ca
s dm un telefon: n timpul rzboiului era greu sa obii legtura la telefoanele
particulare.
2. Translate the text into Romanian.
C. Translation Awareness
a. Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.
b. Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.
c. Comment on the dictionaries used.

20

UNIT 5
Romanian ST
Dar Ester, n vremea cnd mergeam la tanti Aura, era o fat vioaie i foarte
deteapt, care citea tot timpul cri groase, prjindu-se la soare n remorca vechiului
camion. Cu ct se bronza mai mult, cu-att se umplea mai tare de pistrui. Avea pistrui
pe tot corpul, pe toat pielea ei rocat, dar mai ales pe umeri, pe spate i sub ochi, n
jurul nasului. Uneori vorbea puin behit i avea tendina s-i nfunde capul ntre
umeri, dar cusururile astea erau compensate de frumuseea prului auriu-purpuriu
care-i venea pn la bru, de privirea verde a ochilor ei nelept-jucui. Ea desena
complicatele otroane n form de melc, cu ptrele faste i csue periculoase, pe
care, dnd cu ciobul i bolborosind repede cuvinte ciudate:nkara-nnkara-astarotefirah-sabaot-sabaot-sabaot", trebuia s le parcurgem srind ntr-un picior.
Mircea Cartarescu, Nostalgia, p199
http://ro.scribd.com/doc/3825330/MirceaCartarescu-Nostalgia

A. Source Text Analysis


1. Read and specify the text type.
2. Explain the meaning of vorbea puin behit.
3. Find synonyms for cusururi.
B. Source Text Translation
1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:
Cu ct se bronza mai mult, cu-att se umplea mai tare de pistrui.
a. The more tanned, the more freckled she got.
b. More tanned, more freckled.
c. The more tanned she got, the more freckled.
2. Translate the text into English.
C. Translation Awareness
a. Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.
b. Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.
c. Comment on the dictionaries used.

English ST
For Robyn and Charles week-ends were for work as well as recreation, and
the two activities tended to blend into each other at certain interfaces. Was it work or
recreation, for instance, to browse through the review pages of the Observer and the
Sunday Times, mentally filing away information about the latest books, plays, films,
and even fashion and furniture[]. A brisk walk in Wellington boots to feed the
ducks in the local park was, however, definitely recreation []. Robin had a stack of
essays to mark, and Charles was reading a book on deconstruction which he had
21

Introduction
agreed to review for a scholarly journal. The gas fire hissed and popped in the hearth.
A harpisichord concerto by Haydn tinkled quietly on the stereo. Outside, as the light
faded from the winter sky, melting snow dripped from the eaves and trickled down
the gutters. Robyn, looking from Mario Russells overdue assessed essay on Tess of
the DUrbervilles (which was actually not bad, so perhaps the modeling job was
turning out to be a sensible decision), caught Charless abstracted gaze and smiled.
David Lodge, Nice Work, p. 177
http://htmlimg1.scribdassets.com/2dq4ilhawwwzopu/images/90-24245f11ff.jpg

A. ST Analysis
1. Read and specify the text type.
a. Comment on the degree of text formality.
b. Identify cases of parenthetical elements in the fragment.
B. Source Text Translation
1. Choose the most appropriate variant for the ST sentence:
A harpisichord concerto by Haydn tinkled quietly on the stereo
a. Dinspre combina stereo se auzeau acordurile n surdin ale unuia dintre concertele
pentru clavecin de Haydn.
b. Combina stereo emitea acordurile tcute ale unui concert de clavecin de Haydn.
c. Acordurile unui concert pentru clavecin de Haydn rsunau ncet dinspre combina
stereo.
2. Translate the text into Romanian.
C. Translation Awareness
a. Discuss and illustrate the type of translation equivalence achieved.
b. Rank the text according to the degree of translation difficulty.
c. Comment on the dictionaries used.

22

References
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