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COLOUR FASTNESS

Assignment-4
Faculty:

Submitted By:

Prof. Shivalingam

Abhinit Kanth
Arumit Kayastha
Shashank Trivedi
Saurabh Singh Rajput

COLOR FASTNESS
Property of a pigment or dye to retain its original hue,
especially without fading, running, or changing when
wetted, washed, cleaned; or stored under normal
conditions when exposed to light, heat, or other
influences.

FACTORS AFFECTING COLOR


FASTNESS

Fiber Type
Class of Dye Used
Dyeing or Printing Process used
Types of Finishing Treatments Used
Action Of Laundering Detergents

QUALITIES OF THE COLOR


EVALUATOR

A special individual needed who:


Possesses a knowledge of dyes and pigments.
Knows why color change
Is skilled in colorfastness tests and knows their limitations.

Has the ability to evaluate and report color changes.

MEASURED USING:

Color fastness in
Paper: fadeometer,
Cloth: launderometer.

GRAY SCALE
Arrangement of Achromatic gray chips in a scale
from light to dark.
Nine pairs of non-glossy neutral grey coloured
chips, which illustrate the perceived colour
differences.
Give a corresponding fastness rating of 5, 4-5, 4, 34, 3, 2-3, 2, 1-2, and 1)

USING A GRAY SCALE:

Uses a class 5-4-3-2-1 rating system.


Class 5 best, Class 1 worst.
Half Rating, such as 3-4 also used.
5-Excellent, 4-good, 3-fair, 2-poor, 1- very poor.
Specimens of a given hue are matched against these
gray chips.
They equate differences in lightness with
differences in color.

METHODOLOGY OF TESTING:
A control fabric is used, usually white or un-dyed; also
assessed for the staining which results from contact with the
test material.
Results assessed by grading against standard A04/A05
greyscales.
Grade of 5: no change in colour, staining.

Grade of 1: substantially different.

Usually only one specimen of fabric used.


If material dyed or printed uniformly throughout the fabric,
then specimen chosen should be representative of entire lot.
For multi colored printed fabric, each color should be tested
in order to evaluate every color.

GRAY SCALE FOR STAINING:

Used to evaluate a fabrics resistance to staining.

Normally a multi-fibre strip of 6 fibre components used for


staining test: Acetate, Cotton, Acrylic, Polyamide,
Polyester and Wool.
Same as the other gray scale, except for the chip in each pair
that remains the same is a standard white.

GRAY SCALE FOR STAINING:


Various contrasting pair of chips are given numerical color
fastness ratings, from class 5 to class 1.
Utilizes samples of undyed fabric to determine if a colored
fabric will stain an adjacent fabric.

MULTIFIBRE FABRIC STRIP

GREY SCALES FOR STAINING

GREY SCALES FOR COLORING

LIMITATIONS OF GREY SCALE

Disagreement when bright colors are used.


Works well with most colors otherwise.

CHROMATIC TRANSFERENCE SCALE


Used to evaluate fabrics resistance
to crocking.
Six sets of color chips.

Each set is graduated from light to


dark with different rating.

LIGHTING USED FOR EVALUATION


When visually evaluating or comparing, standardized light
source should be used.
COLOR MATCHING BOOTH frequently used for color
checking.

COLOR MATCHING BOOTH

Contains 4 different standardized lights:


Daylight
Incandescent Light
Cool White Fluorescent Light
Ultraviolet Light

Each used to view specimens by pushing a switch.


Daylight used when evaluating colorfastness as
color appears closer to way usually seen.

TYPES OF COLORFASTNESS
Washing
Light
Crocking
Abrasion
Gases in Atmosphere

Frosting
Perspiration
Heat

COLORFASTNESS TO WASHING
Ability of the fabric to with stand the effect of laundering.
Launder-ometer is used to evaluate colour fastness to
washing with the help of grey scales.
The washing of fabric results in the removal of dye,
therefore staining can occur, inorder to determine the
staining, a white multifiber strip is attached to the specimen
being tested for CF to washing.

The staining effect on each fiber in the multifiber test fabric


should be rated using the grey scale for evaluating staining.
It is checked afterwards for the effects of bleeding or colour
migration.

AATCC standard detergent 124 used.

THE LAUNDER-O-METER

Specimen placed in a metal


cylinder containing water,
detergent, steel balls, and
chlorine.
Rotating action of these
cylinders produces the same
effect as textile products being
laundered.

TESTING PROCEDURE: OVERVIEW

The specimen is placed in a metal cylinder in which water,


detergent, metal balls and chlorine are placed.
The amount of detergent ,temperature, agitation and bleach
can be controlled.

TEST PROCEDURE

SPECIMEN PREPERATION:
Cut the specimen 2 x 6 inches, stapled with the multi fiber
fabric.
PROCEDURE:
Place the sample in the container along with the steel balls
and detergent.
Run the machine for 45 minute.
After taking the specimen rinse it with water and soak it in
acetic solution and rinse it again with water.

Remove the excess solution.


Dry the specimen and test fabric together using an hand
iron.
Remove the test fabric and compare it with the gray scale to
find the fastness.

PROCESS DIAGRAM

AATCC TEST METHOD 61-2010


Principle
Specimens are tested under appropriate conditions of
temperature, detergent solution, bleaching and abrasive action
such that the color change is similar to that occurring in five
hand or home launderings.

Source AATC Website

COLORFASTNESS TO LIGHT
This refers to the ability of the fabric to withstand the sun
light.
The resistance of the sunlight depends on:
The intensity of the light

Inherent properties of the fabric.


Season
Altitude

Distance from the equator.

MEASUREMENT METHOD
Original standard method: Sunlight method
samples are placed in a glass cabinet and exposed to sun
light from 9 am-3 pm. It is time consumable process.
Weather-o-meter and Fade-o-meter most widely used
instruments.
Both this instruments use different light source and the
temperature and humidity are controlled with in the machine.
Specimens placed around the light source , and remain there
until the end of test.

Then evaluated as to changes in color resulting from


radiation.
Weather-o-meter is a newer and more versatile machine
It enables specimen to be sprayed with water during the test,
if desired.
It also is able to alternate light and dark periods if
continuous light exposure is not desired.
These conditions are used in the Weather-o-meter to test
fabric for such end uses as outdoor furniture, tents or
rainwear.

INSTRUMENTS AND FASTNESS


Both machines have either a carbon-arc lamp or a xenon-arc
lamp as the light source.

The degree of fastness required depends on end use.


For example, a coat material should have more color
fastness than a colored dress shirt. Similarly clothes not
intended to worn outside should also have certain color fastness
to enable drying in sunlight.

WEATHER-O-METER
Newer, versatile.
It enables the specimen to be
sprayed with water if needed.
It also manipulates the light
and dark period if continuous
exposure is not needed.
These make it most suitable
for testing fabrics for end uses
like outdoor furniture, tenting
or rainwear.

USING WEATHER-O-METER
Two testing methods are used:
Time method
Standard fading method

TIME METHOD
The specimen is exposed to light for a particular amount of
time.

After the termination of time the specimen is taken out and


evaluated.
Disadvantage:
Specimen is not exposed to the same amount of light each time
the test is performed.

TEST PROCEDURE
Specimen Preparation
Cut the specimen 2.5 x 8 with the longer dimension in
lengthwise.
Test Procedure
Mount the specimen in the cardboard holder and remove the
perforated strips so that half of the specimen area will be
uncovered.
Insert the cardboard holder into the metal holder and place
in to the machine.

Expose the specimen for 20 hours.


At the end of the desired exposure time period, remove the
specimen and allow it to relax in the dark at room
temperature for atleast 2 hours in order to regain moisture
from the air.
Using the grey scale for evaluating colour change, determine
the colour fastness rating for the test fabric.

AATCC TEST METHOD 16-2004


Principle
Samples of the textile material to be tested and the agreed upon
comparison standard(s) are exposed simultaneously to a light source
under specified conditions.
The colorfastness to light of the specimen is evaluated by comparison of
the color change of the exposed portion to the masked control portion of
the test specimen or unexposed original material, using the AATCC Gray
Scale for Color Change or by instrumental color measurement.
Lightfastness classification is accomplished by evaluation versus a
simultaneously exposed series of AATCC Blue Wool Lightfastness
Standards.
Source AATC Website

COLORFASTNESS TO CROCKING
The rubbing off of colors is called as crocking.
Fabrics with large amount of surface dyes like dark color
cotton fabric tend to have poor colorfastness to crocking,
pigment dyed or printed fabrics also face the same problem.
Some time in order to increase the depth of the colors the
surface dyes are not washed off which also results in
crocking.

CROCK METER
The crock meter is used to find the
color fastness to crocking.
This instrument has a finger covered
by a white cotton fabric which would
rub against the specimen.
This test should be performed both as
wet and dry test.
The wet test is an severe test since
moisture helps in removal of dyes

TEST PROCEDURE
Specimen Preparation
Cut two specimens on the bias, 8x8 and place the test
specimen on the crock meter so it will be rubbed in the bias
direction.

Test Procedure

Mount a dry, white crock test cloth over the finger section of the
crock meter so that it will be rubbed in the bias direction.
Lower the covered finger, causing the crock test cloth to slide
over the coloured specimen for 10 complete cycles.
Remove the specimen and the white crock test cloth.
Perform a wet crocking test by the same procedure.
Rate the crock test cloths using the colour transference chart.

AATCC TEST METHOD 116-2010


Principle
A test specimen held at the base of the Rotary Vertical
Crockmeter is rubbed with standard test squares under
controlled conditions.
Color transferred to the test squares is assessed by
comparison with the Gray Scale for Staining or AATCC
Chromatic Transference Scale.
Source AATC Website

COLOR FASTNESS TO PERSPIRATION


Perspiration can cause a fabric to change
color as well as resulting in staining of
adjacent material.
The test is attempted to stimulate the
actual condition. the specimen is heated
for 6 hours at 38C .

A multifibre test fabric is placed against


the specimen, the test is carried out and
later evaluated for bleeding or color
migration.
After the test is completed ,the specimen
is evaluated using the gray scale and the
average rating is reported.

Diagram Perspiration tester

TEST PROCEDURE
SPECIMEN PREPERATION:
Cut the specimen of 2 x 2
Cut the multifiber fabric to 2 x 2 inch

PROCEDURE:

Immerse the test sample and the specimen in the acid


solution for 15 min.
With draw the fabric and remove any excess liquor.
Place the specimen in the perspiration tester.
Load the tester with 10 pounds of pressure.
Place the loaded tester in an oven and heat it to 100*f for 6
hours.
Remove the tester from oven and allow the fabric to dry at
room temperature.
Remove specimen and test cloth and Compare with gray
scale.

AATCC TEST METHOD 61-2010


Principle
A specimen of colored textile in contact with other fiber
materials (for color transfer) is wet out in simulated acid
perspiration solution, subjected to a fixed mechanical
pressure and allowed to dry slowly at a slightly elevated
temperature.
After conditioning, the specimen is evaluated for color
change and the other fiber materials are evaluated for color
transfer.
Source AATC Website

COLOR FASTNESS TO FROSTING


Frosting is the change of color caused by a localized , flat
abrasive action.
Fabrics that have poor dye penetration possess poor
colorfastness to frosting.
Fabric that are cross dyed also possess poor color fastness
(due to differences in the abrasion resistance).

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CROCKING


TEST AND FROSTING TEST

Crocking evaluates the appearance of the specimen.

Frosting only evaluates the rubbing cloth, not the specimen.

COLOR FASTNESS TO GASES IN


ATMOSPHERE
The dyes in the textile material are affected to a various
degree by atmospheric gases.
The major cause for this is due to the reaction of disperse
dye with ozone and oxides of nitrogen.
The disperse dyed with acetate fabric has the maximum
effect while nylon, polyester, acrylic has low effect.

Inhibitors are used for this purpose but are not permanent.
Darker, brighter change more dramatically.
Typical changes: Blues turning pinkish, browns turning
reddish, greens turning brownish.

INSTRUMENTS USED

GAS FADING CHAMBER:Tests the effects of oxides of nitrogen.


OZONITER (ozone exposure chamber):Tests the effect of ozone.

GENERAL PROCEDURE

The specimens are placed in the gas filled chamber for a particular time
along with the control fabric.
The tests are conducted at 140*F for approximately 2-3 hours.
The relative humidity is normally kept low due to the heating of gases.
Gas fading termination: when blue sample turns a specific purple color.
Ozone fading test: gray sample turns a standard brown color

GAS FADING CHAMBER

TEST PROCEDURE
SPECIMEN PREPERATION:
Cut the specimen 2 x 4 inches ,with the long direction length
wise
Cut the blue acetate control swatch 2 x 2 inches long

TEST PROCEDURE:
Place the specimen(2x4inches)and control sample(2x2inches)in
the gas fading chamber.

Heat the chamber to about 140*f by using Bunsen burner.


Leave the specimens in the chamber until the color changes from
blue to purple.
Change the control sample and repeat the procedure (only for
ozoniter test, sample changes from grey sample turns brown.
Using The Gray Scale Determine The Color Fastness Rating.

Diagram of gas fading chamber

COLOR FASTNESS DUE TO


HOT IRON
The change in color of the garment due to hot iron and dry
heat can be found by Contact Heat Tester.

CONTACT HEAT TESTER


The heat contact tester consist of 3
pairs of individually controlled
heaters.
Allows simultaneous testing of 3
differing temperatures in the range
100C to 230C.

After the allocated time the


specimens are taken out and is
compared to the gray scale from
which the color fastness is found
out.

COLOR FASTNESS TO WATER


SAMPLE PREPERATION:
Cut the specimen and the multi fiber specimen of 6 x 6 cm and sew it
together.
PROCEDURE:
Place the specimen in a Petri dish and add distilled water to a depth of
1.5 cm.
Soak the specimen at room temperature for 15 min with occasional
agitation.
After removing the excess water place the specimen in perspir-o-meter
with a load of 10 pounds.
Place the total unit in the oven at an temperature of 38*c for 18 hours.
Remove he specimen from the oven and dry it at standard atmosphere.
Compare the sample with the gray scale to find the fastness.

THANK YOU..