In this chapter we first investigate these relationships in more detall, utilizing the frequency domain
and transfer function concepts developed in preceding chapters. Then we develop methods for reducing
complicated block diagrams to manageable forms so that they may be used to predict the overall
performance of a system.
7.2 REVIEW OF FUNDAMENTALS
In general, a block diagram consists of a specific configuration of four types of elements: blocks,
summing points, takeoff points, and arrows representing unidirectional signal .flow:
Summing
Point
Block
x
«71 y
Block
Description
Takeoff
Point
z
Fig. 71
The meaning of each element should be clear from Fig. 71.
Timedomain quantities are represented by lowercase letters.
EXAMPLE 7.1. r= r(t) for continuous signals, and r(tk ) or r(k), k=1,2,..., for discrete time signals.
Capital letters in this chapter are used for Laplace transforma, or ztransforms. The argument s or z
is often suppressed, to simplify the notation, if the context is clear, or if the results presented are the
same for both Laplace (continuoustime system) and z(discretetime system)transfer function domains.
EXAMPLE 7.2.
R = R(s) or R = R(z).
The basic feedback control system configuration presented in Chapter 2 is reproduced in Fig. 72,
with all quantities in abbreviated transform notation.
154
•
156
BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA AND TRANSFER FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS
[CHAP. 7
7.4 CANONICAL FORM OF A FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM
The two blocks in the forward path of the feedback system of Fig. 72 may be combined. Letting
GiG2, the resulting configuration is called the canonical form of a feedback control system. G and
H are not necessarily unique for a particular system.
The following definitions refer to Fig. 75.
Fig. 75
Definition 7.1:
G = direct transfer function = forward transfer function
Definition 7.2:
Ha feedback transfer function
Definition 7.3:
GH z loop transfer function = openloop transfer function
Definition 7.4:
closedloop transfer function = control ratio
Definition 7.5:
actuating signal ratio = error ratio
Definition 7.6:
B/R =
 primary feedback ratio
In the following equations, the — sign refers to a positivo feedback system, and the + sign refers to
a negative feedback system:
C
G
(7.3)
•
1 + GH
E
1
(7.4)
R 1 + GH
B
GH
(7.5)
•
1+ GH
P
71
•
156
BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA AND TRANSFER FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS
[CHAP. 7
7.4 CANONICAL FORM OF A FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM
The two blocks in the forward path of the feedback system of Fig. 72 may be combined. Letting
G = GiG2, the resulting configuration is called the canonical form of a feedback control system. G and
H are not necessarily unique for a particular system.
The following definitions refer to Fig. 75.
Fig. 75
Definition 7.1:
G =: direct transfer function = forward transfer function
Definition 7.2:
H = feedback transfer function
Definition 7.3:
GH = loop transfer function = openloop transfer function
Definition 7.4:
C / R = closedloop transfer function = control ratio
Definition 7.5:
E / R = actuating signal ratio = error ratio
Definition 7.6:
B / R = primary feedback ratio

In the following equations, the — sign refers to a positivo ieedback system, and the + sign refers to
a negative feedback system:
C
G
( 7.3)
1+GH
1
E
( 7.4 )
R 1 + GH
B GH
( 7.5 )
R 1 + GH
0
/ 77
1
7
_
CHAP. 7]
BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA AND TRANSFER FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS
Block Diagram
Combining Blocks
in Cascade
Y = (P1P2)X
Y
X
—› Pi , p, — ...
Combining Blocks
in Parallel; or
Eliminating a
Y = P1 X ± P2X
+
Pi
X
Y = Pi,/ ± P2 X
Eliminating a
Feedback Loop
Y = Pi(X T P2 Y)
Rearranging
•
+
P2
Y
1,f: PiPz
Y = Pi (X =I P2 Y)
PiP,
P2
P2
+• •
W+
Z = TVIt X± Y
Z = W ± X±Y
_x•
+
z
W
+
x
±
Y
.
Pi
X +
W+
6b
Pi
2
P2
W
Rearranging
Summing Points
Y
± p,
,»
X
Y
x
Removing a Block
from a Forward
Path
Removing a Block
from a Feedback
Loop
•
X
— , PiP2
÷
Forward Loop
5
Equivalent Block
Diagram
Equation
Transformation
157
Z
Pi
Removing a Block
from a Forward
Path
4
5
6a
61)
P2
Y = P1 X ± P2X
Eliminating a
Feedback Loop
'
P1(X 7 P2 Y)
1.
Pi
X +
1 ±. P1P2
p2
Removing a Block
from a Feedback Y = P1 (X T P2 Y)
Loop
Rearranging
Summing Points
W+
41
w+
lo
III
.
w +
Z
el
II
= W:1 XY
Y
Y
X
Z
=
PX =L Y
..
x +
Moving a Summing
Point Beyond a
Block
PiP2
PZ
= T47 :F X2 Y
Rearranging
Summing Points
Moving a Summing
Point Ahead of a
Block
P2
Z = P[X ± Y]
Fig. 76
+•
II
158
Equation
Transformation
Equivalent Block
Diagram
Block Diagram
Y
Moving a Takeoff
Point Ahead of a
Block
Moving a Takeoff
Point Beyond a
Block
Point Ahead of a
Summing Point
12
Moving a Takeoff
Point Beyond a
Summing Point
X
Y
•
X
►
P
Y
e.
,
Y = PX
x
1
ii
•
Moving a Takeoff
11
•
Y = PX
X
10
[CHAP. 7
BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA AND TRANSFER FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS
Z= X± Y
Z= X
4

Y
Fig. 7 6

Continued
7.6 UNITY FEEDBACK SYSTEMS
Definition 7.7:
EXAMPLE 7.6.
A unity feedback system is one in which the primary feedback b is identically equal
to the controlled output c.
H = 1 for a linear, unity feedback system (Fig. 77).
BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA AND TRANSFER FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS
CHAP. 7]
The characteristic equation for the unity feedback system, determined from 1 + G = O, is
DG + NG = O
159
(7.7)
where DG is the denominator and NG the numerator of G.
7.7 SUPERPOSITION OF MULTIPLE INPUTS
Sometimes it is necessary to evaluate system performance when several inputs are simultaneously
applied at different points of the system.
When multiple inputs are present in a linear system, each is treated independently of the others.
The output due to all stimuli acting together is found in the following manner. We assume zero initial
conditions, as we seek the system response only to inputs.
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Step 5:
Set all inputs except one equal to zero.
Transform the block diagram to canonical form, using the transformations of Section 7.5.
Calculate the response due to the chosen input acting alone.
Repeat Steps 1 to 3 for each of the remaining inputs.
Algebraically add all of the responses (outputs) determined in Steps 1 to 4. This sum is the
total output of the system with all inputs acting simultaneously.
We reemphasize here that the aboye superposition process is dependent on the system being linear.
EXAMPLE 7.8.
We determine the output C due to inputs U and R for Fig. 79.
U
R +
•
Fig. 79
Step 1:
Step 2:
Put U = O.
The system reduces to
G1G2
Step 3:
By Equation (7.3), the output CR due to input R is CR = [G1G2/(1
C = CR + Cu =
1 + GiG2
IR + 1
1 + G392
1U I
1 + GiG2
1[Gi R + U]
7.8 REDUCTION OF COMPLICATED BLOCK DIAGRAMS
The block diagram of a practical feedback control system is often quite complicated. It may include
several feedback or feedforward loops, and multiple inputs. By means of systematic block diagram
reduction, every multiple loop linear feedback system may be reduced to canonical form. The
techniques developed in the preceding paragraphs provide the necessary tools.
The following general steps may be used as a basic approach in the reduction of complicated block
diagrams. Each step refers to specific transformations listed in Fig. 76.
Step I:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Combine all cascade blocks using Transformation 1.
Combine all parallel blocks using Transformation 2.
Eliminate all minor feedback loops using Transformation 4.
Shift summing points to the left and takeoff points to the right of the major loop, using
Transformations 7, 10, and 12.
Step 5: Repeat Steps4 to 4 until the canonical form has been achieved for a particular input.
Step 6: Repeat Steps 1 to 5 for each input, as required.
Transformations 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 11 are sometimes useful, and experience with the reduction
technique will determine their application.
EXAMPLE 7.9. Let us reduce the block diagram (Fig. 710) to canonical form.
•
Fig. 710
Step 1:
CHAP. 7]
BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA AND TRANSFER FUNCTIONS OF SYSTEMS
169
By superposition, the total output is
C=CR+C1i C2
G1G2 R + G2U1 + G1G2.111U2
1  G1G2 Hl H2
7.17. Figure 732 is an example of a multünputmultioutput system. Determine C1 and C2 due to R1
and R 2.
R2
Fig. 732
First put the block diagram in the form of Fig. 733, ignoring the output C2.
c1
G3G4
R2
Fig. 733
Letting R2= O and combining the summing points, we get Fig. 734.
eGil
0.1
1
s+1
Fig. 741
Applying Transformations 1 and 6b, we get Fig. 742.
Fig. 742
Now we can apply Transformation 2 to the feedback loops, resulting in the final form given in
Fig. 743.
1
s+1
Fig. 743
7.20. Reduce the block diagram given in Fig. 744 to openloop form.
Fig. 744