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Eng 101

Causal Techniques
Commas

Lesson Objectives
Students will be able to
Explain cause and effect writing principles
Employ cause and effect principles to gauge
effectiveness of published essays
Produce a sentence for each comma
guideline

Prewriting
Choose a prewriting technique (ie.
List, cluster, freewrite, etc.) to
answer one of the following
questions.
Why do people flirt?
Why do people collect items or
hoard?
Why do people, especially teenagers,
make bad choices?

What are the principles of a


cause and effect essay?
Purpose
Patterns
Reasoning Errors
Ethics
Thesis and details
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pO7
0ZjZ0wrw

First
What is a cause?
Probes the reasons why actions, events,
attitudes, and conditions exist

What is an effect?
Examines consequences of causes

Purpose
2 purpose possibilities for a cause and
effect essay
Explain historical events, natural
happenings, actions and attitudes of
individuals and groups
Help readers anticipate the
consequences of personal actions,
natural phenomena, or government
policies

Patterns
Single cause with several effects
Several causes with a single effect
Causal chain
Multiple Causes and multiple
effects

Patterns

Single cause produces several effects


Might discuss cause then effects or
effects then cause

I. Poor language skills


II. Body
A. Cant keep up with required
reading
B. Cant take adequate notes
C. Cant write competent papers

Patterns

Several causes produce one effect


Might discuss effect then causes or
causes then effect

I. Decrease in U.S. zinc production


II. Body
A. produced more cheaply abroad
B. replaced on cars by plastics,
lighter metals
C. cannot be recycled

Patterns

Causal Chain

Each event is effect of preceding one and the


cause of the following one
Help explain how devices function and how
some social changes proceed
Similar to process analyses which is
concerned with HOW events occur...causal is
concerned with WHY events occur

II. Body
A. sleep late
B. miss breakfast
C. become hungry and distracted
D. perform poorly on exam
https://youtu.be/Gyk55GYnGl0

Patterns

Multiple Cause-Multiple Effect


Sequence of causes and effects is too complex to
fit image of chain
Present causes then effects or effects then causes

Topic: accident
II. Body
A. causes of the accident
1. driver ran stop sign
2. Bushes and unlit headlights impaired
vision
3. Wet pavement caused skidding
B. Effects of the accident
1. missed the movie
2. Unnerved so missed classes next day
3. Other driver lost license

Reasoning Errors
Ignoring multiple causes
An effect rarely stems from a single
cause
Mistaking chronology for causation
Dont assume that just because one
event followed another that the first
necessarily caused the other
(chronology)
Confusing causes and effects
Pam and Paul married because they fell
in love; in reality it was an economic
necessity, and love came later.

Ethics
Forcing a particular outcome by uncovering
only certain causes
Report blaming poor instruction for high
student failure rate neglects oversized
classes, socioeconomics
Carefully weighed importance of chosen
causes
If a few, but not most, of the classes in the
problem school system are oversized, then
report shouldnt stress their significance
Discuss every important effect (even one that
damages point)
Report emphasizing the beneficial effects of
jogging must discuss potential for energy
Consequences of people acting upon essay
Call to action

Thesis & Details


Thesis statement
Identifies the event to be explained or
effects to be considered
Explains importance of
understanding the causes or effects
Offers a summary of the major
causes or effects
Details
Not just a bare-bones discussion of
causes and effects or a list
Vivid description used

Cause & Effect Principles

Explain 1 cause and effect principle

Purpose
Patterns
Reasoning Errors
Ethics
Thesis and details

Commas

Talk to your neighbors


When

do you use a comma?

Commas
Separate items in lists of 3+
Please buy eggs milk bread and cereal at the
store.
Please buy eggs, milk, bread, and cereal at
the store.
1.

I like playing tennis rollerblading and trying


to beat my dad at putt-putt.
I like playing tennis, rollerblading, and trying
to beat my dad at putt-putt.

Commas
2. Before a coordinating conjunction
My sisters name is Lily and my brothers
name is Lucus.
My sisters name is Lily, and my brothers
name is Lucus.
I rushed home and I finished my homework
before soccer practice.
I rushed home, and I finished my homework
before soccer practice.
I am very good in Spanish, and in French.
I am very good in Spanish and in French.

Commas
3. Around information that is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence (this covers 9 rules)
After conjunctive adverbs
After introductory phrases & clauses
Before and/or after an interjection
Before and/or after Latin abbreviations (e.g.)
Before and after parenthetical expressions
When adjectives come after a noun
With titles when they come after persons name
Before and after appositives
Around a direct address

Commas
3. Around information that is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence (this covers 9 rules)
I didnt study very much; nevertheless I made a
good grade.
I didnt study very much; nevertheless, I made a
good grade.
Since my mother forgot to pack me a dessert I
ate your cookie.
Since my mother forgot to pack me a dessert, I
ate your cookie.

Commas
3. Around information that is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence (this covers 9 rules)
Laney ran fast and got home before her mother.
Laney ran, fast, and got home before her mother.
My English teacher kind of heart and generous of
spirit will surely give me an A if I learn all
these comma rules.
My English teacher, kind of heart and generous
of spirit, will surely give me an A if I learn all
these comma rules.

Commas
3. Around information that is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence (this covers 9 rules)
Ive told you twice boys and girls to do your
homework.
Ive told you twice, boys and girls, to do your
homework.
Wow what a beautiful dress.
Wow, what a beautiful dress.

Commas
3. Around information that is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence (this covers 9 rules)
I love sports e.g. baseball basketball and
football.
I love sports, e.g. baseball, basketball, and
football.
They usually cost if you get a good deal about
$200.
They usually cost, if you get a good deal, about
$200.

Commas
3. Around information that is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence (this covers 9 rules)
Arith Metic Ph.D. is my math teacher.
Arith Metic, Ph.D., is my math teacher.
Katie Stevens the best ballerina in the
performance shone as the star of the
evening.
Katie Stevens, the best ballerina in the
performance, shone as the star of the
evening.

Commas
4. Between consecutive adjectives
It was a dark cold dreary night.
*the and test
It was a dark and cold and dreary and night.
It was a dark and cold and dreary night.
It was a dark, cold, dreary night.

Commas
5. Omissions
I ordered chicken; Amanda fish.
I ordered chicken; Amanda ordered fish.
I ordered chicken; Amanda, fish.
Tonight I will study math; tomorrow Spanish.
Tonight I will study math; tomorrow I will study
Spanish.
Tonight I will study math; tomorrow, Spanish.

Commas
6. Conventions
Between cities and states
In numbers over 999 (not in addresses)
Direct quotations (he/she said)
Dates
After greetings and before closings in
friendly letters

Commas
When do you use a comma?
6 basic guidelines
1. Separate items in lists of 3+
2. Before a coordinating conjunction
3. Around information that is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence (this covers 9 rules)
4. Between consecutive adjectives
5. Omissions
6. Conventions

For Lesson #2
Apply your assigned elements to each
of the following readings. Be
prepared to extensively discuss your
findings with the class.
Knapps Why We Keep Stuff
Luscombe & Stinchfields Why We
Flirt
David Dobbs Beautiful Brains