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126

System Implementation

Chapter 17
System Implementation
True-False Questions
1.

After maintenance, the implementation phase of the systems development life cycle is the most
expensive and time-consuming phase of the entire life cycle.
Answer: True

2.

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 573

Difficulty: Easy

Reference: p. 574

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 574

Difficulty: Easy

Reference: p. 575

A master test plan is developed during design.


Answer: False

10.

Reference: p. 573

System and user documentation, a user training plan, user training modules, and a user support plan
are deliverables for documenting the system, training, and supporting users.
Answer: True

9.

Difficulty: Med

According to Bloor, embedded software programmers are professionals and technicians who program
as part of their main duties.
Answer: False

8.

Reference: p. 572

Information systems personnel and end users are the two audiences for the final systems
documentation.
Answer: True

7.

Difficulty: Med

The systems administration plan answers such questions as when and where the new system will be
installed, what people and resources are required, which data will be converted and cleansed, and how
long the installation process will take.
Answer: False

6.

Reference: p. 571

The development of a new version of the software and new versions of all design documents are the
major deliverables associated with the coding, testing, and installation stage.
Answer: False

5.

Difficulty: Med

Test planning is often done during systems design.


Answer: False

4.

Reference: p. 570

Documentation is one of the six major activities associated with systems implementation.
Answer: True

3.

Difficulty: Med

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 575

Testing managers are responsible for developing test plans, establishing testing standards, integrating
testing and development activities in the life cycle, and ensuring that test plans are completed.
Answer: True

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 576

127

System Implementation

11.

During an inspection test, exactly what the code does is investigated.


Answer: False

12.

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 578

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 578

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 578

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 578

Difficulty: Hard

Reference: p. 578

The focus of integration testing is on the interrelationships among modules.


Answer: True

22.

Reference: p. 578

System testing is intended to demonstrate whether a system meets its requirements.


Answer: False

21.

Difficulty: Med

Unit testing is a technique used in testing modules, especially where modules are written and tested in
a top-down fashion, where a few lines of code are used to substitute for subordinate modules.
Answer: False

20.

Reference: p. 577

Integration testing brings together all of the programs that a system comprises for testing purposes.
Answer: False

19.

Difficulty: Med

System testing is the process of bringing together all of the modules that a program comprises for
testing purposes.
Answer: False

18.

Reference: p. 577

A systems analyst or programmer typically does syntax checking.


Answer: False

17.

Difficulty: Med

Unit testing does not require automated code execution.


Answer: False

16.

Reference: p. 577

Desk checking is a testing technique in which the program code is sequentially executed manually by
the reviewer.
Answer: True

15.

Difficulty: Med

Walkthroughs are a very effective method for identifying errors in code.


Answer: True

14.

Reference: p. 577

The purpose of a walkthrough is to detect and correct errors.


Answer: False

13.

Difficulty: Med

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 578

A test case is a specific scenario of transactions, queries, or navigation paths that represent a typical,
critical, or abnormal use of the system.
Answer: True

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 579

Chapter 17

23.

System Implementation

The people who create the test cases should be the same people who have coded and will test the
system.
Answer: False

24.

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 582

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 582

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 582

Difficulty: Hard

Reference: p. 583

Difficulty: Easy

Reference: p. 583

The coexistence of the old and new systems is characteristic of the parallel installation approach.
Answer: True

33.

Reference: p. 582

Installation is the organizational process of changing over from the current information system to a
new one.
Answer: True

32.

Difficulty: Med

The purpose of system testing is to determine whether the software, documentation, technical support,
and training activities work as intended.
Answer: False

31.

Reference: p. 581

During stress testing, the analysts try to determine how the system performs on the range of possible
environments on which it may be used.
Answer: False

30.

Difficulty: Med

During recovery testing, the analysts try to break the system.


Answer: False

29.

Reference: p. 581

During beta testing, users test a completed information system using real data in the real user
environment.
Answer: True

28.

Difficulty: Med

During alpha testing users test a completed information system using simulated data.
Answer: True

27.

Reference: p. 580

Software testing tools can compare the results of one test run with those from prior test cases to
identify errors or to highlight the results of new features.
Answer: True

26.

Difficulty: Med

A symbolic debugger allows a program to be run on-line, allowing the programmer to observe how
different areas of data are affected as the instructions are executed.
Answer: True

25.

128

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 585

The key advantage of a direct installation is that it limits potential damage and potential cost by
limiting the effects to a single site.
Answer: False

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 585

129

System Implementation

34.

A positive aspect of the direct installation approach is that there is a high interest in making
installation a success.
Answer: True

35.

Reference: p. 587

Difficulty: Hard

Reference: p. 587

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 588

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 588

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 588

A release description is an example of user documentation.


Answer: True

44.

Difficulty: Hard

A system administrators guide is an example of external system documentation.


Answer: False

43.

Reference: p. 587

Internal documentation is system documentation that includes the outcome of structured diagramming
techniques such as data flow and entity-relationship diagrams.
Answer: False

42.

Difficulty: Easy

System documentation is the detailed information about a systems design specifications, its internal
workings, and its functionality.
Answer: True

41.

Reference: p. 586

According to Bell and Evans, the release description is finalized during the detailed design and
implementation stage of the systems development generic life cycle phase.
Answer: False

40.

Difficulty: Med

According to Bell and Evans, the resource requirement specification is finalized during systems
development phase.
Answer: False

39.

Reference: p. 586

Installation is an organizational change process.


Answer: True

38.

Difficulty: Med

A positive aspect of the phased installation approach is that it limits potential harm and costs from
system error or failure to certain business activities or functions.
Answer: True

37.

Reference: p. 585

A positive aspect of the phased installation approach is that learning can occur and problems can be
fixed by concentrating on one site.
Answer: False

36.

Difficulty: Med

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 588

The purpose of a users guide is to provide information on how users can use computer systems to
perform specific tasks.
Answer: True

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 589

Chapter 17

45.

System Implementation

An acceptance sign-off allows users to test for proper system installation and then signify their
acceptance of the new system with their signatures.
Answer: True

46.

Reference: p. 593

Difficulty: Hard

Reference: p. 593

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 593

The extent to which a system is used and the users satisfaction with the system are two ways to
determine if implementation has been successful.
Answer: True

50.

Difficulty: Med

Many organizations tend to underinvest in computing skills training.


Answer: True

49.

Reference: p. 590

According to Henderson and Treacy, training and support are most important during the later stages of
end-user computing growth and less so in the earlier stages.
Answer: False

48.

Difficulty: Med

Network architecture refers to all the resources and practices required to help people adequately use
computer systems to do their primary work.
Answer: False

47.

130

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 601

User demographics, performance, and satisfaction are factors that influence the extent to which a
system is used.
Answer: True

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 601

Multiple Choice Questions


51.

After maintenance, which of the following is the most expensive and most time consuming phase of
the entire life cycle?
a.
b.
c.
d.

implementation
physical design
logical design
analysis

Answer: a
52.

Difficulty:

Reference: p. 570

Which of the following affect the implementation process?


a.
b.
c.
d.

the work habits of an organizations members


the personal goals of an organizations members
the beliefs of an organizations members
all of the above

Answer: d

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 571

131

System Implementation

53.

The purpose of coding, testing, and installation is to:


a.

transform the logical specifications of the system into technology specific details from which all
programming and system construction can be done
b. convert the final physical system specifications into working and reliable software and hardware
c. systematically repair and improve the information system
d. study and propose alternative replacement systems
Answer: b
54.

programmers
management
systems analysts
end-users

Answer: c

Reference: p. 571

coding
testing
implementation
analysis

Answer: a

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 572

Which of the following statements is true regarding testing?


a.
b.
c.
d.

The coding process should be completed, and then the testing process can begin.
Once coding has begun, the testing process can begin and proceed in parallel.
The testing process is performed first, then the coding process begins.
None of the above is correct.

Answer: b
57.

Difficulty: Med

The process whereby the physical design specifications created by the analysis team is turned into
working computer code is referred to as:
a.
b.
c.
d.

56.

Reference: p. 571

Who is responsible for ensuring that coding, testing, and installation are properly planned and
executed?
a.
b.
c.
d.

55.

Difficulty: Med

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 572

The process in which the current system is replaced by the new system best describes:
a.
b.
c.
d.

the systems development life cycle


installation
physical design
set-up

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy

Reference: p. 572

Chapter 17

58.

System Implementation

132

The deliverables for coding, testing, and installation are:


a.

the creation of a document that will consolidate the information that must be considered when
implementing a physically distributed systems design
b. structured descriptions and diagrams that outline the logic contained within each DFD process
c. the code, program documentation, test scenarios and test data, results of program and system
testing, user guides, user training plan, and an installation and conversion plan
d. a system service request, a statement of work, and a baseline project plan
Answer: c
59.

training plan
installation plan
user guide
training curriculum

Answer: a

Reference: p. 573

analysis phase
logical design phase
implementation phase
project initiation and planning phase

Answer: c

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 573

This plan lays out a strategy for moving from the old system to the new, from the beginning to end of
the process.
a.
b.
c.
d.

baseline project plan


installation plan
training plan
testing plan

Answer: b
62.

Difficulty: Med

Training on the use of the system begins during the early stages of the:
a.
b.
c.
d.

61.

Reference: p. 573

A strategy for training users so they can quickly learn the new system is a(n):
a.
b.
c.
d.

60.

Difficulty: Med

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 573

This type of future programmer includes professionals and technicians who program as part of their
main duties.
a.
b.
c.
d.

secondary programmer
embedded software programmer
part-time programmer
occasional programmer

Answer: d

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 574

133

System Implementation

63.

A master test plan is developed during:


a.
b.
c.
d.

implementation
analysis
logical design
physical design

Answer: b
64.

developing testing plans


integrating testing and development activities in the life cycle
establishing testing standards
all of the above

Answer: d

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 576

The results of running the code are not an issue for this particular type of test.
a.
b.
c.
d.

static testing
dynamic testing
referential testing
none of the above

Answer: a

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 576

The type of testing that involves the execution of code is called:


a.
b.
c.
d.

code testing
static testing
dynamic testing
execution testing

Answer: c
68.

Reference: p. 576

static testing
dynamic testing
referential testing
manual testing

Answer: a

67.

Difficulty: Med

The type of testing that does not execute the code is called:
a.
b.
c.
d.

66.

Reference: p. 575

Which of the following are testing managers responsible for?


a.
b.
c.
d.

65.

Difficulty: Med

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 576

A testing technique in which participants examine program code for predictable language-specific
errors defines:
a.
b.
c.
d.

walkthrough
inspections
desk checking
syntax checking

Answer: b

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 576

Chapter 17

69.

System Implementation

The type of testing responsible for determining what the code does is:
a.
b.
c.
d.

walkthrough
inspection
system testing
syntax checking

Answer: a
70.

Difficulty: Easy

Reference: p. 577

Testing each module alone in an attempt to discover any errors that may exist in the modules code is
referred to as:
a.
b.
c.
d.

unit testing
system testing
stub testing
singular testing

Answer: a

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 578

The process of bringing together all of the modules that comprise a program for testing purposes is
referred to as:
a.
b.
c.
d.

unity testing
integration testing
system testing
implementation

Answer: b
73.

Reference: p. 577

inspection
system testing
desk checking
syntax checking

Answer: c

72.

Difficulty: Med

A testing technique in which the program code is sequentially executed manually by the reviewer is
referred to as:
a.
b.
c.
d.

71.

134

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 578

The bringing together of all the programs that comprise a system for testing describes:
a.
b.
c.
d.

unity testing
integration testing
system testing
implementation

Answer: c

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 578

135

System Implementation

74.

A technique used in testing modules, especially where modules are written and tested in a top-down
fashion, where a few lines of code are used to substitute for subordinate modules describes:
a.
b.
c.
d.

module testing
unit testing
top-down testing
stub testing

Answer: d
75.

determine if new requirements must be added to the newly completed system


determine if the system meets user requirements
determine if the system meets its objectives
do none of the above

Answer: b

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 582

The process whereby actual users test a completed information system, the end result of which is the
users acceptance of it, best describes:
a.
b.
c.
d.

acceptance testing
alpha testing
beta testing
system testing

Answer: a

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 582

User testing of a completed information system using simulated data refers to:
a.
b.
c.
d.

acceptance testing
alpha testing
beta testing
system testing

Answer: b
79.

Reference: p. 582

alpha testing
beta testing
a system audit
all of the above

Answer: d

78.

Difficulty: Hard

The most complete acceptance testing will include:


a.
b.
c.
d.

77.

Reference: p. 578

The purpose of acceptance testing is to:


a.
b.
c.
d.

76.

Difficulty: Med

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 582

User testing of a completed information system using real data in the real user environment refers to:
a.
b.
c.
d.

acceptance testing
alpha testing
beta testing
system testing

Answer: c

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 582

Chapter 17

80.

System Implementation

Which of the following are designed during alpha testing and try to break the system?
a.
b.
c.
d.

stress tests
performance tests
recovery tests
security tests

Answer: a
81.

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 583

Changing over from the old information system to a new one by turning off the old system as the new
one is turned on best describes:
a.
b.
c.
d.

phased installation
single location installation
parallel installation
direct installation

Answer: d

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 583

All of the following are types of user documentation except:


a.
b.
c.
d.

release description
reference guide
acceptance sign-off
management plan

Answer: d
84.

Reference: p. 582

reorganization
physical design
installation
replacement

Answer: c

83.

Difficulty: Med

The organizational process of changing over from the current information system to a new one best
defines:
a.
b.
c.
d.

82.

136

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 588

System documentation is intended primarily for:


a.
b.
c.
d.

maintenance programmers
end users
systems analysts
system operators

Answer: a

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 588

137

System Implementation

85.

Written or other visual information about an application system, how it works, and how to use it best
defines:
a.
b.
c.
d.

system documentation
user documentation
internal documentation
external documentation

Answer: b
86.

program statements
user documentation
internal documentation
external documentation

Answer: c

Reference: p. 588

system documentation
user documentation
internal documentation
external documentation

Answer: d

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 588

Which of the following is an exhaustive list of the systems functions and commands, usually in
alphabetical order?
a.
b.
c.
d.

reference guide
users guide
release description
system administrators guide

Answer: a
89.

Difficulty: Med

System documentation that includes the outcome of such structured diagramming techniques as data
flow and entity-relationship diagrams best defines:
a.
b.
c.
d.

88.

Reference: p. 588

System documentation that is part of the program source code or is generated at compile time best
defines:
a.
b.
c.
d.

87.

Difficulty: Med

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 588

This type of user documentation contains information about a new system release, including a list of
complete documentation for the new release, features and enhancements, known problems and how
they have been dealt with in the new release, and information about installation.
a.
b.
c.
d.

reference guide
users manual
release description
system administrators guide

Answer: c

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 590

Chapter 17

90.

System Implementation

This type of user documentation is intended primarily for those who will install and administer a new
system and contains information about the network on which the system will run, software interfaces
for peripherals such as printers, troubleshooting, and setting up user accounts.
a.
b.
c.
d.

external documentation
users manual
system documentation
system administrators guide

Answer: d
91.

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 590

Most user documentation is now delivered:


a.
b.
c.
d.

on-line, in hypertext format


through paper manuals
by calling technical support numbers
through help desks

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy

Reference: p. 591

Which of the following is one of the four fundamental issues IS managers must address?
a.
b.
c.
d.

IS specialist salaries
career preparation
computing infrastructure
an organizations mission

Answer: c
94.

Reference: p. 590

acceptance sign-off
user contract
RFP
system verification

Answer: a

93.

Difficulty: Med

This type of user documentation allows users to test for proper system installation and then signify
their acceptance of the new system with their signatures.
a.
b.
c.
d.

92.

138

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 593

According to research studies cited in the text, which of the following statements is true?
a.

Training and support are not as important in the early stages of end user computing growth as they
are in the later stages.
b. Training and support are equally important throughout the stages of end-user computing growth.
c. Training and support are most important in the early stages of end user computing growth and less
so later on.
d. Training is best offered during the design phase.
Answer: c

Difficulty: Hard

Reference: p. 593

139

System Implementation

95.

Which of the following statements is true about intermittent users?


a.
b.
c.
d.

Support mechanisms are a good way to provide training for intermittent users of a system.
Intermittent users are not interested in, nor would they profit from, typical user training methods.
Intermittent users must be provided point of need support.
All of the above are true statements.

Answer: d
96.

Reference: p. 593

The factor identified by Rivard and Huff as being most closely related to overall satisfaction with user
development of computer-based applications was:
a.
b.
c.
d.

user satisfaction with support provided by the information systems department


the correct diagnosis of current information system requirements
active user participation during the analysis of the current system
management participation in the planning process

Answer: a
97.

Difficulty: Med

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 593

Which of the following is true regarding information system training?


a. Many organizations tend to over invest in computing skills training.
b. On average, organizations tend to invest appropriate amounts of time and money in computing
skills training.
c. Many organizations tend to under invest in computing skills training.
d. Information system training is not a costly expense for the organization.
Answer: c

98.

Reference: p. 593

A component of a software package or application in which training and educational information is


embedded best defines:
a.
b.
c.
d.

resident expert
computer-aided instruction
electronic tutorial
electronic performance support system

Answer: d
99.

Difficulty: Med

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 595

Based on a research study cited in the text, which of the following is the number one criterion that
contributes to user satisfaction with personal computing?
a.
b.
c.
d.

type of training manual


training time
user support
training method

Answer: c

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 596

Chapter 17

100.

System Implementation

140

An organizational unit whose mission is to support users in exploiting information technology best
defines:
a.
b.
c.
d.

development center
information center
computer center
management information systems department

Answer: b

Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 596

Fill In the Blanks


101.

Inspections are a testing technique in which participants examine program code for predictable
language-specific errors.
Difficulty: Med

102.

Desk checking is a testing technique in which the program code is sequentially executed manually by
the reviewer.
Difficulty: Med

103.

Reference: p. 578

Acceptance testing is the process whereby actual users test a completed information system, the end
result of which is the users acceptance of it.
Difficulty: Med

108.

Reference: p. 578

System testing is the process of bringing together all of the programs that a system comprises for
testing purposes; programs are typically integrated in a top-down, incremental fashion.
Difficulty: Med

107.

Reference: p. 578

Integration testing is the process of bringing together all of the modules that a program comprises for
testing purposes; the modules are typically integrated in a top-down, incremental fashion.
Difficulty: Hard

106.

Reference: p. 578

In unit testing, each module is tested alone in an attempt to discover any errors in its code.
Difficulty: Med

105.

Reference: p. 577

Stub testing is a technique used in testing modules, especially where modules are written and tested in
a top-down fashion, where a few lines of code are used to substitute for subordinate modules.
Difficulty: Hard

104.

Reference: p. 576

Reference: p. 582

Alpha testing refers to user testing of a completed information system using simulated data.
Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 582

141

System Implementation

109.

Beta testing refers to user testing of a completed information system using real data in the real user
environment.
Difficulty: Med

110.

Installation is the organizational process of changing over from the current information system to a
new one.
Difficulty: Easy

111.

Reference: p.588

Internal documentation is system documentation that is part of the program source code or is
generated at compile time.
Difficulty: Med

119.

Reference: p. 588

System documentation is the detailed information about a systems design specifications, its internal
workings, and its functionality.
Difficulty: Med

118.

Reference: p. 586

System documentation and user documentation are the two basic types of documentation.
Difficulty: Easy

117.

Reference: p. 585

Phased installation refers to changing from the old information system to the new one incrementally,
starting with one or a few functional components and then gradually extending the installation to cover
the whole new system.
Difficulty: Med

116.

Reference: p. 585

Single location installation refers to trying out a new information system at one site and using the
experience to decide if and how the new system should be deployed throughout the organization.
Difficulty: Med

115.

Reference: p. 583

Parallel installation refers to running the old information system and the new one at the same time
until management decides the old system can be turned off.
Difficulty: Easy

114.

Reference: p. 583

Direct installation refers to changing over from the old information system to a new one by turning
off the old system when the new one is turned on.
Difficulty: Easy

113.

Reference: p. 583

Direct, parallel, single location, and phased are the four approaches to installation.
Difficulty: Med

112.

Reference: p. 582

Reference: p. 588

External documentation is system documentation that includes the outcome of structured


diagramming techniques such as data flow and entity-relationship diagrams.
Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 588

Chapter 17

120.

System Implementation

User documentation is written or other visual information about an application system, how it works,
and how to use it.
Difficulty: Easy

121.

Reference: p. 595

An information center is an organizational unit whose mission is to support users in exploiting


information technology.
Difficulty: Med

125.

Reference: p. 593

An electronic performance support system is a component of a software package or application in


which training and educational information is embedded.
Difficulty: Hard

124.

Reference: p. 593

Computing infrastructure refers to all the resources and practices required to help people adequately
use computer systems to do their primary work.
Difficulty: Med

123.

Reference: p. 588

Support refers to providing ongoing educational and problem-solving assistance to information system
users.
Difficulty: Easy

122.

142

Reference: p. 596

A help desk is a single point of contact for all user inquiries and problems about a particular
information system or for all users in a particular department.
Difficulty: Med

Reference: p. 598

Matching Questions
Match each of the following terms with its corresponding definition.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
126.

acceptance testing
alpha testing
beta testing
desk checking
direct installation
inspections
installation
integration testing
parallel installation
phased installation
single location installation
stub testing
support

Changing over from the old information system to a new one incrementally, starting with one or a few
functional components and then gradually extending the installation to cover the whole new system.
Answer:

Reference: p. 586

143

System Implementation

127.

The process of bringing together all of the modules that comprise a program for testing purposes. The
modules are typically integrated in a top-down, incremental fashion.
Answer:

128.

Reference: p. 585

Reference: p. 583

Reference: p. 576

Reference: p. 593

Reference: p. 582

A technique used in testing modules, especially where modules are written and tested in a top-down
fashion, where a few lines of code are used to substitute for subordinate modules.
Answer:

138.

Reference: p. 577

The process whereby actual users test a completed information system, the end result of which is the
users acceptance of it.
Answer:

137.

Providing ongoing educational and problem-solving assistance to information systems users.


Answer:

136.

Reference: p. 585

A testing technique in which participants examine program code for predictable language-specific
errors.
Answer:

135.

Changing over from the old information system to a new one by turning off the old system as the new
one is turned on.
Answer:

134.

Reference: p. 583

Running the old information system and the new one at the same time until management decides the
old system can be turned off.
Answer:

133.

A testing technique in which the program code is sequentially executed manually by the reviewer.
Answer:

132.

Reference: p. 582

Trying out a new information system at one site and using the experience to decide if and how the new
system should be deployed throughout the organization.
Answer:

131.

The organizational process of changing over from the current information system to a new one.
Answer:

130.

Reference: p. 578

User testing of a completed information system using simulated data.


Answer:

129.

Reference: p. 578

User testing of a completed information system using real data in the real user environment.
Answer:

Reference: p. 582

Chapter 17

System Implementation

144

Based on the information adapted from Bloor, 1994, match each of the following future programmer
categories with its corresponding description. (Answers may occur more than once.)
a.
b.
c.
d.
139.

embedded software programmers


IS department programmers
occasional programmers
software company programmers

These programmers work for consulting and packaged software companies.


Answer:

140.

Reference: p. 574

Reference: p. 574

Reference: p. 574

This group will rise from roughly 20 million in 1994 to over 100 million in 2010.
Answer:

146.

Reference: p. 574

These programmers produce code that is contained in other products, like cars, office equipment, and
consumer electronics.
Answer:

145.

These individuals work for the IS function.


Answer:

144.

Reference: p. 574

This group includes professionals and technicians who program as part of their main duties.
Answer:

143.

This group will likely dramatically increase from several million in 1994 to over 10 million by 2010.
Answer:

142.

Reference: p. 574

Of the four categories of programmers mentioned in the article, this is the only programmer category
that is expected to decline.
Answer:

141.

Reference: p. 574

The number of programmers in this category will likely rise from roughly 600,000 in 1994 to several
million by 2010.
Answer:

Reference: p. 574

145

System Implementation

Using Mosleys categorization of test types, classify each of the tests listed below.
a.
b.
c.
d.
147.

148.

149.

150.

151.

152.

153.

static, manual
static, automated
dynamic, manual
dynamic, automated

Unit test
Answer:

Reference: p. 576

Answer:

Reference: p. 576

Answer:

Reference: p. 576

Answer:

Reference: p. 576

Answer:

Reference: p. 576

Answer:

Reference: p. 576

Answer:

Reference: p. 576

Syntax checking

Walkthroughs

Desk checking

Integration test

Inspections

System test

Chapter 17

System Implementation

146

Match each of the following types of testing with its corresponding description.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
154.

integration testing
system testing
stub testing
acceptance testing
alpha testing
beta testing
recovery testing
security testing
stress testing
performance testing

This type of testing verifies protection mechanisms built into the system will protect it from improper
penetration.
Answer:

155.

Reference: p. 583

Reference: p. 582

Reference: p. 578

Reference: p. 582

User testing of a completed information system using simulated data.


Answer:

162.

This type of test forces the software (or environment) to fail in order to verify that recovery is properly
performed.
Answer:

161.

Reference: p. 582

The process of bringing together all of the modules that comprise a program for testing purposes.
Modules are typically integrated in a top-down, incremental fashion.
Answer:

160.

This type of test tries to break the system.


Answer:

159.

Reference: p. 582

This type of testing determines how the system performs on the range of possible environments in
which it may be used.
Answer:

158.

The process whereby actual users test a completed information system, the end result of which is the
users acceptance of it.
Answer:

157.

Reference: p. 582

User testing of a completed information system using real data in the real user environment.
Answer:

156.

Reference: p. 582

A technique used in testing modules, especially where modules are written and tested in a top-down
fashion, where a few lines of code are used to substitute for subordinate modules.
Answer:

Reference: p. 578

147

System Implementation

163.

The bringing together of all the programs that a system comprises for testing purposes; programs are
typically integrated in a top-down, incremental fashion.
Answer:

Reference: p. 578

Match each of the following terms with its corresponding description.


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
164.

direct installation
installation
parallel installation
phased installation
single location installation

Running the old information system and the new one at the same time until management decides the
old system can be turned off.
Answer:

165.

Reference: p. 583

Reference: p. 585

Changing over from the old information system to a new one incrementally, starting with one or a few
functional components and then gradually extending the installation to cover the whole new system.
Answer:

168.

Trying out a new information system at one site and using the experience to decide if and how the new
system should be deployed throughout the organization.
Answer:

167.

Reference: p. 585

The organizational process of changing over from the current information system to a new one.
Answer:

166.

Reference: p. 586

Changing over from the old information system to a new one by turning off the old system as the new
one is turned on.
Answer:

Reference: p. 583

Essay Questions
169.

Briefly identify the four types of installation.


The four types of installation are direct, parallel, single location, and phased. Changing over from the
old information system to a new one by turning off the old system as the new one is turned on is called
direct installation. Parallel installation involves running the old information system and the new one at
the same time until management decides the old system can be turned off. Single location installation
involves trying out a new information system at one site and using the experience to decide if and how
the new system should be deployed throughout the organization. Changing over from the old
information system to a new one incrementally, starting with one or a few functional components and
then gradually extending the installation to cover the whole new system is commonly called phased
installation.

Chapter 17

170.

System Implementation

148

Briefly identify and categorize the seven different types of tests as proposed by Mosley.
Software application testing includes several different types of tests. As indicated in the text, Mosley
(1993) classifies the techniques based on whether they use static or dynamic techniques, and whether
the test is automated or manual. While static means the code being tested is not executed, dynamic
does involve the execution of code. Automation indicates that the computer performs the testing;
manual means that people perform the testing. Four distinct categories are identified: (1) static,
manual, (2) static, automated, (3) dynamic, manual, and (4) dynamic, automated. The first category
contains inspections; the second category contains syntax checking. The third category contains
walkthroughs and desk checking; the fourth category contains unit test, integration test, and system
test.

171.

Define system documentation, user documentation, internal documentation, and external


documentation.
System documentation is detailed information about a systems design specifications, its internal
workings, and its functionality. Internal documentation and external documentation are two types of
system documentation. Internal documentation is system documentation that is part of the program
source code or is generated at compile time. External documentation is system documentation that
includes the outcome of such structured diagramming techniques as data flow and entity-relationship
diagrams. User documentation refers to written or other visual information about an application
system, how it works, and how to use it.

172.

Identify several types of user documentation.


The text identified several types of user documentation. These types include a reference guide, a
users guide, a release description, a systems administrators guide, and an acceptance sign-off. A
reference guide consists of an exhaustive list of the systems functions and commands and is usually in
alphabetical order. This purpose of the users guide is to provide information on how users can use
computer systems to perform specific tasks. A release description provides information about a new
system release, including a list of complete documentation for the new release, features and
enhancements, known problems and how they have been dealt with in the new release, and
information about installation. The systems administrators guide is intended for individuals who will
install and administer the system. It contains information about the network on which the system will
run, software interfaces for peripherals, troubleshooting, and setting up user accounts. Users
demonstrate their approval by recording their signatures on an acceptance sign-off.

173.

Briefly identify the tasks associated with closing down the project.
The first task encompasses many activities. These activities include team member evaluations, team
member reassignments, and notifying affected parties of the project ending. The second task
encompasses post-project reviews with both management and customers; its purpose is to critique the
project, its methods, its deliverables, and its management. The third task involves closing out the
customer contract.

174.

What are the six factors, identified by Lucas, that influence the extent to which a system is used?
Lucas identified users personal stake, system characteristics, user demographics, organization
support, performance, and satisfaction.

175.

What is a help desk? What are the top two valued skills help desk personnel should have?
A help desk is a single point of contact for all user inquiries and problems about a particular
information system or for all users in a particular department. The top two valued skills are related to
communication and customer service.

149

System Implementation

176.

What is an electronic performance support system? What forms might this system take?
An electronic performance support system is a component of a software package or application in
which training and educational information is embedded. An EPSS can be implemented as a tutorial,
expert system shell, or hypertext jumps to reference material.

177.

What factors influence implementation success?


While management support and user involvement impact the successful implementation of a new
system, other factors play a part. Commitment to the project, commitment to change, the extent of
project definition, user expectations, and political environment impact the implementation process.
Additionally, Lucas identified six factors that influence the extent to which a system is used; these
include users personal stake, system characteristics, user demographics, organization support,
performance, and satisfaction.

178.

How can you support intermittent users of a system?


Intermittent system users require point of need support. Their needs can be addressed through the
system interface and on-line help facilities.