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BHARATI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

SECTOR 7, OPPOSITE KHARGHAR RAILWAY STATION, CBD


BELAPUR,
NAVI MUMBAI- 400614

A MINI PROJECT REPORT ON :-

BLINKING OF LED
IS SUBMITTED BY A GROUP OF :-

Roll No

Name of Student

22

Gaurav J. Narkhade

30

Nikita H. Patil

35

Vidya V. Pawar

36

Vishal S. Pawar

UNDER THE GUIDANCE


Prof. P. A. Kharade
1

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION


2015-2016

BHARATI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


SECTOR 7, OPPOSITE KHARGHAR RAILWAY STATION, CBD BELAPUR,
NAVI MUMBAI- 400614

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Mini Project - I entitled as

BLINKING OF LED
IS SUBMITTED BY A GROUP OF :Sr. No.

Roll No.

Name Of Student

22

Gaurav J. Narkhade

30

Nikita H. Patil

35

Vidya V. Pawar

36

Vishal S. Pawar

In partial fulfillment of the Third Year Engineering Degree Course in the


department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering as prescribed in
the syllabus by the University Of Mumbai for the academic year 2015-2016.
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Internal Guide

HOD

Prof. P. A. Kharade

Prof. P. A. Kharade

Principal

Dr.M.Z.Shaikh

INDEX

SR.N

TOPIC

PAGE NO.

O
I
II

Introduction

Description of Components :-

4
5

a) 555 Timer IC
b) Light Emitting Diode (LED)
c) Copper Clad Board

d) Transistor
III
IV

e) Resistor
f) Capacitor
Data Sheet Of IC 555 Timer

8
10

Circuit Operation and its Analysis


a) Block Diagram
b) Circuit Diagram
PCB Layout Diagram

VI

Soldering

14

VII

Testing

14

VIII

Applications

14

IX

Conclusion

15

References

15

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INTRODUCTION
This Flashing or Dancing LED circuit is used for decoration purpose or as
an indicator. Flashing or dancing speed of LED's can be varied with the help of
variable resistor and various dancing pattern of light can be formed by slight
change in the circuit
The circuit is based on IC NE555 and with few more components such as
resistors and transistor. 555 timer IC wired as an astable oscillator. In this circuit
NE555 astable generates a clock for the circuit which provide a oscillating wave to
the output pin 3 of IC1. You can vary the speed of oscillation with the help of VR1.
The frequency of oscillation of 555 timer can be calculated by
f=1.44/(R1+2*(VR1)*C1)
The timer basically operates in one of the two modes either as a monostable
(one-shot) multivibrator or as an astable (free-running) multivibrator. The SE 555
is designed for the operating temperature range from 55C to 125 while the NE
555operates over a temperature range of 0 to 70C.

DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS:
555 Timer IC
555 is a very commonly used IC for generating accurate timing pulses. It is an 8pin
timer IC and has mainly two modes of operation: monostable and astable. In
monostable mode time delay of the pulses can be precisely controlled by an
external resistor and a capacitor whereas in astable mode the frequency & duty
cycle are controlled by two external resistors and a capacitor. 555 is very
commonly used for generating time delays and pulses.

LED
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light sources. The light emitted
from LEDs varies from visible to infrared and ultraviolet regions. They operate on
low voltage and power. LEDs are one of the most common electronic components
and are mostly used as indicators in circuits. They are also used for luminance and
optoelectronic applications. Based on semiconductor diode, LEDs emit photons
when electrons recombine with holes on forward biasing. The two terminals of
LEDs are anode (+) and cathode (-) and can be identified by their size. The longer
leg is the positive terminal or anode and shorter one is negative terminal.

COPPER CLAD BOARD


It is a layer of thin copper foil, which is laminated to the board with heat
and adhesive. On common, double sided PCBs, copper is applied to both sides of
the substrate. In lower cost electronic gadgets the PCB may have copper on only
one side. When we refer to a double sided layer board we are referring to the
number of copper layers (2) in our lasagna.The copper thickness can vary and is
specified by weight, in ounces per square foot. The vast majority of PCBs have 1
ounce of copper per square foot but some PCBs that handle very high power may
use 2 or 3 ounce copper. Each ounce per square translates to about 35 micrometers
or 1.4 thousandths of an inch of thickness of copper.

TRANSISTOR
BC558 is a general purpose PNP transistor. It is used in switching and
amplifier applications. The DC current gain varies in range 110 to 800. It is also
used as a complement for transistors BC546 to BC550. The transistor terminals
require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its characteristic
curves. This is known as the biasing. For amplification applications, the transistor
is biased such that it is partly on for all input conditions. The input signal at base is
amplified and taken at the emitter. BC558 is used in common emitter configuration
for amplifiers. The voltage divider is the commonly used biasing mode. For

switching applications, transistor is biased so that it remains fully on if there is a


signal at its base. In the absence of base signal, it gets completely off.

RESISTOR

It is a passive component used to control current in a circuit. Its resistance is


given by the ratio of voltage applied across its terminals to the current passing through it.
Thus a particular value of resistor, for fixed voltage, limits the current through it. They
are omnipresent in electronic circuits. The different value of resistances are used to limit
the currents or get the desired voltage drop according to the current-voltage rating of the
device to be connected in the circuit. For example, if an LED of rating 2.3V and 6mA is
to be connected with a supply of 5V, a voltage drop of 2.7V (5V-2.3V) and limiting
current of 6mA is required. This can be achieved by providing a resistor of 450
connected in series with the LED.

CAPACITOR
Capacitor is a passive component used to store charge. The charge (q) stored in a
capacitor is the product of its capacitance (C) value and the voltage (V) applied to it.
Capacitors offer infinite reactance to zero frequency so they are used for blocking DC
components or bypassing the AC signals. The capacitor undergoes through a recursive
cycle of charging and discharging in AC circuits where the voltage and current across it
depends on the RC time constant. For this reason, capacitors are used for smoothing
power supply variations. Other uses include, coupling the various stages of audio system,
tuning in radio circuits etc. These are used to store energy like in a camera flash.

DATA SHEET OF IC 555 TIMER


General Description
The LM555 is a highly stable device for generating accurate time delays or
oscillation. Additional terminals are provided for triggering or resetting if desired. In the
time delay mode of operation, the time is precisely controlled by one external resistor and
capacitor. For astable operation as an oscillator, the free running frequency and duty cycle
are accurately controlled with two external resistors and one capacitor. The circuit may be
triggered and reset on falling waveforms, andthe output circuit can source or sink up to
200mA or drive TTL circuits.

Features
Direct replacement for SE555/NE555

Timing from microseconds through hours


Operates in both astable and monostable modes
Adjustable duty cycle
Output can source or sink 200 mA
Output and supply TTL compatible
Temperature stability better than 0.005% per C
Normally on and normally off output
Available in 8-pin MSOP package

Applications
Precision timing
Pulse generation
Sequential timing
Time delay generation
Pulse width modulation
Pulse position modulation
Linear ramp generator

Schematic Diagram

Connection Diagram

CIRCUIT OPERATION AND ITS


ANALYSIS
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BLOCK DIAGRAM

The 555 timer is used to generate the PWM signal which will cause the LEDs to
blink. The speed of the blinking by LED is determined by the potentiometer connected to
the 555 timer. The PNP transistor is used to flash or blinks the LEDs.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

OPERATION

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The mini project is completely based on the concept of timer IC555 as a free
running multivibrator. The only difference lies in the way it flash using bi-colour
LEDs.When output at pin 3 of IC 555 goes high it operates on group of LEDs. By
inverting the ICs low output by pnp transistor BC558 the other group of LEDs is
made to flash. as shown in circuit diagram the LEDs are arranged in alternately
reversed order so that a twinkle twinkle little stars effect is produced. The 100K
preset VR1 sets the blinking rate.
THE COMPONENTS USED ARE:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Timer IC 555
Bicolour LEDs (10)
Potentiometer (100k)
Resistor : Ra=100k, Rb=5.6k
Capacitor : C= 10uf
Transistor (1) BC 558

The blinking rate of LEDs basically depends on the ON time and OFF time
IC555.During ON time one row of LEDs will glow while other LEDs will remain off. As
positive voltage is also connected to other set of LEDs through NPN transistor. collector
of transistor is connected to set of LEDs. During the off time the transistor turns on and
voltage is supplied to LEDs and so this LEDs glows. As IC555 is used as free running
multivibrator ,this process continues till the power is turned OFF.

The ON time and OFF time is calculated :


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T(on)=0.693(Ra+Rb)C
T(off) = 0.693*Rb*C

Total time = 0.693(Ra+2Rb)C


Therefore;

T(on)=0.693(100k*5.6k)100uf
T(on) = 0.737s

T(off)=0.693*5.6k*100uf
T(off) = 0.693s

Total time = 0.693(100k*2(5.6k))100uf


Total time = 1.43s

PCB LAYOUT DIAGRAM


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A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects


electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from
copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. PCBs can be single sided (one
copper layer), double sided (two copper layers) or multi-layer (outer and inner layers).
Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher component density. Conductors on different
layers are connected with plated-through holes called vias. Advanced PCBs may contain
components - capacitors, resistors or active devices - embedded in the substrate

Soldering
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Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by
melting and flowing a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower
melting point than the adjoining metal. Soldering differs from welding in that soldering
does not involve melting the work pieces. In brazing, the filler metal melts at a higher
temperature, but the work piece metal does not melt. In the past, nearly all solders
contained lead, but environmental and health concerns have increasingly dictated use of
lead-free alloys for electronics and plumbing purposes.

Testing
System testing of software or hardware is testing conducted on a complete,
integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.
System testing falls within the scope of black box testing, and as such, should require no
knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic.
As a rule, system testing takes, as its input, all of the "integrated" software
components that have passed integration testing and also the software system itself
integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). The purpose of integration testing is
to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together
(called assemblages) or between any of the assemblages and the hardware. System testing
is a more limited type of testing; it seeks to detect defects both within the "interassemblages" and also within the system as a whole.

APPLICATIONS :Blinking LED circuit can be used for any visual sign indication in any highways or
it can be used in advertisement hoarding also.LED blinking circuit can be used in
signaling purpose (It can be used as signal for help, if you are in danger)LED blinking
circuit can be used as flashing beacon.LED blinking circuit can be used as vehicle
indicator when it is broke down in the middle of the road. It can be used in operation
theaters or offices as an indication that you are engaged in work. There are lots of
applications with these two circuits.

CONCLUSION
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In todays world the continuous need of automatic appliances is increasing day by


day in our standard of life. So there is an urgent need of developing such circuits that
would ease out the complexity of our daily life. In addition to this, the project provides
enriched learning experience to count the number of visitors in any particular location
where the circuit is being implemented with proper technological experience.
We just took up this project as we were interested in Electronics and wanted to
learn something more about it. Through this project, we learnt a lot about the overall
functioning of the circuit, uses of the various electronic components and their
applications in real life. We were also able to correlate ourselves about whatever we
studied in this particular course.
We are very much grateful to our faculty members for guiding us thoroughly in
this project.

REFERENCES : http://electronicsproject.org/
https://en.wikipedia.org/

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