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FLUID DYNAMICS

Weather and Climate

Vehicles

Vehicles

Environment

Recreation

Fluid Dynamics
Flow Types and Regimes:
What are the different flow behaviors?

Bernoullis Principle:
What are the governing principles in predicting the
flow of fluids?

Drag and Lift:


Differentiate between drag force and lift force.

Viscosity ()

Resistance to flow, pagkalapot


Measure of internal friction of fluid
particles

LOW

HIGH

Dynamic Viscosity
Dynamic Viscocity = (mu)
Kinematic Viscosity = (nu)
Density = (rho)

= /

Density

Measure of the relative "heaviness"


of objects with a constant volume

How closely "packed" or "crowded


the material appears to be

Reynolds Number

Non-dimensional unit

that indicates if the


flow is laminar (calm)
or turbulent (chaotic)

Osborne Reynolds

Reynolds Number

Laminar Flow:
Reynolds Number < 2000
Turbulent Flow:
Reynolds Number > 2000

Types of Fluid Flow

Laminar Flow
(or Streamline Flow)

Flow persists as unidirectional


movement

Molecules flow parallel

Turbulent Flow

Irregular and random component of


fluid motion

Highly distorted flow

Flow Regimes

1. Steady Flow
assumes constant flow rate throughout
the analysis.

Flow velocity does not change with


respect to time at a given location.

2. Unsteady Flow
does not assume a constant flow rate
throughout the analysis.

Ideal Fluid

Characteristics of an Ideal Fluid:


The fluid is nonviscous.
The fluid is incompressible.

Additional Simplifications for


ES10

The fluid is steady.


The fluid moves without
turbulence.

IDEAL FLOW

REAL FLOW

Conservation of Mass:
(Continuity Eqn)

In steady fluid flow:


The mass that enters the stream tube
from the left (e.g. at the rate of 1
kg/sec) must leave on the right at the
same rate (1 kg/sec).

Conservation of Mass:
(Continuity Eqn)

Mathematically:

A1V1 = A2V2
A= Area
V = Velocity
Speed is high where the pipe is narrow and
speed is low where the pipe has a large
diameter

In 1 second, the shaded mass goes in and out of


the pipe (at areas A1 and A2, with velocities v1
and v2, respectively).

Mass 1 = Mass 2
*Volume 1= *Volume 2
Volume 1= Volume 2

A1*v1= A2*v2

Bernoullis Principle

The Bernoulli

principle is a
statement of energy
conservation
applied in ideal
fluid.

Energy at pt 1 =
Energy at pt 2

Bernoullis Principle

Energy at pt 1 = Energy at pt 2

Bernoullis Principle
Has Three Components:
- Pressure Energy or Pressure Head*
- Velocity Energy or Velocity Head*
- Elevation Energy or Elevation Head*
*Head term used in fluid mechanics to signify
amount of energy and is defined as the energy
per unit weight or per Newton

Energy = Pressure + Velocity + Elevation

=
+
+

Note: Equation terms do not have the units of energy
but of energy head which is in distance units.

Bernoullis Principle
V

VELOCITY

ELEVATION
PRESSURE
Bottomline: Energy of fluid has 3 components.

1 = 2

1 1
2 2
+
+ 1 =
+
+ 2
2
2



+
+ =
+
+

Elevation 1 = Elevation 2
Area 1 > Area 2
Velocity 1 < Velocity 2

Pressure 1 > Pressure 2

Applications

Drag and Lift

Drag

Sometimes called air resistance or


resistance

fluid

Refers to forces that oppose the relative


motion of an object through a fluid

Drag
Drag forces act in the same direction as the

relative fluid flow(flow of fluid with respect to


you/object).

Imagine you are the object (whether moving

through fluid or stationary) immersed in a fluid


(whether flowing or not). You can either see:

(1) the fluid as stationary (you are moving in the same


speed and direction of fluid or both you and the fluid
are stationary) OR

(2) you can see the fluid flow from one side to the
other. If you see the fluid move from one side to the
other, then the drag force will follow the direction of
the flow that you see (relative fluid flow).

Drag
Drag forces act in the same direction as the

relative fluid flow (flow of fluid with respect to


you/object).

It is the same as saying that Drag force is always

opposite the motion of the object relative to the


fluid.

If you are moving to the left with respect to

the fluid around you, then the drag force is to


the right. The same situation can be
described as: if the fluid is moving to the right
with respect to you, then the drag force is to
the right.

YOU
Moving at:
0 m/s (at rest)

Fluid Flow:
10 m/s in direction
shown

DRAG FORCE

DRAG FORCE:
To the left since you can see the fluid
flow from right to left (relative flow).

YOU
Moving at:
5 m/s (to the left)

Fluid Flow:
10 m/s in direction
shown

DRAG
FORCE

DRAG FORCE:
To the left since you can see the fluid
flow from right to left (relative flow)
although at a rate slower than actual
fluid flow.

YOU
Moving at:
10 m/s (to the left)

Fluid Flow:
10 m/s in direction
shown

DRAG FORCE:
NO DRAG FORCE since you see the fluid
not moving with respect to you

YOU
Moving at:
20 m/s (to the left)

Fluid Flow:
10 m/s in direction
shown

DRAG FORCE

DRAG FORCE:
TO THE RIGHT since you can see the
fluid flow from left to right. You are
faster than the fluid in effect, you see
the fluid move from left to right.

Friction and Pressure Drag

Fluid dynamic forces can are

composed of PRESSURE and


FRICTION effects, so it is useful to
separate these components.

Drag = Pressure Drag + Friction Drag

Drag

Aerodynamic force

that develops in the


direction of the
RELATIVE flow.

2 parts
Skin friction/ Skin

Drag/ Surface
Drag/ Viscous Drag

Pressure Drag/ Form


Drag/ Profile Drag

Drag Coefficient

Ratio of Drag over Dynamic Force

=
CD Drag Coefficient

1
2

FD Drag Force
Density
A Reference Area
V Velocity of object with respect to the fluid

SKIN DRAG

Friction between the fluid and a body


moving through the fluid.

Factors:
Relative velocity of fluid flow
Surface area of the body
Roughness of Surface
Viscosity of the fluid

Form Drag
Created by the pressure differential between the
lead and rear sides of a body moving through a
fluid

Factors:
Relative velocity of fluid flow
Surface area of the body
perpendicular to flow

Pressure gradient between front and


rear ends

Example

Example

Example

Example

STREAMLINING

Streamlining

REDUCES DRAG FORCE by reducing

the PRESSURE DRAG at the cost of


INCREASING WETTED SURFACE AREA
AND SKIN FRICTION.

Goal is to eliminate flow separation


and minimize total drag.

Drag

For drag to be generated, the solid


body must be in contact with the
fluid: NO FLUID, NO DRAG.

There must be motion between the


object and the fluid: NO MOTION,
NO DRAG.

Drag

Drag increases with speed, fluid


density, and object size.

Drag is overcome by thrust.

Thrust

Force that must be created to overcome


drag.

Thrust can be provided by

Forces on an Airplane

LIFT

Lift

Defined to be the component of this


force that is perpendicular to the
oncoming flow direction.

Represents a net force that acts

perpendicular to the direction of the


relative motion of the fluid;

Created by different pressures on

opposite sides of an object due to fluid


flow past the object

Lift

Lift

Forces

Thrust = Drag: airplane maintains speed

Thrust > Drag: airplane will accelerate.

Lift = Weight:

airplane maintains elevation

Drag > Thrust: airplane will slow down, will


eventually descend.
Lift > Weight:

airplane will elevate.

Weight > Lift:

airplane will descend.

Factors affecting Lift

Shape and size of object


Relative velocity of object and fluid

(including inclination of flow or angle of


attack)

Fluid density

Airplane Movement

Roll - Aileron

Yaw - Rudder

Pitch - Elevator

References

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