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# FLUID DYNAMICS

## Weather and Climate

Vehicles

Vehicles

Environment

Recreation

Fluid Dynamics
Flow Types and Regimes:
What are the different flow behaviors?

Bernoullis Principle:
What are the governing principles in predicting the
flow of fluids?

## Drag and Lift:

Differentiate between drag force and lift force.

Viscosity ()

## Resistance to flow, pagkalapot

Measure of internal friction of fluid
particles

LOW

HIGH

Dynamic Viscosity
Dynamic Viscocity = (mu)
Kinematic Viscosity = (nu)
Density = (rho)

= /

Density

## Measure of the relative "heaviness"

of objects with a constant volume

## How closely "packed" or "crowded

the material appears to be

Reynolds Number

Non-dimensional unit

## that indicates if the

flow is laminar (calm)
or turbulent (chaotic)

Osborne Reynolds

Reynolds Number

Laminar Flow:
Reynolds Number < 2000
Turbulent Flow:
Reynolds Number > 2000

## Types of Fluid Flow

Laminar Flow
(or Streamline Flow)

movement

Turbulent Flow

fluid motion

## Highly distorted flow

Flow Regimes

assumes constant flow rate throughout
the analysis.

## Flow velocity does not change with

respect to time at a given location.

does not assume a constant flow rate
throughout the analysis.

Ideal Fluid

## Characteristics of an Ideal Fluid:

The fluid is nonviscous.
The fluid is incompressible.

ES10

The fluid moves without
turbulence.

IDEAL FLOW

REAL FLOW

Conservation of Mass:
(Continuity Eqn)

The mass that enters the stream tube
from the left (e.g. at the rate of 1
kg/sec) must leave on the right at the
same rate (1 kg/sec).

Conservation of Mass:
(Continuity Eqn)

Mathematically:

A1V1 = A2V2
A= Area
V = Velocity
Speed is high where the pipe is narrow and
speed is low where the pipe has a large
diameter

## In 1 second, the shaded mass goes in and out of

the pipe (at areas A1 and A2, with velocities v1
and v2, respectively).

Mass 1 = Mass 2
*Volume 1= *Volume 2
Volume 1= Volume 2

A1*v1= A2*v2

Bernoullis Principle

The Bernoulli

principle is a
statement of energy
conservation
applied in ideal
fluid.

Energy at pt 1 =
Energy at pt 2

Bernoullis Principle

Energy at pt 1 = Energy at pt 2

Bernoullis Principle
Has Three Components:
- Pressure Energy or Pressure Head*
- Velocity Energy or Velocity Head*
- Elevation Energy or Elevation Head*
*Head term used in fluid mechanics to signify
amount of energy and is defined as the energy
per unit weight or per Newton

## Energy = Pressure + Velocity + Elevation

=
+
+

Note: Equation terms do not have the units of energy
but of energy head which is in distance units.

Bernoullis Principle
V

VELOCITY

ELEVATION
PRESSURE
Bottomline: Energy of fluid has 3 components.

1 = 2

1 1
2 2
+
+ 1 =
+
+ 2
2
2

+
+ =
+
+

Elevation 1 = Elevation 2
Area 1 > Area 2
Velocity 1 < Velocity 2

Applications

Drag

resistance

fluid

## Refers to forces that oppose the relative

motion of an object through a fluid

Drag
Drag forces act in the same direction as the

you/object).

## through fluid or stationary) immersed in a fluid

(whether flowing or not). You can either see:

## (1) the fluid as stationary (you are moving in the same

speed and direction of fluid or both you and the fluid
are stationary) OR

(2) you can see the fluid flow from one side to the
other. If you see the fluid move from one side to the
other, then the drag force will follow the direction of
the flow that you see (relative fluid flow).

Drag
Drag forces act in the same direction as the

you/object).

fluid.

## the fluid around you, then the drag force is to

the right. The same situation can be
described as: if the fluid is moving to the right
with respect to you, then the drag force is to
the right.

YOU
Moving at:
0 m/s (at rest)

Fluid Flow:
10 m/s in direction
shown

DRAG FORCE

DRAG FORCE:
To the left since you can see the fluid
flow from right to left (relative flow).

YOU
Moving at:
5 m/s (to the left)

Fluid Flow:
10 m/s in direction
shown

DRAG
FORCE

DRAG FORCE:
To the left since you can see the fluid
flow from right to left (relative flow)
although at a rate slower than actual
fluid flow.

YOU
Moving at:
10 m/s (to the left)

Fluid Flow:
10 m/s in direction
shown

DRAG FORCE:
NO DRAG FORCE since you see the fluid
not moving with respect to you

YOU
Moving at:
20 m/s (to the left)

Fluid Flow:
10 m/s in direction
shown

DRAG FORCE

DRAG FORCE:
TO THE RIGHT since you can see the
fluid flow from left to right. You are
faster than the fluid in effect, you see
the fluid move from left to right.

## composed of PRESSURE and

FRICTION effects, so it is useful to
separate these components.

## Drag = Pressure Drag + Friction Drag

Drag

Aerodynamic force

## that develops in the

direction of the
RELATIVE flow.

2 parts
Skin friction/ Skin

Drag/ Surface
Drag/ Viscous Drag

## Pressure Drag/ Form

Drag/ Profile Drag

Drag Coefficient

## Ratio of Drag over Dynamic Force

=
CD Drag Coefficient

1
2

FD Drag Force
Density
A Reference Area
V Velocity of object with respect to the fluid

SKIN DRAG

## Friction between the fluid and a body

moving through the fluid.

Factors:
Relative velocity of fluid flow
Surface area of the body
Roughness of Surface
Viscosity of the fluid

Form Drag
Created by the pressure differential between the
lead and rear sides of a body moving through a
fluid

Factors:
Relative velocity of fluid flow
Surface area of the body
perpendicular to flow

rear ends

Example

Example

Example

Example

STREAMLINING

Streamlining

## the PRESSURE DRAG at the cost of

INCREASING WETTED SURFACE AREA
AND SKIN FRICTION.

## Goal is to eliminate flow separation

and minimize total drag.

Drag

## For drag to be generated, the solid

body must be in contact with the
fluid: NO FLUID, NO DRAG.

## There must be motion between the

object and the fluid: NO MOTION,
NO DRAG.

Drag

## Drag increases with speed, fluid

density, and object size.

Thrust

drag.

## Thrust can be provided by

Forces on an Airplane

LIFT

Lift

## Defined to be the component of this

force that is perpendicular to the
oncoming flow direction.

## perpendicular to the direction of the

relative motion of the fluid;

## opposite sides of an object due to fluid

flow past the object

Lift

Lift

Forces

Lift = Weight:

## Drag > Thrust: airplane will slow down, will

eventually descend.
Lift > Weight:

## Shape and size of object

Relative velocity of object and fluid

## (including inclination of flow or angle of

attack)

Fluid density

Airplane Movement

Roll - Aileron

Yaw - Rudder

Pitch - Elevator

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Floyd

http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/b2/b21.html

http://www.popsci.com/sites/popsci.com/files/styles/large_1x_/public/import/2013/images/2013/07/waterspoutmain.jpg?itok=ROtLymA-

http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/b2/images/b2_6.jpg
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/classic-cars8.htm
http://s.hswstatic.com/gif/1931-1935-buick-eight-1.jpg
http://www.kyotostation.com/the-tokaido-shinkansen/
http://cdn.netmobius.com/images-stn-kyoto/13-Shinkansen_1.jpg
http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/nssn/
http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/nssn/images/nssnvirginia_2.jpg
http://www.nature.org/cs/groups/webcontent/@web/@lakesrivers/documents/media/iliamna-lake-ak-splash.jpg
http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/habitats/riverslakes/
http://www.pollutionissues.com/A-Bo/Air-Pollution.html
http://www.pollutionissues.com/photos/air-pollution-3563.jpg
http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2010/12/why-golf-balls-have-dimples/
http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/sports/golf/basics/question37.htm

References

http://images.clipartpanda.com/air-clipart-air-hi.png

http://www.clipartpanda.com/categories/air-clipart
http://makeupandbeauty.com/rose-water-lemon-and-honey-pack-for-pimples-diy/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osborne_Reynolds
http://www-mdp.eng.cam.ac.uk/web/library/enginfo/aerothermal_dvd_only/aero/fprops/pipeflow/node8.html
http://www-mdp.eng.cam.ac.uk/web/library/enginfo/aerothermal_dvd_only/aero/fprops/pipeflow/lamturb.gif

http://i.stack.imgur.com/6UfAY.jpg
http://www.conservationwarehouse.com/pca-perlator-1-gpm-faucet-aerator-regular-size-laminar.html
http://ep.yimg.com/ay/yhst-18576604904413/pca-perlator-1-0-gpm-faucet-aerator-regular-size-laminar-flow-6.jpg
http://kbia.org/post/columbias-tap-water-taste-changes-summer-treatment
http://www.cfdsupport.com/OpenFOAM-Training-by-CFD-Support/sketch-laminar-flow-turbulent-flow.png

http://www.cfdsupport.com/OpenFOAM-Training-by-CFD-Support/node263.html
http://labman.phys.utk.edu/phys221core/Studio%20sessions/Studio%20Session%208.htm

References

http://labman.phys.utk.edu/phys221core/Studio%20sessions/newimages/images8/lab8.h2.gif

http://bernoullisprinciple.weebly.com/daniel-bernoulli.html

https://s3.amazonaws.com/gs-waymarking-images/5be388c3-d5fd-4397-89d6-81ee1ba4313f.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli%27s_principle

https://reidmiddleton.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/rollinghills-262001-048.jpg
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pber.html
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/imgmec/bernoul.gif
http://scharfautomation.com/venturi-meter/
http://www.construction-learning-resources.co.uk/page_64.html
http://www.construction-learning-resources.co.uk/images/High_Rise_System_for_Cold_Water.jpg?547
http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2004-04-16-toilets_x.htm
http://images.usatoday.com/money/_photos/2004/04/16/champion-toilet-diagram.jpg
http://www.waymarking.com/gallery/image.aspx?f=1&guid=ae8bc95b-f011-4f4f-bf67fb0e3cdd6713&lat=50.073758&lon=14.406914&t=6

http://www.engineeringexpert.net/Engineering-Expert-Witness-Blog/fluid-mechanics-in-mechanical-engineering-part-i-fluid-statics

References

http://www.kentuckylake.com/history/kylake/kentuckydam.shtml
http://www.kentuckylake.com/history/kylake/images/turbine.jpg
https://vlhill.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/illustration-card-suck21.png
https://vlhill.wordpress.com/2012/03/04/jessica-greenwalt/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_(physics)
http://people.oregonstate.edu/~warnersa/research_phd.html
http://people.oregonstate.edu/~warnersa/research/form_drag_frictional_drag.jpg
https://awe365.com/windsurfing-in-brazil-top-ten-spots-to-try/
https://zwemza.wordpress.com/page/51/
https://zwemza.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/streamline.jpg
https://www.quora.com/Aerodynamics-Are-golf-dimples-really-the-most-efficient-design-to-reduce-drag
https://qph.is.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-d6bf41b610d0d0bc9043bda51b1ae279?convert_to_webp=true
http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/D/drag_coefficient.html
http://www.daviddarling.info/images/drag_coefficients.jpg
http://quest.nasa.gov/aero/planetary/atmospheric/drag1.html
http://quest.nasa.gov/aero/planetary/atmospheric/images/streamlining.jpg
http://dle-tech.info/tag/pitch/

References

http://www.marineinsight.com/photo-of-the-day/10-ship-propeller-photos-taken-by-seafarers/

http://giphy.com/gifs/jet-engine-afterburner-vf5TjQrio0TBK
https://media.giphy.com/media/vf5TjQrio0TBK/giphy.gif
https://www.mansfieldct.org/Schools/MMS/staff/hand/flight4forcesoverview.htm
https://www.mansfieldct.org/Schools/MMS/staff/hand/Image217.gif
https://www.mansfieldct.org/Schools/MMS/staff/hand/Image218.gif
https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/newton3.html
https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/Images/newton3.gif

https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/bernnew.html
https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/UEET/StudentSite/dynamicsofflight.html
https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/UEET/StudentSite/images/engines/foillift.jpg
http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/aero/virtual/demo/aeronautics/tutorial/wings.html
http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/aero/virtual/demo/aeronautics/tutorial/images/AirPressure.gif
http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/a/e/aerofoil/source.html#.VzIkdoR95D8
http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/a/e/aerofoil/image002.jpg

http://electron6.phys.utk.edu/101/CH6/weight_and_lift.htm
http://electron6.phys.utk.edu/101/CH6/P6.3/weight3.gif
https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/factors.html
http://www.flightlearnings.com/2009/08/19/axes-of-an-aircraft/