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Ground Improvement Techniques by Grouting

A.I.T.Chikmagalur

GROUND IMPROVEMENT
TECHNIQUES BY GROUTING

Department of Civil Engineering

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Ground Improvement Techniques by Grouting


A.I.T.Chikmagalur

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
TYPES OF GROUND IMPROVEMENT
TECHNIQUES
CATEGORIES GROUTING
METHOD OF GROUT INJECTION
GROUTING CONTROL
APPLICATIONS OF GROUT
CASE STUDIES
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION
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What is ground improvement technique?


Ground improvement technique is the process of
improving the geo-technical characteristics of soil used in
construction
Grouting technology has become a common
groundimprovement method used frequently for underground
andfoundation constructions. The process of grouting consistsof filling
pores or cavities in soil or rock with a liquid formmaterial to decrease
the permeability and improve theshear strength by increasing the
cohesion when it is set.Cement base grout mixes are commonly used
for gravelylayers or fissure rock treatment. But the suspension
grainsize may be too big to penetrate sand or silty-sand layers.In this
case, chemical or organic grout mixes are alsoused. In recent years,
the availability of ultrafine groutmixes has extended the performance
of hydraulic basegrout for soil treatment

TYPES OF GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES


COMPACTION PILE
BLASTING
PRE-COMPRESSION
STONE COLUMN
VIBROFLOATATION
GROUTING
ELECTRO OSMOSIS
THERMAL TREATMENT
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Ground Improvement Techniques by Grouting


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GROUTING
Grouting is a process where by fluid like material, either in
suspension or in solution form are injected into subsurface soil or
rock to achieve a decrease in permeability and compressibility

AIMS OF GROUTING

To decrease the permeability.

To increase the shear strength.

To decrease the compressibility

GROUT PROVES MORE EFFECTIVE IN THE FOLLOWING


CASES

When the foundation has to be constructed below ground


water table.

When there is difficult to the foundation level (ex: city


work, tunnel shafts,sewers, subway construction).

When the geometric dimensions of the foundations are


complicated and involved many boundaries and contact
zones.
When the adjacent structure require that the soil of the
foundation strata should not be excavated

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Categories of Grouting
a. Penetration grouting
b. Compaction grouting
c. HYDROFRACTURE GROUTING
d. Jet grouting

PENETRATION OR PERMREATION GROUTING


DEFINITION:
Penetration grouting describes the process of filling joints or
fractures in rock or pore spaces in soil with a grout without
disturbing the formation.
Advantages
Controlled and accurate placement.
Economical cost.
Significant and predictable degrees of improvement.
Non-vibratory.
Limited workspace required

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Ground Improvement Techniques by Grouting


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COMPACTION GROUTING
The basic concept of compaction grouting is that of injecting
a growing bulb of grout that acts as a radial hydraulic jack,
displacing surrounding soil particles and thus radially compacting
the soil from the point of injection

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Compaction Grouting Geo technical Consideration

The insitu vertical stress in the treatment stratum must


be sufficient to enable the grout to displace the soil
horizontally.

The grout injection rate should be slow enough to allow


pore pressure dissipation.

Collapsible soils can usually be treated effectively with


the addition of water during drilling prior to compaction
grout injection.

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Advantages of compaction grouting


Pinpoint treatment
Speed of installation
Effective in a variety of soil conditions
Can be performed in very tight access & low headroom
condition
Non-hazardous
No waste spoil disposal
Non-destructive & adaptable to exiting foundations
Able to reach depths unattainable by other methods

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HYDROFRACTURE GROUTING
Definition:
If the grouting pressure is greater than the tensile strength
of the soil or rock being grouted, the soil or rock fails resulting in
fractured zone. The grout penetrates this fractured zone forming
densified region of soil or rock masses

The control of settlement is carried out from outside the building


and hence there is no disruption to the occupants
Advantages of Hydrofractuire grouting
The control of settlement is carried out from outside the
building and hence there is no disruption to the occupants
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The process can be repeated allowing continued control of


settlement (if required)

JET GROUTING
The ASCE Geotechnical Engineering Division Committee on
grouting defined Jet grouting as a technique utilizing a special
drill bit with horizontal and vertical high speed water jets to
excavate alluvial soils and produce hard impervious column by
pumping grout through the horizontal nozzles that jets and mixes
with foundation material as the drill bit is with drawn.

Advantages jet grouting


Nearly all soil types grout able
Designable strength & permeability
No harmful vibrations
Can be performed in limited workspace
Maintenance free
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Safest method of under pinning construction


Much faster than alternative method

METHODS OF GROUT INJECTION


1.Bottom-up grouting
In this method the casing is driven to full depth & is with
drawn to a specified elevation, then grout is injected. This
process continues upward to the surface of the material
grouted. Fig (a)

2.Sealed-in sleeve pipe injection:


This method allows several injection at the same elevation.
Injection is done by double packer, which is inserted in the
sleeve pipe to the desired location.Although the method is
more complicated than bottom up grouting & the initial cost
during drilling &The selection of different grout viscosities as
the grout take varies at different locations.Fig (b)

3.Simultaneous drilling & grouting:


This method allows for injection during rotary drilling. At a
pre-determined distance, drill rod is withdrawn and the grout
is injected into the soil through a separate drill rod .The
process continues from the top downward. However this
method is only suitable for previous granular soil. Fig (c).

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GROUTING CONTROL
Monitoring the grout taken as a function of pressure
Observing ground heave
Digging inspection pits
Retrieving Core samples for examination and laboratory
testing
Conducting borehole permeability tests.
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APPLICATIONS
Control of ground water during construction.
Void filling to prevent excessive settlement.
Strengthening adjacent foundation excavation, pile
drilling etc.
Soil strengthening to reduce lateral support requirements.
Stabilization of loose sands against liquefaction.
Foundation underpinning.
Reduction of machine foundation vibrations

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CASE STUDIES
Kraft Foods Dover, Delaware
For construction of a 20 ft (6m) deep railcar unloading pit within
an existing building, jet grouting performed three functions:
excavation support, underpinning, and grout control to
meet project performance objectives, a bathtub configuration was
constructed via perimeter wall of 20 ft deep, interconnected jet
grouted columns enclosing a 6ft thick jet grouted base.
The perimeter columns provided excavation support while those
at corners of pit also underpinned the existing adjacent footing.
The jet grouting program successfully prevent building movement
and vertical and horizontal ground water infiltration.

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Dalesford lake development Berwyn,Pennsylvania


A luxury, four unit town house structure founded on timber piles
had exhibited structural distress related to sink hole
activity.Surface investigation revealed 5-30ft of miscellaneous
fill,including wood chips and building materials, overlaying clay
soil. Beneath this,pinnacled karastic lime stone was encountered
at depths ranging between 10 and 30ft.Grout pipes were installed
at 68 interior, low head room locations and 90 exterior locations,
to an average depth of 16 to 21ft. Compaction grouting was
performed to stabilize the driven pile foundation, re-establish
ground contact with the structure, and halt the soil piping that
had resulted from sink hole activity.The work was successfully
completed while the building remained occupied.

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Department of Civil Engineering

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Ground Improvement Techniques by Grouting


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SUMMARY
> Many engineers still consider this grouting technique as a art
rather than science.
> Its successful application requires great deal of experience,
thorough knowledge of geological condition and awareness
of equipment capabilities and limitations.
> The overall success of grouting technology is less than 50%
of intended goals.

REFERENCES
Koerner, R. M, (1985) construction and Geotechnical
Methods in Foundation Engineering, McGraw Hill Book
Company,Newyork.
Hausmann, M.R, (1990), Engineering Principles of
Ground Modification. McGraw Hill Publishing
Company, Newyork.
www.hayward baker.com

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