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12/12/2016

TUNING is adjusting of the


feedback controller parameters
to obtain a specified closedloop response.
Recall:
P controllers: Kc
PI controllers: Kc, I
PID controllers: Kc, I , D

Cases:
Some process loops do have
relatively fast response.
Many processes take even
hours before results can be
observed.
It will take several minutes even
hours before response
resulting from the tuning can
be observed.

I. QUARTER DECAY RATIO


RESPONSE BY ULTIMATE
GAIN
Closed-loop or on-line tuning
method
Proposed by Ziegler and
Nichols
Ziegler-Nichols Method

This makes tuning feedback


controllers by trial and error:
A tedious and time-consuming
task (most method used by
control and instrument
engineers).
A number of procedure have
been developed however, no one
procedure will give the best
results for all process control
situations.

STEPS:
Determination of the dynamic
characteristics or personality of
the control loop.
Estimation of the controller
tuning parameters that produce
a desired response for the
dynamic characteristics
determined in the first step.

12/12/2016

Matching the personality of


the controller to that of the
other elements in the loop.
The dynamic characteristics
of the process are
represented by the Ultimate
gain of a proportional
controller and the ultimate
period of the oscillation of
the loop.

These can be determined from


the TF of all the components of
the loop.
Most often, they are
experimentally determined.
Experimentally:
Switch off the integral and
derivative modes of the feedback
controller so as to have a
proportional controller only.

Some controllers have I-mode w/c


cannot be switch off but it can be
detuned by setting the I equal to
the maximum value or integral
rate = minimum value.
With the controller in the
automatic mode (i.e. closed loop),
increase the proportional gain (or
reduce the proportional band)
until the loop oscillates with a

constant amplitude. The value of


the gain that produces sustained
oscillations is recorded as Ku , the
ultimate gain.
This step is carried out in
discrete gain increments
bumping the system by applying a
small change in SP at each gain
setting.

To prevent the loop from going


unstable, smaller increments in
gain are made as the ultimate
gain is approached.

For the Quarter decay method:


The desired closed-loop
response;
decay ratio = = B/A ;
B =A
P-Controller: Kc = Ku/2
PI- controller:
Kc = Ku/2.2 ; I = Pu/1.2
PID- controller:
Kc = Ku/1.7 ; I = Pu/2 ;
D = Pu/8

From the time recording of


the controlled variable, the
period of oscillations is
measured and recorded as
Pu, the ultimate period.

12/12/2016

Example:
Given the characteristics equation
of the continuous stirred tank,
determine the quarter decay ratio
tuning parameters for the PID
controller by the Ultimate gain
method. Also, determine the
roots of the characteristics
equation for the controller tuned
with these parameters and
calculate the actual decay ratio.

Given:
C(s) = G1GC . R(s) + G2
. F(s)
1 + G1GC
1 + G1GC
G1 =
1.954
.
(0.2s+1)(8.34s+1)(0.502s+1)(0.75s+1)

Reqd:
Tuning parameters for a PID by
Ziegler-Nichols method
Roots of the c.e. for the PID
controlled by these parameters

Soln:
Determine Ku and Pu
Set the controller to P-controller
The c.e. is: 1 + G1GC = 0
With P-controller, GC = Kc
(0.2s+1)(8.34s+1)(0.502s+1)(0.75s
+1) + 1.954 Kc = 0

0.628 s4 + 5.303 s3 + 12.73 s2 +


9.790 s + 1 + 1.954 Kc = 0
Set: s = i and Kc = Ku ; = u

Expand in polynomial form


0.628 s4 + 5.303 s3 + 12.73 s2 +
9.790 s + 1 + 1.954 Kc = 0

(0.628 u4 - 12.73 u2 + 1 + 1.954 Ku )


- i (5.303 u3 - 9.79 u ) = 0 + 0 i

(0.628 u4 - 12.73 u2 + 1 + 1.954 Ku )


- i (5.303 u3 - 9.79 u ) = 0 + 0 i

Determine the tuning parameters for


the quarter decay ratio response of
the PID-controller
Kc = Ku / 1.7 = 6.13

= 0 ; 5.303 u3 - 9.79 u = 0

5.303 u3 = 9.79 u
u = 1.359 rad/min
0.628 u4 - 12.73 u2 + 1 + 1.954 Ku = 0
Ku = 10.42

; P = 2/ = 4.62

0.628 u4 - 5.303iu3 - 12.73 u2 +


9.790 iu + 1 + 1.954 Ku = 0

I = Pu / 2 = 2.31 min
D = Pu / 8 = 0.58 min
TF of PID controller is:
Gc = Kc

1 + 1
Is

1+ Ds

12/12/2016

Substitute in G1 and Gc and expand


into a polynomial form.
0.628 s5 + 5.303 s4 + 12.73 s3 + 16.74
s2 + 15.89 s + 5.125 = 0
Determine roots:
Three real and negative roots
Pair of conjugate roots with
negative real part.
Roots are: -0.327 1.232i ;
-0.519 ; -1.784 ; -5.49

Activity:
Repeat problem for a PI controller
tuned using quarter decay
method.

= 1.232 rad/min
P = 2 / 1.232 = 5.1 min
Decay ratio:
e2/ = 0.19