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Boundary layer theory is not restricted to flow near a solid surface. It applies to any

thin layer in which viscous forces dominate. In this section, we use it to study a steady

jet emerging from a slit into a surrounding fluid. In practice, jets become turbulent at

high Re, but we study the laminar case because the turbulent analysis builds on this.

We assume planar flow, corresponding to a long slit perpendicular to the paper in

Fig. 15. For simplicity, we assume the slit to be infinitely thin (which actually requires

an infinitely large velocity at the slit to retain a finite flow volume). The emerging jet

carries with it some of the surrounding fluid. This was originally at rest, but is set in

motion by the jet due to viscous friction. Viscous effects therefore are important in the

jet: this is how it spreads out with downstream distance from the slit. For moderate

x values the jet remains slender, there are steep gradients in the y direction, and the

usual boundary layer equations apply.

Ambient fluid: p = constant

slit at

(x,y)=(0,0)

4.4.1

Governing equations

As just remarked, the jet obeys the usual boundary layer equations:

Continuity

u v

+

=0

x y

Momentum

u

u

due

2u

u

+v

= ue

+ 2,

x

y

dx

y

(133)

(134)

with ue (x) the velocity on the exterior edge given by inviscid theory. In this case the

(far) surrounding fluid is at rest, so ue = 0 and the momentum equation becomes

u

4.4.2

u

u

2u

+v

= 2,

x

y

y

(135)

Boundary conditions

We assume that the jet is symmetric about y = 0, Fig. 16, so that

The xvelocity is an even function, u(y) = u(y), giving (u/y)y=0 = 0

The yvelocity is an odd function, v(y) = v(y), giving v(0) = 0.

31

4.4.3

A useful property of the solution, to be utilised below, is that the total flux of xmomentum,

integrated on y at any station x, is a constant, independent of x:

M =

u2 dy = constant.

(136)

This is constructed by realising that the mass per unit time crossing a unit surface

area with normal in the x direction is u. (Recall Sec. 1.2.1.) This carries with it an

xmomentum u2 , Sec. 1.3.

Physically, the fact that M is constant follows because there is no pressure gradient,

dp/dx = 0. Mathematically, we prove it as follows. The momentum equation 135 can

be written as

u

v

2u

u

+

(uv) u

= 2.

(137)

x y

y

y

Using the continuity equation

v

u

= ,

y

x

(138)

u

2u

u

+

(uv) + u

= 2,

x y

x

y

(139)

2u

2

(u ) +

(uv) = 2 .

x

y

y

(140)

u

i.e.

account the symmetry5 of the jet, we get

d

dx

Using the BCs v(0) = 0,

we get

u dy +

2[vu]+

0

u

= 2

y

+

(141)

u

u

(y = 0) = 0, u() = 0, from which

(y = ) = 0, we

y

y

d

dx

u2 dy = 0,

(142)

which proves that the total xmomentum flux M is constant, Eqn. 136.

We assume that M is a known parameter, controlled from the outside. Its dimensions are [M ] = U 2 L, where U and L are characteristic velocity and length scales.

We define a Reynolds number based on it:

Re =

UL

=

M

L

1/2

L

=

ML

2

1/2

(143)

As the jet spreads outwards with increasing x, the velocity at its centre decreases to

maintain constant M , Fig. 16.

5

32

4.4.4

Self-similar solutions

In this section, we solve the governing equations 133 and 135 subject to the BCs

specified in Sec. 4.4.2, for a given imposed momentum flux M . As usual, we utilise

the stream function defined by Eqn. 72 so that continuity, Eqn. 133 is automatically

satisfied.

Similarity Variables

We seek a self-similar solution in the form

xp f () with

y

xq

(144)

where xq sets the scale of the jet thickness at a given x. Constant prefactors in 144

will be specified later on. This corresponds to a horizontal velocity component

u=

xpq f (),

y

(145)

from which we see that xpq gives the local velocity scale6 .

To determine the two unknown constants p and q, we need two conditions:

1. Constant xmomentum flux

Z

u2 dy = constant.

(146)

x2(pq)+q x0 ,

2p q = 0.

(147)

u

2u

u

2

x

y

(148)

u

u2

2.

x

y

(149)

i.e.,

x2(pq)1 xp3q ,

p + q = 1.

(150)

1

2

p= , q= .

3

3

(151)

x1/3 f () with

6

y

x2/3

(152)

For a solid surface, this was specified by the exterior solution ue (x), Eqn. 112. In contrast here ue = 0.

33

Similarity Transformation

Using the scalings just established, we now propose the similarity transformation

=

y

1

and = x

1/2

2/3

3 x

(153)

= 1/2 x1/3 f ().

(154)

and

2

=

,

x

3 x

(155)

x2/3

= 1/2

.

y

(156)

The expressions for u and v in the new coordinate system are then

u=

x1/3

=

f (),

y

3

(157)

and

1/2 2/3

=

x

{f 2f }.

x

3

Substituting these into the momentum equation 135 we get

(158)

v=

x2/3

1/2

x2/3

3 1/2

x1/3

f

3

!)

x1/3

f

3

2

x1/3

f

3

x 3x

1/2 2/3

x2/3

x

{f 2f } 1/2

3

!

!

x1/3

f .

3

f + f f + f 2 = 0,

(159)

which is the final simplified form of the momentum equation, expressed in terms of the

scaled stream function. Its boundary conditions are deduced as follows:

Zero velocity u 0 far from the jet gives f () 0.

Symmetry about the jets centre: v = 0 gives f (0) = 0 and u/y = 0 gives

f (0) = 0.

34

Solution

Eqn. 159 can be solved analytically. We start by rewriting it as

d

(f f ) = 0,

d

f + f f = C.

f +

(160)

(161)

= ,

f () = 2F (),

(162)

23 F + 43 F F = 0,

F + 2F F = 0,

(163)

F = 1 F 2,

(164)

in which the integration constant (the first term on the RHS) was chosen equal to 1.

We were able to do this without loss of generality, because of the freedom in . Upon

integration, this yields the following solution:

=

dF

1+F

1

= ln

2

1F

2

1F

= tanh1 (F ),

(165)

and so

F = tanh().

(166)

f () = 22 F () = 22 sech2 (),

(167)

2 2

1

f

()

=

sech2 ().

3 x1/3

3x1/3

It remains to calculate . For an imposed momentum flux M this is given by

u=

= 2

u2 dy

Z

0

=

=

=

(168)

4 4

9 x2/3

x2/3

3 1/2

sech4 ()d

8 1/2 3

(1 tanh2 )(tanh ) d

3

0

8 1/2 3

1

tanh tanh3

3

3

0

16 1/2 3

,

9

Z

(169)

giving finally

=

9

16

1/3

35

M

1/2

1/3

(170)

Using this expression for , together with Eqn. 153 for , in Eqn. 168 for u, we get

finally the horizontal velocity component in the jet:

u=

3M 2

322 x

!1

sech

"

M

48 2 x2

1 #

3

y .

(171)

An expression for the vertical velocity component can be deduced similarly. The corresponding flow field (u, v) is plotted in Fig. 16. The main point to note is that, as

the jet spreads out with increasing downstream distance under the action of viscous

diffusion (its thickness scaling as x2/3 ), its typical xvelocity scale decreases as x1/3

to ensure that the total xmomentum remains constant.

Figure 16: Evolution of the jet velocity profile downstream of the slit. (From Schlichting,

Boundary Layer Theory, 7th edition, McGraw Hill.)

36

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