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Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

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Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

The Questions paper consists of 3 Sections :


Section [A] :

Reading : 20 marks

Section [C] :

Literature : 45 marks

Section [B] :

Writing : 35 marks

1. Attempt Section [C] first. Answer all Question of this section.


2. Then attempt Section [A].
(a) For Comprehension :

Before reading the passage given, read/go through the questions asked.

After you read the questions, read the passage.

While reading the passage, underline with pencil, those sentences which are the
answers to the question asked.

Write answers to the given questions.

(b) Notes and Summary :

Read the passage. Keep underlining the important/relevant words and


sentences.

Use the underlined sections to create your notes and summary.

The notes should be short and brief, and in points. Elaborate these points for
the summary.

3. Attempt the writing skills : Section [B] : Last. Always adhere to the format.

Take care of time limit and word limit.

Board Notes/English

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

Contents
Guidelines
S.No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Details

Page

Comprehension
Note-making
Notice
Invitations and replies
Advertisements
Posters
Report writing
Factual description
Letter writing
Article/speech/debate

4
4-5
5
6-7
7
8
8
9
9-10
10

Formats & Examples


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

Notice
Advertisements
Posters
Note-making
Report Writing
Letter Writing
Business Letters
Letter to Editor
Job Application
Applications
Invitations & Replies

8.

Article Writing

Board Notes/English

11-12
13-17
17-22
23-26
26-28
30-39
40
41-42
43
44-49
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Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Guidelines and Formats


Class XII
English Core
Section A - Reading (20 Marks)
1. Comprehension

(12 marks)

Skim once as rapidly as possible to determine the main idea.


Underline the words that you do not understand.
Look through the questions carefully. You are advised to keep to the order in which the
questions appear in the paper.
Concentrate on the Vocabulary items and puzzle out the meanings.
You must write complete sentences as answers.
Please Note : Four marks are for word attack skills (out of 12)
2.

(8 marks)

Note Making :

Read the passage to get an idea about the theme and the subject matter it deals with.
Identify the topic sentence in each paragraph.
Now add the sub-points.
Language should be simple, direct and clear. Avoid using complete sentences. Articles,
connectors, prepositions need not be used.
Suitable Abbreviations should be used. Underline the abbreviations in the notes for better
presentation.
Try to keep all the sub-points less than 6-7 words long.
What kind of abbreviations can be used ?
Capatalizing initial letters e.g. EQ for Emotional Quotient.
Using first and last letters of words e.g. stg. for something, edn for education.
Using contraction of words e.g. wont for will not, couldnt for could not etc.
Using symbols that are universal e.g.. for therefore, = is equal to etc.

Board Notes/English

Class XII

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Vidyamandir Classes

Marking Scheme for Q2


Title

(1 mark)

Content (Minimum 3 headings and sub-headings


with proper indentation and notes)

(3 marks)

P.S. Avoid sub-sub points


Abbreviations (Any Four)

(1 mark)

Summary

(3 marks)

Section B - Advanced Writing Skills (30 Marks)


3.

Q.3 can be a notice, advertisement, poster or invitation/reply to invitation. It is a


short writing skill, with a word limit of 50 words. No marks will be awarded only for format.
Notice :
The notice must be placed in a box.
Use capital letters for name of issuing authority.
The notice is largely written in the future tense.
Adhere to the word limit.

Marking Scheme for notice


Title, Date, Signature & Designation

(1 mark)

Content

(2 marks)

Fluency

(1 mark)

Accuracy

(1 mark)

Board Notes/English

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Invitation and reply to an invitation


a) Informal invitation
To invite a friend/relative particularly
Informal letter format
Use 1st and 2nd person form ( I , you )
In 1 paragraph; short and precise
b) Formal invitation (to 1 person)
To invite someone to be chief guest/judge
Formal letter format
1st and 2nd person form ( We , you )
c) Formal invitation (to many people)
For family functions and school programmes
Card format and placed in box
3rd person
Name of host on top
Formal phrase : request the pleasure of your benign presence
seek your benign presence
solicit your gracious presence on the auspicious occasion of.....
cordially invite you on the auspicious occasion of...
Day, date, time and venue of event
Chief guest (in case of school function and inaugarations)
R.S.V.P. (Write in bottom-left corner; to give contact no)
d) Informal reply
Informal letter format
1st and 2nd person
If accepting, use sentences like I am delighted to attend the occasion....
If declining, use sentences like I am sorry to be unable to attend....

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e) Formal reply (Chief guest/ judge type)


Formal letter format
1st and 2nd person form
If accepting, use sentences like I shall be delighted to preside over the function
If declining, first thanks for inviting and then use sentence like However, I regret to
inform you . . . . . . due to a prior engagement
f) Formal reply (For others)
Single paragraph placed in a box
3rd person form
Note: While declining any invitation, first thank for the invitation, then express your inability to
attend due to prior engagement (in informal letter, write the specific reason) and then express
best wishes (for family fxns)

Advertisements
Advertisements test the ability to write specifically and concisely.
Provides maximum input using a minimum number of words.
Heading should be bold and thick, capitals.
Single paragraph.
Minimal use of conjunctions, pronouns, connectors etc.
Strictly adhere to the word limit given.
Types: Situation vacant, Situation wanted, Property for sale, To let, Educational institutes,
Lost & found, Missing persons/pets, Travels & tours, Matrimonial, Accomodation
wanted

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Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Posters
An important aspect is its presentation.
Different styles of handwriting used be used to make it catchy.
Bold letters should be used for the title to make it stand out.
Presentation should be appealing.
Strictly adhere to the word limit.
Posters are of 2 types: Event and social message
Event poster : organising group, event name, date, time, venue and features.
Social message poster : Slogans, visuals and suggestions (do & donts)

Marking Scheme for posters


Content

(2 marks)

Expression

(3 marks)

Credit will be given for creativity in presenting ideas coherently and clearly.

4.

Q4 will be Factual description OR Report Writing (100-125 words)


Marking scheme for School magazine report
Format

(1 marks) (title and name of the writer)

Content

(4 marks)

Expression

(5 marks)

Marking scheme for Newspaper Report


Format

(1 marks) (Title and reporters name) (Date and Place optional)

Content

(4 marks)

Grammatical accuracy and spellings

(2.5 marks)

Coherence, relevance of ideas and style

(2.5 marks)

Board Notes/English

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

Describing Object
(a) Defining the object
(b) Describing its parts or physical characterstics
(c) Describing its operation and functioning
(d) Describing its uses
Describing People
(a) Age (young, middle aged, elderly, teenagar etc.)
(b) Figure (Stout, lanky, stocky, well-built etc.)
(c) Height (tall, short etc.)
(d) Complexion (fair, dark, wheatish etc.)
(e) Face (round, oval, clean shaver etc.)
(f) Appearance (good-looking, charming etc.)
(g) Voice (low, high pitched, squeaky etc.)
(h) Dress (loose, tight/well fitting, elegant etc.)
(i) Identification marks.
(j) Personality traits (kind, affectionate, loyal etc.)
Describing Places
(a) Where it is situated.
(b) Its population.
(c) Its monuments.
(d) The high rise buildings.
(e) The places of interest (etc.)
5.

Q4 is of Letter Writing (125-150 words). Letters can be : Letter to the editor, Business
letters, Job application or Application to Principal.
Applications:
(Simply a formal letter. Not likely to come.)

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Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Letters to the Editor


The letter must be written in the appropriate format.
Formal language must be used.
Sentences should not be very long.
Divide the letter into three paragraphs.
In the first para, state the problems, in the 2nd, write about the causes and results and in the
4th, suggest solutions.
Job application
A letter and a CV/resume/biodata is written.
Letter is short and formal
Biodata contains the following details :
Name, Age, Date of Birth, Fathers Name, Sex, Marital status, Address, Tel. no.,
Email address, Educational Qualification (School level, College level, Professional
qualification(relevant to work field)), Experience (Years, Present employment),
Salary expected, Strengths (eg: communication skills), Hobbies(Optional),
References (any 2)
Business Letters
Following types of letters come under this category :

6.

1.

Enquiry

2.

Reply to enquiry

3.

Placing order

4.

Letters of Complaint

5.

Cancellation of Order

Q6 will be an Article, Speech or Debate :


Start speech with an introductory line such as Good morning everyone, myself XYZ would
like to throw some light on ..... Rest matter is similar to an article.
Debate starts with a line such as Good morning. This is XYZ to speak for/against the
motion <topic>. Unlike speech where you speak both pros and cons, here you have to
stick to one side only.

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10

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

Format and Samples


1.

Notice

Word Limit : 50

Format:

ABC School (Issuing organisation)


Notice
Date
Heading
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Body of notice. Must contain:
1) Purpose/Event 2) Date, time, venue 3) Details of event
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Name of the person issuing the notice
Designation

Notice example 1:
You are Nakul Purohit, the President, Cultural Forum of your school. You have organized an
inter-school patriotic singing competition on Republic Day. Write a notice in about 50 words,
informing the students about this event.
Notice example 2:
Your school is conducting a trip to Shimla during summer vacations. As Ajay, head boy, draft a
notice giving all relevant details in about 50 words.

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Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Solution to example 1:
ABC school, New Delhi
NOTICE
1st January 2015
Cultural forum
The cultural forum of the school has organised an Inter-school patriotic singing
competition on the occasion of Republic day. More than 20 schools from the city
will participate. The program will be held immediately after the flag hoisting
ceremony at 8 A.M.
The students interested in participating should give in their names by the 10th of
January to the undersigned.
Nakul Purohit
President
Cultural forum
Solution to example 2:
XYZ public school, New Delhi
NOTICE
1st January 2015
Trip to Shimla
This is to inform that the school is conducting a trip to Shimla during the summer
breaks. The details are as follows:
Date

: 2nd June - 5th June

Charges : 3000/- per head


Stay

: 3 star hotel

Those interested may submit their names, money along with consent slip to their
respective class teacher latest by 20th May 2015.
For further details, contact the undersigned.
Ajay
Head boy

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Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

2. Advertisements :
Two basic types of advertisements are : (a) Classified (b) Commercial
[A] Classified
1.

Situation vacant:
Heading(SITUATION VACANT), start with word WANTED, name of organisation,
post, requirements/qualifications, pay scale(or better write Excellent remuneration),
mode of applying, contact
Example : Ahmedabad International School needs a secretary to the Pricipal.
The Administrative Department drafts a classified advertisement for the classified
advertisement section of a newspaper. Write the advertisement.
SITUATION VACANT
WANTED for Ahmedabad International School a secretary possesing
good correspondance skills, good command over written and spoken
English and a pleasant personality. Working knowledge of computers
is essential with a good typing skills. Excellent remuneration. Apply
with complete biodata within 15 days to Admn. officer, Ahmedabad
Internatonal School, Ahmedabad. Contact: 9876543210

2.

Situation wanted :
Heading(SITUATION WANTED), start with degree/work field, job experience, strengths
and/or achievements, expected salary, contact
Example :You are a badminton coach who once played at national level. You are looking
for placement in school/college for both part-time and full-time job. Write an advt. to be
published in the situation wanted column.
SITUATION WANTED
BADMINTON coach, former national level player, coached for 15 years.
Seeks placement in school/college, both part-time or full-time. Trained
students won national awards. Excellent conversational skills, friendly
with students, experience of other sports too. Expected salary- min 5
lacs P.A. Contact: XYZ, 17, Tagore Garden, Delhi. Ph: 9876543210

Board Notes/English

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Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes
3.

Writing Skills

Sale and Purchase :


Heading(FOR SALE), start with property type, details, price, contact
Example : Mukesh Kapoor of B-2,Sector 19, Ludhiana wishes to sell his house as he is
shifting to Delhi. Draft an advt.

PROPERTY FOR SALE


3BHK, 2nd floor in sec 19, Ludhiana. Modern construction, according
to Vaastu, spacious, well ventilated, green surroundings. Car parking,
lift, servant quarter available. Centrally located with all facilities nearby.
Freehold and independant. Cantact: Mukesh Kapoor Ph: 9876543210
Example :You want to sell your old car. Draft an advt.
FOR SALE
-VEHICLEMARUTI ZEN, silver, 2008, 16000 km. Single hand driven. Original
parts. Company service. Insurance updated. Fully loaded. In good
condition. New tyres. Papers redy for immediate sale. Price approx
1.5 lacs. Contact: XYZ. Ph: 9876543210.

4.

Property to-let :
Heading(TO LET)), start with AVAILBLE on rent, rest similar to property for sale.
Example : You are running a real estate agency in Mumbai. You have to give an advt. for
tenements and apartments available for rent at Pali hill, Linking road. Draft the advt.
TO LET
AVAILABLE on rent at Pali hill, Linking road, 3rd floor, 3BHK flat with all
amenities and parking space. Well-ventilated and modern construction,
24-hour water supply, power back-up, lift facility. Contact: ABC property
dealers, 4, Nehru road, Mumbai. Tel: 45678900.

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Class XII

Writing Skills
5.

Vidyamandir Classes

Educational institutes and tutions:


Heading(TUTOR WANTED/TUTOR AVAILABLE/Name of course)
For TUTOR WANTED type, start with WANTED tutor for.., tell about student(s) and
subjects, school level/competitive preparation, preferred time, contact.
For TUTOR AVAILABLE type, start like SCIENCE tutor for class.., some personal
qualities, school level/competitive preparation, preferred time, expected fees, contact.
For courses, mention duration, targeted age group, timings, registration, contact with
institute address.
Example : Shenaz Ali, has to start her Yoga Centre for school children at her residence, 234,
Navrangpura, Allahabad. Draft an advertisement to be published about it in a local daily
giving all relevant details.

Yoga classes
THREE WEEK course in Yogic exercises for school children.
Training by experts. Classes for girls from 6 a.m. - 7a.m. and
for boys from 6 p.m. - 7 p.m. on all weekends. Classes start
on 10th May. Fees: 100/-. Contact: Shehnaz Ali, Director,
Yoga center, 234, Navrangpura, Allahabad. Ph: 98765432109

6.

Lost and Found :


Heading(LOST/FOUND) .
For lost, starts with: LOST on <date> a <luggage> while travelling by <transport>
around <time>. Then mention details saying informer shall be suitably rewarded.
Whoever finds it, please contact .....
For found, start is similar. Mention basic details saying will be returned after giving
details. Give contact.
Example : You have found a briefcase while traveling by the Rajdhani Express. Write an
advertisement giving description of the briefcase that may help in finding the owner.

Board Notes/English

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Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

FOUND
FOUND last monday a black VIP briefcase while travelling by
Rajdhani express (Mumbai to Delhi). It will be returned to the
owner after giving the particulars and details of the content.
Please contact: XYZ, Delhi. Ph: 9876543210.

7.

Missing Persons/Pets :
Heading: MISSING, start with BOY/GIRL etc. Name, age, height and physical description,
dress, missing from date and place, language, any other detail, reward, cantact of police
station.
Example : You had gone to the market that was very crowded and your 5-year-old son
got lost in the crowd. He has been missing since then. Write an advertisement for the
newspaper.
MISSING
BOY MISSING, Rohit Batra, 5yrs, 34 tall, fair, slim,
wearing black T-shirt and white shorts since 5.12.2014
from C.G. road market. Speaks Hindi & English. Informer
will be suitably rewarded. Inform: CG road Police station,
Baroda. Ph: 23456789

8.

Travels and Tours :


Example : You are the proprietor of Raj Travels and have organized a 15-day tour of Europe
for Rs.35,000/- inclusive of two meals a day. Draft an advertisement for a national daily to
draw people to it.
TOURS
TRIP to Europe for 15 days, stay at 3-star hotel, lunch and dinner
included. Rs. 35000 per person. 10% discount for booking before
15 Nov. Contact: Raj travels, Karol Bagh, Delhi. Tel: 23456789

Board Notes/English

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Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

[B] Commercial/Display :
Corporate or Industrial Advertisements (for publicity and promotion of their products.)
(Note: Not expected to come as every year, qstn comes from classified advts.)

Example : You manufacture a popular brand of shampoo and wish to launch a new economy
packing for your product. Draft an advertisement for the new packing.

3. Posters :
Format :
Event Poster
Issuing authority
Event name(Drama/Exhibition etc)
Date Time Venue
Visual
Details, Artists, Chief guest (if any)
Tickets/further info
Issued by:
<Name of issuing organisation>

Board Notes/English

Social Message Poster


Main slogan
Visuals
More slogans & visuals here and there
Suggestions (dos n donts)
Issued in public interest by:
<Relevant organisation>

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Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Example: Draft a poster for a diwali mela in society

Board Notes/English

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Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

Example: Draft a poster to spread awareness about benefits of reading.

Board Notes/English

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Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Example: Draft a poster to spread awareness about saving Earth.

Board Notes/English

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Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

Example: Draft a poster to spread awareness about road safety

Board Notes/English

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Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Example: Draft a poster on Save water.

Board Notes/English

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Class XII

Writing Skills
4.

Vidyamandir Classes

Note Making :
Format:
Heading
1. Point
1.1 Sub point
1.2 ____________
1.3 ____________
2.

___________
2.1 ____________
2.2 ____________

3.

___________
3.1 ____________
3.2 ____________

Abbreviations
1. _____________
2. _____________
3. _____________
4. _____________

Summary:
Heading
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________

Board Notes/English

23

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Q. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :
1.

A study conducted by the experts of the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) here has
predicted acute water shortage in the coming summer months, unless immediate remedial
steps are initiated. The report, which is yet to be made public, claims that the water table in
most parts of the metropolis is falling rapidly and in many places in South Delhi is almost
bone-dry. The crumbling of the over half-century-old supply infrastructure and the
burgeoning population have compounded the problem.

2.

According to the report, Delhi attracts more than 4 lakh people each year. Even as it
accepts, within its fold, all these new citizens, the citys infrastructure is on the verge of a
breakdown. The study suggests that the groundwater level is receding steadily, and at
places, rather rapidly. Due to unbridled urbanisation, the scare rainwater runs off without
being tapped, which is a complete waste of resources. Delhi receives its water supply from
surface flow and groundwater. The availability from surface sources, that is, Yamuna, Ganga,
and Bhakra is approximately 1150 MCM (million cubic metres) and, of this,
60% of available from Yamuna.

3.

Delhi gets an average rainfall of 600 mm per year, of which 80% is received in three months
(July-September). More than half the rainwater runs off into the Yamuna. It is ironical that
while the Yamnua is frequently ins pate, during monsoon it reports zero flow/ and that too
in peak summer. The pressure on ground water is already beyond capacity and recent
reports suggest that people are increasingly tapping this water resource.
Even the DJB depends on groundwater.

4.

Though the courts have put curbs on new tubewells, those already installed are gnawing at
the dwindling reserves. The latter operate without any restrictions, some even for
24 hours. According to the study, the groundwater table in the Delhi region, at varying
depths of 20 to 50 metres below ground level, is saline. In some areas near the Yamuna,
these saline aquifers occur at a depth of about 65 m. This effectively makes the water unfit
for consumption within that level. Electrical conductivity is also reported to be high, making
the groundwater further unfit for consumption. The status is similar with respect to fluoride
levels in certain areas. Already, the average level of water table for blocks away from
Yamuna is between 15 to 20m. The water table has receded by 10m in many areas during the
last two decades. Nazafgarh and some city and Mehrauli blocks have shown a decline of
more than 10m. South and south-west districts have shown a fall of 10 to 30 m in the last four
decades.

5.

As if the scarcity is not enough, the municipal infrastructure is 50 years old and
ill-maintained. This is evident from the fact that nearly 15 per cent of the water supply is lost
in transit and a whopping 40 per cent remains unaccounted for.

6.

The gap between waste water discharge and treatment capacities is seriously worsening
the quality of the existing water sources and, if not managed properly, it will increase in the
future.

Board Notes/English

24

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings
and sub-headings. Also use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary
(minimum 4). Use a format you consider suitable. Supply a suitable title to it.
(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.

Solution:
(a)
I.

2.

3.

4.

Water Crisis in Delhi


Research by TERI
1.1- Acute water shortage in coming months.
1.2- Groundwater level falling rapidly
1.3- Inc. population & poor infra. are causes
1.4- Major sources of water : Surface flow and ground water
Surface flow
2.1- Includes Yamuna, Ganga, Bhakra rivers
2.2- Accounts for 1150 MCM
2.3- Yamuna accounts for 60% of surface flow
2.4- Avg. annual rainfall is 600 mm
2.5- More than half of rainwater goes in Yamuna
2.6- Yaet Yamuna reports to zero flow in peak summer
Ground water
3.1- Consumption beyond capacity
3.2- DJB too depends on groundwater
3.3- Curbs put on new tubewells
3.4- Old tubewells depleting ground water
3.5- Groundwater table depth varies from 20 to 50 mts.
3.6- Groundwater has become saline
3.7- Unfit for consumption directly
3.8- Water table receding fast
Poor Infrastructure
4.1- 50 yrs. old
4.2- Ill maintained
4.3- 15% water supply lost in transit
4.4- 40% water supply remains unaccounted for
4.5- Vastgap between waste water discharge & treatment capacity
4.6- Problems will inc. if not managed properly
Abbreviations
1. inc - increasing
2. infra - infrastructure
3. MCM - million cubic metres
4. avg - average
5. mts - metres
6. yrs - years

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Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

(b) According to a recent survey by TERI, Delhi is faced with an acute water shortage. Due
to unplanned urbanization the pressure on ground water has increased substantially.
The MCD infrastructure is about fifty years old. The main source of water supply is
Yamuna. However, in peak summer it reports zero flow. The watertable is receding fast
and in certain areas, the ground water is not fit for consumption due to high salt or
fluoride content or electric conductivity.

5.

Report Writing :
Format :
Headline
Byline (Name of the person who is writing)(For newpaper reprt write By staff reporter)
Date Place
Para 1: Introductory. Write basic/important details like where, when, how,what etc
Para 2: Further details like chief guest(for functions), detailed timeline of event etc
Para 3: Follow up. Consequences, compensation and action(for accidents), reviews(for fests,
workshops) etc.

Example 1:
Some students of the Senior Wing of St Marys School, Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi, collectively
authored a book, Childhood Days that recounts episodes from the childhood of Indians who
achieved legendary success in their field. As student reporter for The Hindustan Times PACE
programme write a report in about 80 100 words.

Board Notes/English

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Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

BUDDING AUTHORS OF ST. MARYS


XYZ
5th Dec. New Delhi
Senior wing students of St. Marys school, Safdarjung enclave, New Delhi have
collectively authored a book, Children days that recounts episodes from the childhood
of some great Indians.
Replete with coloured illustrations, this enthology of short stories recounts
interesting episodes from the childhood of those great Indians who have achieved
phenomenal success. The book, written by the students of classes XI and XII, is
dedicated to the Principal, Mrs. Ananta Koshi and was released yesterday on the
occassion of her birthday.
It has been a great learning experience say the budding authors who look forward
to many more such projects in the future.

Example 2: A severe train accident occurred near Kanpur causing a huge loss to life and property.
Write a report for a daily national.
TRAINS COLLIDE , 39 KILLED
Staff reporter
5th Dec. New Delhi
A severe head-on collision between Rajdhani express and Lucknow Shatabdi
occurred last night around 10:30 p.m. about 3 kms from Kanpur. 39 were killed and
hundreds were injured. It was a gruesome sight of blood, cries of people and a mangled
heap of metal.
The collision took place after the two trains came on the same track due to a failure
in the signalling system. The local residents of the nearby Harsa village were the first to
reach the accident site and help in rescuing the passengers. At around 11:30 p.m., the
police, army personells and ambulances rushed in. The injured were rushed to the
nearest hospital where they are battling for life.
The railway minister, Mr. Sadananda Gowda, reached the accident site. He
announced a compensation of Rs. 2 lakh to the kin of the killed and Rs. 1 lakh to those
injured. The railway commissioner has ordered an enquiry into the accident.

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Writing Skills

Example 3: Your school conducted a workshop on career counselling for senior classes. As
the head boy of the school, write a report for the school magazine.
WORKSHOP ON CAREER COUNSELLING
XYZ
Head boy
A workshop on career counseling was organised by the New Careers India on
10th May in the school premises. It was a highly and an enlighting session for the
students of all streams- Science, Commerce and Humanities.
Experts and professionals from various fields were invited to counsel & guide the
students. They introduced the students to the latest upcoming careers such as
cosmotology, fashion technology, media management, acturial sciences to name a few.
It was an informative session in which there was a healthy interaction between the
students & the experts who gave detailed information about the eligibility and
prospectus of different careers. Students had their doubts and queries cleared.
The workshop proved to be a boon for students as it helped them to acquire the
latest knowledge about the new upcoming careers. They will now have a wider choice
before them. Such workshops should be organised on an annual basis as it is an aid
for the confused students.

Board Notes/English

28

Class XII

Writing Skills
6.

Vidyamandir Classes

Letter writing
(A) Format of Informal letter
Examination hall
New Delhi

Senders address

Date
Dear ______
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Yours truly
Senders name
(B) Format of Formal letter
Examination hall
New Delhi
Date
Receivers address
Subject: ______________________
Sir/Maam
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________
_____________________________________________________
Yours truly/sincerely
Name
Designation

Board Notes/English

29

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

(a) Letter of Enquiry :


Subject as Enquiry about ....
Mention reference (if applicable)
Tell briefly about your plan and ask for details(in points).
Ask for immediate response and mention Encl (Enclosure)
Example 1: The history section of your school wants to organise a historical tour to Agra.
Write a letter to the manager of Indian tourism, New Delhi enquiring about convence, hotel
etc. Sign yourself as Suresh Malhotra, Adarsh Niketan, Rohini, Delhi.
Adarsh Niketan
Rohini
Delhi
5 Sep 2014
E-mail : sureshmalhotra@gmail.com
Tel. no : 011-23456789
The manager
Indian tourism
New Delhi
Sub : Enquiry about school trip to Agra
Sir
We are pleased to inform you that we would like to conduct a 2-day educational tour
to Agra. We are a group of about 40 students along with 3 teachers. We would like to
conduct the trip during the Dussehra vacations i.e. 2nd October to 6th October. Kindly let
us know the following details:
Availability of A/C buses
Availability of rooms in 3-star hotel
Total per head cost (including boarding, lodging &meals)
Student discount
Advance to be paid
Please send us the details at the earliest so that we may inform our students. An immediate
response will be highly appreciated.
Yours sincerely
Suresh Malhotra
(Head boy)
Encl: N/A
Board Notes/English

30

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

Example 2: You are Ajay Arora of B-106, Janakpuri, New Delhi. You are interested in doing a
basic computer course from NIIT Raja garden, New Delhi. Write a letter to the Manager
making al relevant enquiries.
B-106
Janakpuri
New Delhi
1st Apr 2014
E-mail : ajay@gmail.com
Phone : 9876543210
The manager
NIIT
Raja garden
New Delhi
Sub : Enquiry about Basic computer course
Sir
This is with reference to your advertisement published in The Hindustan Times dated
28 Mar 2014 for the above mentioned course and I would like to apply for the same.
I have recently given my XII std.(science) board exams and my result is awaited. I
would like to utilize my time by doing the Basic Computer Course from your prestigious
institute. Kindly let me have the following details:
Date of commencement
Duration
Charges
Mode of payment
Batch size
Faculty
Evaluation system
Kindly send me the details at the earliest so that I can take my decision. Please treat it as
urgent.
Yours sincerely
Ajay Arora
(student)
Encl : N/A

Board Notes/English

31

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

(b) Replies to letter of enquiry :


Subject as Details of .... / Reply to course enquiry
Include some important details in body and mention that a brochure/prospectus has
been enclosed.
Reply to Example 1 of Letter of enquiry:
Indian tourism
New Delhi
8 Sep 2014
Email : indian.tourism@gmail.com
Tel no : 011-34567890
The Principal
c/o Suresh Malhotra
Adarsh Niketan
Rohini
Delhi

{ c/o : carried over }

Sub : Details of trip to Agra


Dear Suresh,
We are pleased to know that the students of your school would like to go for an
educational tour to Agra. We would be happy to make all the required arrangements. The
details are as follows:
Volvo buses
Accomodation in Evergreen hotel (3-star)
Rs. 4500 per head charges (incl of boarding, lodging, meals)
15% student discount
Dates available 3rd and 4th Oct
Rs. 5000/- as advance
Please confirm about your programme so that we may make your bookings. We are
enclosing a copy of our brochure. An immediate response will be highly appreciable.
Yours sincerely
XYZ
(Manager)
Encl : Brochure

Board Notes/English

32

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

Reply to Example 2 of Letter of enquiry:


NIIT
Raja garden
New Delhi
3rd Apr 2014
E-mail : niit.rajagarden@gmail.com
Phone : 9087654321
Ajay Arora
B-106
Janakpuri
New Delhi
Sub : Details of Basic computer course
Dear Ajay
We are pleased to know that you are interested in doing a course from our institute.
We are enclosing our detailed prospectus along with the enrollment form. Our new
batch commences from 10th April.
We look forward for a favourable response.

Yours sincerely
XYZ
(Manager)

(c) Letter of Placing order:


Subject as Order for ....
Briefly tell what you are ordering and then write the list with quantity
Ask for discount, mode of payment and quick response
Optional : Remind for good packing

Board Notes/English

33

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Example 1: You are Jeevan Santhalia, Sports instructor, ABC school, Dhanbad. The principal of
the school has asked you to place an order for buying sports equipment. Write a letter for the
same to Roshan sports, Dhanbad.
ABC school
Dhanbad
5 Dec 2014
E-mail : abc.dhanbad@gmail.com
Tel no : 34567890
The Sales Manager
Roshan sports
Dhanbad
Sub : Order for bulk sports goods
Sir
We wish to place a bulk order of various sports equipments for our school. The particulars
of the order are :
S.no.
Item name
Quantity
1.
Cricket bats
10
2.
Cricket balls
5
3.
Cricket gloves
10
4.
Cricket pads
10
5.
Volleyballs
5
6.
Footballs
5
7.
Badminton racquets
5
Kindly let us know your terms and conditions for the supply of these articles and also the
discount you offer. We would also like to know the mode of payment. Hope to hear from you
at the earliest.
Yours sincerely
Jeevan Santhalia
(Sports Instructor)

Board Notes/English

34

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

Example 2: You are Ajay Malhotra, manager of the restaurant Red chillies, 17, Rajouri garden,
New Delhi. Write a letter to the sales manager of A.A. enterprises, Azad market, Delhi placing an
order for bulk crockery and cutlery.
Red chillies
17, Rajouri garden
New Delhi
10 Dec 2014
E-mail : redchillies@gmail.com
Phone : 011-23456789
The sales manager
A.A. Enterprises
Azad market
New Delhi
Sub: Order for crockery and cutlery
Sir
We are pleased to inform you that we would like to place an order with your company
for bulk crockery and cutlery. Kindly note the order:
S.No. Name of item
Quantity
1.
White dinner plates (full-size)
100
2.
White dinner plates (half-size)
150
3.
Tablespoons
300
4.
Serving spoons
100
Kindly see that the above mentioned order reaches us within 20 days of its placing (by
30th Dec 2014) otherwise the order may be treated as cancelled. Also see that the items are
clean and well-packed.
We are enclosing an advance of Rs. 1000/- by cheque and the rest shall be paid within
30 days of delivery. Please let us know the discount you offer for our order.
Yours sincerely
Ajay Malhotra
(Manager)
Encl : Cheque no. 654321 of Rs. 500/-

Board Notes/English

35

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

(d) Complaint Letter :


Subject as Complaint about/against...
Give reference to order no./bill no./warranty card no and item name
Briefly explain the problem
What action you want
Enclosure of relevant documents
Example 1: You are Suresh Jain of 20, Jawahar Nagar, Delhi. 2 months ago, you had bought a
desert cooler from Naveen electronics, Model town, Delhi. Now you discover that it is not
working properly. Write a letter to the Manager complaining about the manufacturing of the
gadget and asking them to repair and if needed to replace it against warranty.
20, Jawahar nagar
New Delhi
18 Oct 2014
Email : suresh@gmail.com
Phone : 9876543210
The manager
Naveen Electronics
Model town, Delhi
Sub : Complaint about desert cooler
Sir
This is with reference to the Bajaj cooler I purchased from your company showroom.
I regret to say that after two months of purchase, it is malfunctioning. Its details are:
Model : Bajaj super cool
Date of purchase : 15-8- 2014
Bill no : 4186
Warranty card no : NE67861
The cooler has the problems of water leakage and makes a heavy noise while working.
It is causing great inconvenience.
I request you to send your technician to repair the defect. In case it is irrepairable,
kindly replace it with a new piece as it carries a warranty period of 3 years.
I am enclosing the photocopies of the bill and the warranty card.
Please treat it as urgent.
Yours sincerely
Suresh Jain
Encl : Photocopies of bill and warranty card

Board Notes/English

36

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

Example 2: As Mr. R. Singh, head of Dept. of Chemistry, Bluebells High school, Delhi, you had
placed an order with Scientific equipments, Daryaganj, Delhi for test-tubes and beakers.
When the parcel had received, you found that some test-tubes were damaged and some
beakers were without markings. Write a letter of complaint seeking immediate replacement.
Bluebells High School
Delhi
20 Oct 2014
Email : bluebellsdelhi@gmail.com
Tel no : 011-23456789
The manager
Scientific Equipments
Daryaganj, Delhi
Sub : Complaint about lab material
Sir
This is with reference to our order no 23456 dated 3rd Oct 2014 for test tubes and
beakers for our Chemistry lab. I regret to inform you that 20 test-tubes were broken and
10 beakers were without markings.
Therefore, I request you to immediately replace the test-tubes and the beakers.
Please see that such a negligence does not occur in the future. I am enclosing the photocopy
of the order.
Kindly treat it as urgent.
Yours sincerely
R. Singh
(HOD, Chemistry)
Encl : Photocopy of order

Board Notes/English

37

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Example 3: Hazel Gore is the secretary of Sarita Apartment C.G. Road, Pune. The complex
subscribes to New Cable Services, M.G. Road, Pune, The proprietor Mr Sidhraj has
increased the monthly subscription but he has done nothing to improve the quality of
transmission. The sound is low and nuclear, the colours blurred, and the selections of
channels limited as compared to other cable serivices. She writes a letter complaining
about the same.
RWA, Sarita Apartments
C.G. Road
Pune
22 May 2014
The proprieter
New cable services
M.G. road, Pune
Sub : Complaint against cable services
Sir
I am writing this letter on behalf of around 350 cable subscribers belonging
to Sarita Apartments, C.G. road, Pune, who are very dissatisfied with your services.
The complaints are many, some are old but unheaded to and the others more
recent. The latest grouse is the unethical increase in the monthly subscription
charges from Rs 300 to Rs 350 without corresponding improvement in transmis
sion.
The earlier complaints remain as well; the sound is low and unclear, the colours
blurred. There is continuous disturbance on certain channels and the selection of
channels limited as compared to other cable services.
Kindly take notice of the complaints else I will be forced to adhere to the
members demand to cancel the subscription.
Yours sincerely
Hazel Gore
Secretary
RWA, Sarita Apartments

Board Notes/English

38

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

(e) Letter of cancelling order


Give reference to the order no.
State the reason in para 2
Example : You are Anurag Rastogi, the G.M. of Harrison furnishings, Ashok Vihar, Delhi.
You had placed order with Ramnath & sons, Chandni chowk, Delhi for a bulk order of
furnishings for the approaching festival seasons. However, you are compelled to cancel
that order due to delay. Write a letter for the same.
Harrison furnishings
Ashok Vihar, Delhi
19 Oct 2014
Email : anuragrastogi@gmail.com
Tel no : 011-23456789
The Manager
Ramnath & sons
Chandni chowk
Delhi
Sub : Cancellation of order no 14123
Sir
This is with reference to order no 14123 for furnishing in bulk. Kindly treat it
as cancelled.
Your company has never delivered orders on time. This order is also over
one week delayed. Also, you have given us very poor aftersales service. Hence,
we are compelled to cancel the order.
We regret the inconvenience caused.
Yours sincerely
Anurag Rastogi
(G.M, Harrison furnishings)
Encl : Photocopy of order no 14123

Board Notes/English

39

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

(f) Letter to the Editor


E of Editor must be in capitals
State problem in para 1; consequences/impact/details in para 2; suggestions in para 3
Generally ends on a note like I hope my voice will reach the concerned authorities
and some concrete step will be taken.
Example: You are Rajyalaxmi Walia, living at 4, Defence Colony, Allahabad. Write a letter to
the Editor of a newspaper about the burden of the heavy bags that young children carry to
school.
4, Defence colony
Allahabad
22 May 2014
The Editor
The Times of India
Allahabad
Sub : Problem of heavy bags of school children
Sir
Through the columns of your esteemed newspaper, I would like to draw the
attention of the concerned authorities to the burden of the heavy bags that young
children carry to school.
It is a pity that tiny kids carry a heavy load on their shoulders. The load is uncalled
for on their little shoulders. Infact, the load is much heavier than their physical strength.
It is even difficult at times to mout the bus. In this day when imparting education is not
solely dependant on books and notebooks, it makes it all the more redundant for
children to carry heavy bags.
Modern psychologists have evolved games and methods of stress-free learning
without books. This ought to be coupled with the optimum use of computers. All this
needs to be incorporated to lessen their burden.
Tangible changes in the techniques of imparting education will go a long way in
helping the little children.
Yours truly
Rajyalaxmi Walia

Board Notes/English

40

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

(g) Job application


Example: You are Mr. KL Sareen. You have seen an advt. in the Hindustan Times for the
post of marketing manager. Write an application with complete biodata.
C-216, Kamla nagar
Delhi
6 Nov 2014
Email : klsareen@gmail.com
Phone : 9876543210
Head of HR
Wipro pvt. Ltd
New Delhi
Sub : Application for the post of marketing manager
Sir
This is with reference to your advertisement published in the Hindustan Times
dated 2nd Nov for the above mentioned post. I wish to apply for the same.
In view of my qualifications, I consider myself suitable for the job. If selected, I
shall prove to be a valuable asset to the company and endeavour to satisfactorily meet
the requirements of the job.
I am enclosing my CV along with for your favourable consideration. I can be
available for interview any time.
Yours sincerely
K. L. Sareen
Encl : Curriculam vitae, Photocopies of degrees and testimonials, 2 passport photos

Board Notes/English

41

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Curriculam Vitae
Name
Age
Date of birth
Fathers name
Contact no.
Address
Marital status
Educational qualifications

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Professional qualification
Experience
Expected salary
Strengths

:
:
:
:

Hobbies
References

:
:

Board Notes/English

Kunal Lal Sareen


36 yrs
4th May 1978
Mr. Hari Narayan Sareen
9876543210
C-216, Kamla nagar, Delhi
Married
12th (Science) - CBSE board
B.Sc (Statistics) - Delhi University
MBA - IIM Shillong
Adv. Computer application course (1 yr)
12 yrs. at Reliance as Marketing executive
min. 15 lpa
Excellent communication skills
Excellent at designing presentations
Reading, organising cultural events
1.
Mr. Mridul Arora
HR head, Reliance Ltd, Delhi
Ph : 8976543210
Email : mridularora@gmail.com
2.
Mr. Akash Nayak
Vice-chairman, Reliance Ltd, Delhi
Ph: 9087654321
Email : akashnayak@gmail.com

42

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

(h) Applications
Example: You are Atul Kumar, student leader of class XI. Your floor does not have a
drinking water cooler which compells the students to go in other corridors
which in turn causes problems. Write a letter to your Principal requesting him
to get one water cooler installed on your floor.
Examination hall
New Delhi
22 December 2014
The Principal
XYZ Public School
New Delhi
Subject : Request for water cooler
Respected sir
This is to bring in your kind attention that the XI class floor is
deprived of a water cooler. This causes immense problem, especially of
indiscipline.
The students go to the other floors for cool water and thereby cause
disturbance there. Also, some students take it as an opprtunity to bunk
classes.
On behalf of class XI std students, I request you to get one water
cooler installed as soon as possible. We would be highly obliged.
Yours sincerely
Atul Kumar
(Student leader - XI class)

Board Notes/English

43

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

7.

Writing Skills

Invitations
(a) Informal invitation
Example: Your brother is getting married and you would like to invite your friend
Manish to it. Write a letter inviting him. Sign yourself as Arun/Arunika.
Self address
20 Nov 2014
Dear Manish
I am delighted to inform you that my brother Tapans marriage has
been fixed for Saturday, 30th Nov 2014 at 9 p.m. at Amitabh banquet hall, Civil
lines,Delhi. I invite you and your family members to the occassion. Our other
batchmates will also be there. I am sure we will have a great time.
Yours lovingly
Arun
(b) Informal reply
Example: (Refer to the example of informal invitation) Due to his cousins marriage,
Manish is unable to attend the wedding of Aruns/Arunikas brother. As
Manish, write a reply expressing your inability to attend the function.
Senders address
Date
Dear Arun
Thanks for your invitation to your brothers marriage on 30th
November. I am sorry to say that I will not be able to come as I have my
cousins wedding the same day.
My best wishes are always with you.
Yours affectionately
Manish

Board Notes/English

44

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

(c) Formal invitation letter (to 1 person)


Example: Your Principal wants to invite Rtd. I.P.S. officer Kiran Bedi to the school on the
occasion of the schools Annual function. Write a letter inviting her.
ABC school
New Delhi
5 Aug 2014
Email : abcdelhi@gmail.com
Tel no : 011-23456789
Rtd. IPS Kiran Bedi
Police lines, New Delhi
Sub : Invitation to Annual function
Madam
It gives us immense pleasure to inform you that we are celebrating
our schools Annual Day function on 15th September 2014 at 4:30 p.m. in the
Mahatma Hansraj Auditorium of the school.
We shall consider it a great honourif you could grace the occassion by
presiding over the function as Chief Guest and give away the prizes.
We look forward for a favourable response.
Yours sincerely
PQR
Principal

Board Notes/English

45

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

(d) Reply to (c) part type invitations


Example: Dr Sanjay Gupta was invited to preside over the Inter-school Declamation
competition to be held on October 5th, 2014 at 10:00 a.m. by Neha Sharma,
the President of the English Literary and Debating society of Government
Model Senior Secondary School, Chandigarh. On behalf of Dr Sanjay Gupta,
write a letter to Neha Sharma accepting the invitation.
(Senders address)
20th September 2014
Dear Miss Sharma
Many thanks for inviting me to preside over the Inter-school Declamation
Competition to be held on October 5th, 2014 at 10:00 a.m. I shall be delighted
to attend the function and spend time listening to the views of young minds.
However, due to a prior engagement in evening, I would like to leave by 3:00
p.m.
Yours truly
Dr Sanjay Gupta

Board Notes/English

46

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

(e) Formal invitation (for many persons)


Example 1: Your school is celebrating its annual sports day. Draft an invitation for the
parents of school students.
The Principal and Staff
of
ABC Public School
solicits your gracious presence on
the auspicious occassion of

ANNUAL SPORTS DAY


ON
Saturday, 23rd September 2014
from 9:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.
AT
Shivaji Stadium
Honourable Sh. Ravish Shukla (Minister of sports)
has kindly consented to grace the occassion
RSVP
Tel no : 011-23456789
Mob : 9876543210
[ P.S. - Kindly occupy your seats by 8:45 a.m. ]

Board Notes/English

47

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

Example 2: Mr. Raj Kumar Gupta wants to celebrate his sons (Rohit) success for
topping IITJEE. Draft a formal invitation inviting family and friends on behalf
of Mr Raj Kumar Gupta

Mr Raj Kumar Gupta


solicits your gracious presence on
the auspicious occassion of
GRAND CELEBRATION PARTY
to celebrate Rohits success in IIT exam
ON
Saturday, 25th June 2014
7 p.m. onwards
AT
Utsav Banquet Hall
Civil Lines, Delhi
RSVP
9876543210
9012345678

Board Notes/English

48

Class XII

Writing Skills

Vidyamandir Classes

(f) Reply to formal invitations ( for parties etc )


(Refer to Example 2 of (e) part)
I) Accepting the invitation
Senders address
Mr. and Mrs. XYZ received with thanks the kind invitation of Mr Raj Kumar Gupta to
attend the Grand Celebration Party on Saturday, 25th June 2014 at the Utsav Banquet
Hall. They have great pleasure in accepting the invitation and will be there on time.
Mr. XYZ

II) Declining the invitation


Senders address
Mr. and Mrs. XYZ received with thanks the kind invitation of Mr Raj Kumar Gupta to
attend the Grand Celebration Party on Saturday, 25th June 2014 at the Utsav Banquet
Hall. However, they regret their inability to attend the occassion as they have a prior
appointment on the same day. They send their best wishes for Rohits success.
Mr. XYZ

Board Notes/English

49

Class XII

Vidyamandir Classes

Writing Skills

8. Article writing
Example: As a concerned resident, you are worried about the harmful effects of stray
garbage dumping in your town. Write an article expressing your views on the
neccessity of proper garbage disposal. Sign yourself as Bhumika.
Cleanliness is next to Godliness
-by Bhumika
So many of us believe in keeping our homes beautifully decorated from inside
and throwing our waste and garbage just outside the house. As a result, huge garbage
dumps are formed outside. These dumps attract mosquitoes, flies, pigs and stray
cows. This is a real ground for transmission of diseases. Then there are shallow
ponds infected with mosquitoes. This breeding ground of mosquitoes further adds to
the spread of deadly diseases like malaria, meningitis, dengue etc. There are no
cleaning operations to remove all this garbage. The authorities seem to be the most
indifferent and least concerned to the plight of citizens.
The ironic thing is that even the city hospital is not spared. All the wastes from
the hospital is thrown just outside the gates. As the result, the lives of so many
patients are on stack due to awful hygienic conditions. Basic civil amenities are not
looked after by the municipalities and the basic needs not fulfilled. For thousands of
poor people who live in the JJ clusters, the conditions are pathetic and inhuman. The
rains make it worse as the sewers get choked and overflow. The civic sense of an
ordinary citizen is extremely inadequate. There is no sense of responsibility towards
sanitation or an awareness of the ill-effects that improper sanitation can produce.
There is need to create awareness about the ill effects of bad hygiene. The NGOs
should help to educate the ordinary citizens by arranging one-day programmes. We
can also create this awareness by educating the people living in the slums near
schools and helping them to take up preventive measures.. The Government should
help by making an effort to fulfill the basic needs of food, clothing and shelter for all
citizens. The need to improve the hygenic conditions in surroundings should be felt
by everyone and suitable steps be taken for the cause.

Board Notes/English

50

Class XII