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Standard

Title:

Splice Design for Steelcord


Reinforced Conveyor Belting
Standard

Technology

Unique Identifier:

240-55864490

Alternative Reference Number:

GGP 0922

Area of Applicability:

Engineering

Documentation Type:

Standard

Revision:

Total Pages:

10

Next Review Date:

November 2015

Disclosure Classification:

CONTROLLED
DISCLOSURE

Compiled by

Approved by

Authorised by

..

..

..

J. Hlabangana

A. Wiid

I. Atiya

Senior Engineer

Corporate Specialist

Acting Discipline Manager


Bulk Materials Handling

Date:

Date:

Date:
Supported by TDAC

..
D. Odendaal
TDAC Chairperson
Date:

Splice Design for Steelcord Reinforced Conveyor Belting


Standard

Unique Identifier:
Revision:
Page:

240-55864490
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CONTENTS
Page
1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................... 3
2. SUPPORTING CLAUSES ........................................................................................................................................ 3
2.1 SCOPE .............................................................................................................................................................. 3
2.1.1 Purpose ..................................................................................................................................................... 3
2.1.2 Applicability................................................................................................................................................ 3
2.2 NORMATIVE/INFORMATIVE REFERENCES .................................................................................................. 3
2.2.1 Normative .................................................................................................................................................. 3
2.2.2 Informative ................................................................................................................................................. 3
2.3 DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................................................... 4
2.3.1 Disclosure Classification ........................................................................................................................... 4
2.4 ABBREVIATIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 4
2.5 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES .................................................................................................................... 4
2.6 PROCESS FOR MONITORING ........................................................................................................................ 4
2.7 RELATED/SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS ......................................................................................................... 5
3. SPLICE DESIGN FOR STEELCORD REINFORCED CONVEYOR BELTING ...................................................... 5
3.1 DESIGN PROCEDURE ..................................................................................................................................... 5
3.2 FACTORS DETERMINIG SPLICING LIFE ....................................................................................................... 9
3.3 ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................................................. 10
4. AUTHORISATION .................................................................................................................................................. 10
5. REVISIONS ............................................................................................................................................................ 10
6. DEVELOPMENT TEAM ......................................................................................................................................... 10
7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................................................................... 10

FIGURES
Figure 1: Section of 1-stage joint .................................................................................................................................. 5
Figure 2: Section of 2-stage joint .................................................................................................................................. 5
Figure 3: Joint design ................................................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 4: Joint and overlap lengths .............................................................................................................................. 9

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Splice Design for Steelcord Reinforced Conveyor Belting


Standard

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1. INTRODUCTION
This procedure was compiled by combining the latest knowledge available regarding steelcord reinforced
conveyor belt splice design theory obtained by leaders in the field through physical testing and
modelling.

2. SUPPORTING CLAUSES
2.1 SCOPE
The scope of this document is the empirical design procedure of steelcord reinforced conveyor belt
splices according to the latest information available. Further guidance and procedures to be followed
when making joints on-site can be obtained from Procedure for On-site Jointing of Plied Textile and
Steelcord Reinforced Conveyor Belting, Eskom Standard 240-55864486. This document also just
discusses 1-stage and 2-stage joints, which is the only joint configurations probable to be used with belts
of strength currently in use on Eskoms power plants.
2.1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this document is to sensitise the user of steelcord reinforced conveyor belting to the
importance of the choice of parameters such as cord spacing, upon ordering of replacement conveyor
belting, on the ultimate successful joining to other sections of belting probably already installed on the
conveyor system. Although the same class of belt may be ordered, if the parameters of cord spacing,
cord diameter and number of cords is not specified correctly, it may never be possible to construct a
splice of maximum strength using belting of different configurations.
2.1.2 Applicability
This procedure is applicable to any known configuration of steelcord reinforced conveyor belt joint.
This document shall apply throughout Eskom Holdings Limited Divisions.
2.2 NORMATIVE/INFORMATIVE REFERENCES
The following documents were used for the compilation of this procedure:
2.2.1 Normative
[1]

DIN 22 131 Part 4: Steel Cord Conveyor Belts for General Materials Handling: Belt joints,
dimensions and requirements, Deutsches Institut fur Normung, November 1988.

[2]

Flebbe, F.R., Dynamic Splice Strength Design Criterion for Conveyor Belts, The Best of Bulk
Solids Handling, Belt Conveyor Technology, Volume I/94, pp. 243-247, November 1991, Trans
Tech Publications.

[3]

Hager, M. and Von der Wroge, H., Design of Steel Cord Conveyor Belt Splices, The Best of Bulk
Solids Handling, Belt Conveyor Technology, Volume I/94, pp. 243-247, November 1991, Trans
Tech Publications.

[4]

Harrison, A.: Limitations of Theoretical Splice Design for Steel Cord Belts, Bulk Solids Handling,
Volume 14, Number 1, January/March 1994, pp. 39 - 41, Trans Tech Publications.

[5]

Nordell, L., Qiu, X. and Sethi, V.: Belt Conveyor Steel Cord Splice Analysis, Using Finite Element
Methods, The Best of Bulk Solids Handling, Belt Conveyor Technology, Volume I/94, pp. 225230, November 1991, Trans Tech Publications.

2.2.2 Informative
None
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Splice Design for Steelcord Reinforced Conveyor Belting


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2.3 DEFINITIONS
Definition

Description

Splice

A splice is a joint in the belt where the cords from the ends of two belt lengths
are joined together across rubber interlayers to transmit the tensile load. The
joint shall be tapered and the ends of the cords shall be staggered to remove
the load from the joint when the belt is bent over pulleys. To join two belt
ends, the rubber is removed from the steel cords, leaving a slight amount of
residual rubber. The cords are interlaced parallel to each other in one plane.
They are surrounded with raw rubber, which acts as a spacing rubber section
between the cords and the cover rubbers above and below the cords. The
splice prepared in this way is then vulcanised in a heated press.
The splices represent weak spots in the conveyor belt, their strength being
lower than the nominal strength of the untampered belt. This has been
established in the past, particularly through dynamic belt tests. This
experimental method involves testing conveyor belt specimens on a revolving
loop test rig under saw tooth shaped long-term loading (180 000 revolutions).
The reference fatigue strength of a splice, which is defined analogously to the
fatigue strength of metal materials, is considerably lower than the nominal
strength of the untampered belt. ST 1250 stage 1 splices, for example,
attained fatigue strengths of up to 65%, while in type ST 5000, belts it is
currently 50% maximum.

Steel cord reinforced conveyor


belts

Structurally, steel cord reinforced conveyor belts are composite bodies. The
longitudinal tensile forces are taken up by many parallel steel cords laid out
with alternating left and right hand twist and embedded in core and cover
rubber. The rubber provides protection against the bulk material and the
environment.
Conveyor belts are first joined, to form a continuous belt, during installation
on the conveyor system on site. This is mainly due to the fact that both the
roll diameter and roll weight of the belts represent limits, both in
transportation as well as in handling. Conveyor belts are therefore made up
by joining together a number of conveyor belt sections through hot vulcanised
splices, these sections rarely exceeding 400 m. Each conveyor belt has at
least one and generally a number of splices.

2.3.1 Disclosure Classification


Controlled Disclosure: Controlled Disclosure To External Parties (either enforced by law, or
discretionary).
2.4 ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviation

Description

mm

millimetre

2.5 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES


None
2.6 PROCESS FOR MONITORING
None

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Splice Design for Steelcord Reinforced Conveyor Belting


Standard

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2.7 RELATED/SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS


None

3. SPLICE DESIGN FOR STEELCORD REINFORCED CONVEYOR BELTING


3.1 DESIGN PROCEDURE
Because the cords of the two ends of the belt are not metallically joined within the splice, the tensile
forces in the cords are almost completely transferred into shear forces in the rubber. To ensure that the
requisite thickness of the spacing rubber in the splice is sufficiently dimensioned to take up the transfer
of shear forces, the splices can be made up of a number of longitudinal steps.

Figure 1: Section of 1-stage joint

Figure 2: Section of 2-stage joint


The joint length and geometric design of the joint depend on the cord diameter, d [mm] and cord
spacing, t [mm]. The cord spacing is the horizontal distance between the vertical centre-lines of adjacent
cords. The thickness of rubber between cords in the joint, sG [mm] can then be determined as follows:

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Splice Design for Steelcord Reinforced Conveyor Belting


Standard

sG

t
n st 1
n st

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where nst = number of stages in a belt joint


The value of sG shall not be less than 1. 5mm, preferably 1.9 mm for belt classes up to ST 3150 and
shall not be less than 2.3 mm for belts with higher breaking strengths. An absolute minimum for the core
rubber gap according to Nordell [5] shall be:

sG 0.1d 1.5
The empirically determined correction value, , which takes into account the dependency of the cord
bond strength, Fa on the thickness of the rubber layer, sG between the cords in the joint can now be
determined with the following formula. It only applies up to a maximum of sG = 5 mm.

0.4 0.2sG 0.018sG2


The safety factor, sv is different according to the different number of joint stages:
sv = 1.1 for 1 and 2-stage joints.
sv = 1.2 for 3-stage joints.
sv = 1.3 for 4-stage joints.
The adhesion between rubber and the steelcord is a determining factor for the quality of a steelcord
reinforced conveyor belt and the load transmission in the belt joint. The pull-out strength, Fa [N/mm cord
length] can be determined in accordance with SABS 1366-1982 par. 6.11. The lower value, which is
obtained after reheating of the specimen and which must be at least equal the following, required by the
Eskom specification should be used for calculation purposes.
Pull-out strength = (14 x cord diameter) + 19
where pull-out strength is in N/mm cord length
and cord diameter in mm
If the actual measured value for the particular belt is available that should be used.
The cord connection lengths, , lAnb [mm] can then be calculated from the following formula:

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Splice Design for Steelcord Reinforced Conveyor Belting


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l Anb

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2 * Fb * nst *10 3

Fa *

where Fb = minimum steelcord breaking strength in kN.


The minimum stage length, , lAnb [mm] can now be determined from the following formula:

lst

l Anb
xsv
nb

where nb = number of joints in series of stages.


= 2 for stage 1
= 4 for stage 2
= 6 for stage 3
= 8 for stage 4
The minimum stage length, lst is rounded up to the next largest number that can be divided by 50.

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Figure 3: Joint design


By using the partial length of joint stage by staggering cord ends, lp = 50 mm and partial length of joint for
cord run out, lq = 150 mm, the joint length, lv [mm] can now be determined from the following:

lv nst * lst (nst 1)l p 2lq


The absolute minimum criteria for lp, the clearance between cables from opposing ends that are butted
on the same axis in the splice, ls [mm] and the splice bend zone, lq [mm] according to Nordell [5 ], shall
be the following:

ls , l p 4d 5

lq 15d 50
The overlap length, lu [mm] (belt requirement) for making a joint is then calculated to be:

lu lv la
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where la = 0.3 x B
and B = belt width [mm]

Figure 4: Joint and overlap lengths


In general, the following characteristics should be observed when making belt splices:

large bonding surfaces by tapering in the transfer zones

bonding rubber left on cord

use of highly elastic rubber

high connection capacity of the materials used

distance between cord ends, ls 3 x d

uniform thickness of intermediate rubber, sG

avoid cords with ends flush against each other

lay deviations from the laying diagram in the centre.

3.2 FACTORS DETERMINIG SPLICING LIFE


The obvious fabrication factors that govern splice life in some way are listed in AS 3522-1988, by way of
a list of procedures necessary to maximize adhesion in a splice. [4]
These factors include:

Environmental conditions moisture, humidity, dust, handling (cleanliness) and temperature of the
splice area.

Materials age, shelf life, size of tie gum strips for the splice stage (step), type of solvents,
compatibility of covers to bonder material, new to old belt splicing issues.

Mechanical splice step design, cord spacing for the particular chosen step and cord diameter,
splice length, length of butt gaps on the splice, matching belts from different manufacturers, splice
curing time, lay-up quality, splice straightness.

Electromechanical vulcaniser calibration, temperature sensor monitors, platten temperature


distribution, pressure control, temperature control.

The not so obvious factors that may limit splice life include those that are field or in-service related and in
particular drift in cable location during the splice curing process. Reviewing these, one may list the
following points that limit splice life after fabrication:
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Splice Design for Steelcord Reinforced Conveyor Belting


Standard

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Impact of material inter-cord rubber volume, rupture due to high shear loads, bond failure at the
cable interface, broken cables, tunnelling of cords without chemical adhesion (leaving a bulge
eventually.

Skive lifting poor splice cover/belt adhesion, belt scrapers causing skives to crack at the new/old
interface followed by fines ingress further opening up the skive, water enters the splice, splice
corrodes.

Excessive sag at load points high splice shear coupled with impact at the load point.

Belt edge vibration rapid cycling at up to 15 Hz of splice edge in resonant zones of the conveyor.

Starting/stopping stresses splices that experience high dynamic stresses in high tension zones of a
conveyor may exhibit skive damage.

Fabrication variations movement of splice cables in the vertical and horizontal plane during the
curing process, leads to weaker splices, shift in tension centre-line, mistracking, edge damage.

Belting issues belts manufactured with latent strains will result in abnormal splice stresses.

3.3 ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS


Some additional attributes which ultimately limit splice performance includes the following:

pulley curvature.

pulley surface.

belt- and splice surface irregularities

proximity of two or more splices

manufacturers compatibility of splicing compounds and core rubbers

mismatch of belt cables and belt thicknesses.

4. AUTHORISATION
This document has been seen and accepted by:
Name & Surname

Designation
Document Approved by TDAC 16 July 2013

5. REVISIONS
Date
November 2012
November 2012

Rev.
0.1
1

Compiler
T. Khosa
T. Khosa

Remarks
Draft document for Review created from GGP 0922
Final document for approval

6. DEVELOPMENT TEAM
The following people were involved in the development of this document:

None

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

None

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