You are on page 1of 2

12/18/2016

FourConsumerBehaviorTheoriesMarketersShouldKnow|OhioUniversity

OnlineGraduateDegreePrograms
Resources

FourConsumerBehaviorTheoriesEveryMarketerShouldKnow
Posted:06/23/2016
0

Marketinginthe21stcenturyispartartandpartscience,andbothsidesplaceacrucialroleinsuccessfulmarketing.Creativeexpressiondevelopsmarketingcampaigns
thatcatchtheeyeandcapturetheimagination,butbehindeverymarketingstrategyaretheoriesgroundedsolidlyinpsychology,economics,andstudiesinhuman
behavior.Thescientificinsightshelpmarketersdesigncampaignsthatspeaktothefundamentalconcernsanddesiresoftheiraudience,greatlydeepeningtheimpactof
themarketingmaterials.
Attheheartofthescientificstudyofmarketingarekeyinsightsaboutconsumerbehavior,orwhyconsumersbuyandactthewaytheydo.Theoriesofconsumerbehavior
addressimportantissues,suchashowconsumerspurchaseasindividualsversushowtheypurchaseingroups,theroleofemotionsinpurchasingdecisions,postpurchase
attitudes,andtheroleofobjectutility.Understandingtheseissuesenhancesamarketingcampaignseffectivenessanditsimpactonconsumers.
Todetermineconsumerbehavior,marketersusenumerousconsumerbehaviormodels.

TheoryofReasonedAction
CreatedbyMartinFishbeinandIcekAjzeninthelate1960s,theTheoryofReasonedActioncentersitsanalysisontheimportanceofpreexistingattitudesinthe
decisionmakingprocess.Thecoreofthetheorypositsthatconsumersactonabehaviorbasedontheirintentiontocreateorreceiveaparticularoutcome.Inthisanalysis,
consumersarerationalactorswhochoosetoactintheirbestinterests.
Accordingtothetheory,specificityiscriticalinthedecisionmakingprocess.Aconsumeronlytakesaspecificactionwhenthereisanequallyspecificresultexpected.
Fromthetimetheconsumerdecidestoacttothetimetheactioniscompleted,theconsumerretainstheabilitytochangehisorhermindanddecideonadifferentcourse
ofaction.
MarketerscanlearnseverallessonsfromtheTheoryofReasonedAction.First,whenmarketingaproducttoconsumers,marketersmustassociateapurchasewitha
positiveresult,andthatresultmustbespecific.AxeBodySprayusedthisconceptveryeffectivelybylinkingitsproducttodesirabilitywithwomen.Second,thetheory
highlightstheimportanceofmovingconsumersthroughthesalespipeline.Marketersmustunderstandthatlonglagsbetweeninitialintentionandthecompletionofthe
actionallowsconsumersplentyoftimetotalkthemselvesoutofapurchaseorquestiontheoutcomeofthepurchase.

Engel,Kollet,Blackwell(EKB)Model
TheEKBModelexpandsontheTheoryofReasonedAction,andlaysoutafivestepprocessthatconsumersusewhenmakingapurchase.Thefirststep,input,iswhere
consumersabsorbmostofthemarketingmaterialstheyseeontelevision,newspapersoronline.Oncetheconsumercollectsthedata,heorshemovesintoinformation
processing,wheretheconsumercomparestheinputtopastexperiencesandexpectations.
Consumersmovetothedecisionmakingstageafteraperiodofthought,choosingtomakeapurchasebasedonrationalinsight.Consumersareaffectedinthedecision
makingphasebyprocessvariablesandexternalinfluences,includinghowtheconsumerenvisionshisorherselfaftermakingthepurchase.
UndertheEKBModel,marketershavetwoperiodswheretheirinputisthemostvaluable.Duringtheinitialinformationstage,marketersmustprovideconsumerswith
enoughinformationabouttheproducttodrivetheconsumertokeepthecompanysproductsunderconsiderationforpurchase.Marketingbecomesafactoragaininthe
phaseofexternalinfluences.Lifestylebrandsareverygoodatinstillingdesireintheconsumertolookorfeelacertainwaywiththeproduct,evenifthebrandsproduct
isnotfundamentallydifferentfromthecompetition.

MotivationNeedTheory
AbrahamMaslowputforwardhishierarchyofneedsin1943,sendingrippleeffectsthroughtheentirepsychologicalcommunity.Underhistheory,peopleacttofulfill
theirneedsbasedonafivepartprioritysystem.Theneedsinclude,inorderofimportance:physiological(survival),safety,love,esteem,andselfactualization.
BusinessschoolsandmarketingclassesadaptedMaslowstheoriestoexplaintheneedtotailormarketingmessagestoconsumersinaparticularway.Successful
marketingcampaignsmustnotonlybringawarenesstoaproduct,butalsoestablishitsplacesomewhereonthehierarchyofneeds.Consumersaremotivatedtoprioritize
purchasestowardthebaseofthehierarchy,soitisvitalthatcompaniesdraftamessagethatinstillsasenseofneedorurgencyinconsumers.
Marketershavebeenabletousemotivationneedtheoryveryeffectivelybycreatinganartificialneedforconsumers.Modernluxurycarmakersareespeciallygoodat
highlightingthesafetyandsecurityfeaturesoftheirvehiclesovertheaesthetic.Intheconsumersmind,theyneedtospendthemoneyonanexpensiveluxurycar
becauseitistheonlywaytheycanprovideadequatesafetyfeaturesfortheirfamily.

HawkinsSternImpulseBuying
Whilemanyofthetheoriesofconsumerbehaviorfocusonrationalaction,HawkinsSternbelievedheavilyintheideaofimpulsebehavior.Sternarguedthatsudden
buyingimpulsesfitalongsiderationalpurchasingdecisionstopaintacompletepictureoftheaverageconsumer.Impulsepurchasesaredrivenlargelybyexternalstimuli,
andhavealmostnorelationshiptotraditionaldecisionmaking.
Sternestablishedfourcategoriesofimpulsebuying.Firstarethepurelyimpulsepurchases,likeacandybaratthecheckoutlineofagrocerystore.Second,consumers
makeremindedimpulsebuys,likeplacingadisplayofhotdogbunsnexttoameatcooler.Thirdaresuggestedimpulsepurchases,suchasawarrantyforanelectronic
device.Finally,consumersmakeplannedimpulsedecisions,wheretheyknowtheywanttobuyaproduct,butareunsureaboutthespecifics.
Impulsebuyingtheoriespresentanoceanofopportunitiesformarketers.Everyaspectofaproduct,fromthewaythepackagingcatchestheeyetothewaytheproductis
displayedinthestore,hasanimpactonaconsumersimpulsecontrol.Marketerswhocancapturetheimpulsivethoughtandclosethesalewillhavethemostsuccess.
Consumerbehaviortheoriespredicthowconsumersmakepurchasingdecisionsandshowmarketershowbesttocapitalizeonpredictablebehaviors.Thoughimpulse
purchasesareasignificantpartofaconsumersbuyingpatterns,rationaldecisionmakingprocessesdominateconsumerbehaviorandaffectmarketingtheory.

LearnMore
AtOhioUniversity,weunderstandhowimportantanMBAcanbetoadvancingyourcareer.WealsoknowthatyourMBAshouldbeaffordable,engaging,and
academicallyrigorous.ThatswhywehavedesignedanonlineMBAthatiscomprehensiveandchallenging,yetflexibletofityourlifestyle.WhenyouearnyourMBA
onlinefromOhioUniversityyouaremakingaconsciousdecisiontoimproveyourprofessionalvalueandpositionyourselfforcurrentandfuturebusinessopportunities.
Sources
TheoryofReasonedAction:http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/5719/volumes/v01/NA01
MotivationNeedTheory:http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/9488/volumes/v05/NA05
EKB:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282350425_An_old_model_for_a_new_age_Consumer_decision_making_in_participatory_digital_culture
Stern:https://www.google.com/url?
sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&ved=0ahUKEwiUnMTVtP3MAhUBSSYKHXduBh0QFghZMAg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ccsenet.org%2Fjournal%2Findex.php%2Fijms%2Farticle%2520%2Fdownload%2F24570%2F16339&usg=AFQjCNEbBbKOe8r9N6oCWMFbjhvauSw0kg&sig2=LEIx_SnakYwE4I_PwdYb6g
Related

5BenefitsofanMPA
InnovativeTipsForCoordinatingNonprofitOrganizations
WhyMedicalWasteisMoreThanGarbage
ThreeMethodsofCompanyValuation
TheLawofComparativeAdvantagesinInternationalTrade
Resources:

ViewArticles
ViewVideos
ViewInfographics
ViewWebinars
LearnMoreaboutOhioUniversity

FourConsumerBehaviorTheoriesEveryMarketerShouldKnow

http://onlinemasters.ohio.edu/fourconsumerbehaviortheorieseverymarketershouldknow/

1/2

12/18/2016

FourConsumerBehaviorTheoriesMarketersShouldKnow|OhioUniversity

Marketinginthe21stcenturyispartartandpartscience,andbothsidesplaceacrucialroleinsuccessfulmarketing.Creativeexpressiondevelopsmarketingcampaigns
thatcatchtheeyeandcapturetheimagination,butbehindeverymarketingstrategyaretheoriesgroundedsolidlyinpsychology,economics,andstudiesinhuman
behavior.Thescientificinsightshelpmarketersdesigncampaignsthatspeaktothefundamentalconcernsanddesiresoftheiraudience,greatlydeepeningtheimpactof
themarketingmaterials.
Attheheartofthescientificstudyofmarketingarekeyinsightsaboutconsumerbehavior,orwhyconsumersbuyandactthewaytheydo.Theoriesofconsumerbehavior
address IMPORTANT issues,suchashowconsumerspurchaseasindividualsversushowtheypurchaseingroups,theroleofemotionsinpurchasingdecisions,post
purchaseattitudes,andtheroleofobjectutility.Understandingtheseissuesenhancesamarketingcampaignseffectivenessanditsimpactonconsumers.
Todetermineconsumerbehavior,marketersusenumerousconsumerbehaviormodels.

TheoryofReasonedAction
CreatedbyMartinFishbeinandIcekAjzeninthelate1960s,theTheoryofReasonedActioncentersitsanalysisonthe IMPORTANCE ofpreexistingattitudesinthe
decisionmakingprocess.Thecoreofthetheorypositsthatconsumersactonabehaviorbasedontheirintentiontocreateorreceiveaparticularoutcome.Inthisanalysis,
consumersarerationalactorswhochoosetoactintheirbestinterests.
Accordingtothetheory,specificityiscriticalinthedecisionmakingprocess.Aconsumeronlytakesaspecificactionwhenthereisanequallyspecificresultexpected.
Fromthetimetheconsumerdecidestoacttothetimetheactioniscompleted,theconsumerretainstheabilitytochangehisorhermindanddecideonadifferentcourse
ofaction.
MarketerscanlearnseverallessonsfromtheTheoryofReasonedAction.First,whenmarketingaproducttoconsumers,marketersmustassociateapurchasewitha
positiveresult,andthatresultmustbespecific.AxeBodySprayusedthisconceptveryeffectivelybylinkingitsproducttodesirabilitywithwomen.Second,thetheory
highlightstheimportanceofmovingconsumersthroughthesalespipeline.Marketersmustunderstandthatlonglagsbetweeninitialintentionandthecompletionofthe
actionallowsconsumersplentyoftimetotalkthemselvesoutofapurchaseorquestiontheoutcomeofthepurchase.

Engel,Kollet,Blackwell(EKB)Model
TheEKBModelexpandsontheTheoryofReasonedAction,andlaysoutafivestepprocessthatconsumersusewhenmakingapurchase.Thefirststep,input,iswhere
consumersabsorbmostofthemarketingmaterialstheyseeontelevision,newspapersoronline.Oncetheconsumercollectsthedata,heorshemovesintoinformation
processing,wheretheconsumercomparestheinputtopastexperiencesandexpectations.
Consumersmovetothedecisionmakingstageafteraperiodofthought,choosingtomakeapurchasebasedonrationalinsight.Consumersareaffectedinthedecision
makingphasebyprocessvariablesandexternalinfluences,includinghowtheconsumerenvisionshisorherselfaftermakingthepurchase.
UndertheEKBModel,marketershavetwoperiodswheretheirinputisthemostvaluable.Duringtheinitialinformationstage,marketersmustprovideconsumerswith
enoughinformationabouttheproducttodrivetheconsumertokeepthecompanysproductsunderconsiderationforpurchase.Marketingbecomesafactoragaininthe
Advertisement

phaseofexternalinfluences.Lifestylebrandsareverygoodatinstillingdesireintheconsumertolookorfeelacertainwaywiththeproduct,evenifthebrandsproduct
isnotfundamentallydifferentfromthecompetition.

MotivationNeedTheory
AbrahamMaslowputforwardhishierarchyofneedsin1943,sendingrippleeffectsthroughtheentirepsychologicalcommunity.Underhistheory,peopleacttofulfill
theirneedsbasedonafivepartprioritysystem.Theneedsinclude,inorderofimportance:physiological(survival),safety,love,esteem,andselfactualization.
BusinessschoolsandmarketingclassesadaptedMaslowstheoriestoexplaintheneedtotailormarketingmessagestoconsumersinaparticularway.Successful
marketingcampaignsmustnotonlybringawarenesstoaproduct,butalsoestablishitsplacesomewhereonthehierarchyofneeds.Consumersaremotivatedtoprioritize
purchasestowardthebaseofthehierarchy,soitisvitalthatcompaniesdraftamessagethatinstillsasenseofneedorurgencyinconsumers.
Marketershavebeenabletousemotivationneedtheoryveryeffectivelybycreatinganartificialneedforconsumers.Modernluxurycarmakersareespeciallygoodat
highlightingthesafetyandsecurityfeaturesoftheirvehiclesovertheaesthetic.Intheconsumersmind,theyneedtospendthemoneyonanexpensiveluxurycar
becauseitistheonlywaytheycanprovideadequatesafetyfeaturesfortheirfamily.

HawkinsSternImpulseBuying
Whilemanyofthetheoriesofconsumerbehaviorfocusonrationalaction,HawkinsSternbelievedheavilyintheideaofimpulsebehavior.Sternarguedthatsudden
buyingimpulsesfitalongsiderationalpurchasingdecisionstopaintacompletepictureoftheaverageconsumer.Impulsepurchasesaredrivenlargelybyexternalstimuli,
andhavealmostnorelationshiptotraditionaldecisionmaking.
Sternestablishedfourcategoriesofimpulsebuying.Firstarethepurelyimpulsepurchases,likeacandybaratthecheckoutlineofagrocerystore.Second,consumers
makeremindedimpulsebuys,likeplacingadisplayofhotdogbunsnexttoameatcooler.Thirdaresuggestedimpulsepurchases,suchasawarrantyforanelectronic
device.Finally,consumersmakeplannedimpulsedecisions,wheretheyknowtheywanttobuyaproduct,butareunsureaboutthespecifics.
Impulsebuyingtheoriespresentanoceanofopportunitiesformarketers.Everyaspectofaproduct,fromthewaythepackagingcatchestheeyetothewaytheproductis
displayedinthestore,hasanimpactonaconsumersimpulsecontrol.Marketerswhocancapturetheimpulsivethoughtandclosethesalewillhavethemostsuccess.
Consumerbehaviortheoriespredicthowconsumersmakepurchasingdecisionsandshowmarketershowbesttocapitalizeonpredictablebehaviors.Thoughimpulse
purchasesareasignificantpartofaconsumersbuyingpatterns,rationaldecisionmakingprocessesdominateconsumerbehaviorandaffectmarketingtheory.

LearnMore
AtOhioUniversity,weunderstandhowimportantanMBAcanbetoadvancingyourcareer.WealsoknowthatyourMBAshouldbeaffordable,engaging,and
academicallyrigorous.ThatswhywehavedesignedanonlineMBAthatiscomprehensiveandchallenging,yetflexibletofityourlifestyle.WhenyouearnyourMBA
onlinefromOhioUniversityyouaremakingaconsciousdecisiontoimproveyourprofessionalvalueandpositionyourselfforcurrentandfuturebusinessopportunities.
Sources
TheoryofReasonedAction:http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/5719/volumes/v01/NA01
MotivationNeedTheory:http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/9488/volumes/v05/NA05
EKB:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282350425_An_old_model_for_a_new_age_Consumer_decision_making_in_participatory_digital_culture
Stern:https://www.google.com/url?
sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&ved=0ahUKEwiUnMTVtP3MAhUBSSYKHXduBh0QFghZMAg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ccsenet.org%2Fjournal%2Findex.php%2Fijms%2Farticle%2520%2Fdownload%2F24570%2F16339&usg=AFQjCNEbBbKOe8r9N6oCWMFbjhvauSw0kg&sig2=LEIx_SnakYwE4I_PwdYb6g

AboutOhio
Legal/Privacy
ComplaintResolution
PositionYourselfasaLeader.
GETMOREINFO

http://onlinemasters.ohio.edu/fourconsumerbehaviortheorieseverymarketershouldknow/

2/2