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MVAR Control in Rajasthan (India)

Transmission System
Ravi Panwar1, Dr. Vikas Sharma2, Dr. M.P. Sharma3 and Bhavesh Vyas4
1

Student, M.Tech, Government Engineering College, Bikaner, India


Asst. Professor, EE Dept., Government Engineering College, Bikaner, India
3
Assistant Engineer, RRVPNL, Jaipur, India
4
Asst. Professor, EE Dept., Arya College of Engineering & I.T., Jaipur, India
E-mail: 1panwarravi5@gmail.com, 2vicky_su20@rediffmail.com, 3mahavir_sh@rediffmail.com, 4tonu567@gmail.com
2

AbstractLarge number of substations have been


upgraded to higher voltage level by loop in loop out of
existing transmission lines to meet the increasing load
demand. Therefore, large number of loops of different
voltage levels has been created between substations.
Transformers of different MVA ratings, percentage
impedance and tap ratios have been installed at the
substations. Presently there is no coordination between
adjoining substation operators for tap setting of
transformers. Therefore, due to mismatch of transformers
tap ratio and percentage impedance, circulating MVARs are
flowing on transmission lines resulting in higher transmission
losses, increase loading of transformers & lines and poor
voltage profile. In this paper impact of circulating MVAR
flow and its control through coordinated tap setting of
transformers has been studied. Rajasthan power system has
been considered to carry out the studies and has been
modeled in Mi-Power software. Rajasthan Power System
have total 750 buses comprising 2 nos. 765 KV, 35 nos. 400
KV, 147 nos. 220 KV, 504 nos. 132 KV and 62 nos. generator
buses with load of 10000 MW. Effect of coordinated Tap
setting of transformers on circulating MVAR flow,
transmission losses, network voltage profile and lines &
transformers loading have been analyzed. Proposed
methodology has been successfully tested on Rajasthan
power system to remove the circulating MVAR flows on 220
kV and 132 kV network.
Keywords: Circulating MVAR Flows; On Load Tap
Changer; Transformer Tap Setting; Load Flow Studies;
Transmission Loss Reduction; Voltage Profile Improvement

I. INTRODUCTION
With the advent of integrated systems transmission &
distribution network have grown into a vast and complex
systems. Transformers are essential part of Grid sub
stations applied at different voltage levels. To avail the
energy demands & to improve reliability these have been
connected in parallel in the power system. If possible a
coordination topology if followed among these
transformers, it can mitigate a countable number of grid
issues like poor voltage profile, transmission losses,
equipment ageing, increased maintenance cost etc. amount
to a great extent.
This research paper follows practically existing
problem of Circulating MVAR observed recently at the
EHV Sub-Stations of Jaipur City (Rajasthan Power
System, India) named i.e. Sanganer, Mansarovar &
Chaksu 220 kV Sub-Stations. Since transformers, may
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have been bought on different times and from different


manufacturers, so their percentage impedance, X/R ratio
and number of taps may be quite distinct.
Practically no guidelines or coordination from other
Sub-Stations has been under routine by the utility
engineers for setting the tap ratios of transformers.
The operators adjust the tap ratios as per the
requirement and conditions prevailing at their Sub-station.
As per research studies concern various literature ideas
presents methodology of tap changing procedure &
reducing of circulating current induced in secondary
transformer winding during tap changing process. In 1993
the taps were advised to control through programmable
logic controllers by David L. Bassett [1]. The practice of
parallel transformers tap changing problem advises that an
artificial neural network can be used to control power &
adjusts the tap setting procedure briefed by M. F. Islam in
2004 [2]. To provide active control of distribution
networks enhanced TAP changing schemes and
mathematical models for Automatic Voltage Controllers
were explained by Maciej Fila [3]. Also circulating current
losses in stranded windings of transformers has been
explained with 2D finite element method (FEM) study by
D.A. Koppikar [4]. Thus, lots of exercises have been
practically suggested by researchers.
This paper has been organized in VII sections after
Introduction, objectives has been detailed. The model of
Jaipur City System using Mi-Power software [5],
consisting of Test GSS and simulations of Rajasthan
Power System are performed in III Section i.e Test System
Modeling. Afterwards Circulating current is minimized &
its effect on various network parameters viz MW losses,
voltage profile elements loading, annual saving are
analyzed in Section V. The optimal tap position with
coordinated tap changing sequence contributing maximum
energy & cost savings has been acquired in section VI
before conclusion in section VII.
II. OBJECTIVES OF CIRCULATING MVAR CONTROL
At present in Rajasthan Power System certain issues
of unnecessary circulating MVAr have been observed by
the utilities at three different 220/132 voltage level GSS &
EHV lines.
The recorded disturbances at these stations & lines
due to mismatched tap settings of transformers at these

st

958 1 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems (ICPEICES-2016)

substations have provoked the utility engineers for


detailed research over the steps to be taken to diminish the
circulating MVAr in the system assemblies.
Therefore complete study has been performed to
fulfill certain objectives detailed in the points.
1. To mitigate the circulating Mvar at the respective
220/132 KV Substations of Mansarovar, Sanganer &
Chaksu.
2. To observe the collective effects of diminished
circulating current on Voltage profile, MW losses
MVAr losses.
3. To obtain maximum benefits of tap settings available
for providing increased energy & cost savings
annually.
Since utilities are not following a routine pattern of
adjusting the tap settings of transformers. This change of
tap settings in variable capacity, transformers have
collectively introduced circulating MVAr in the
transmission line following a closed loop. This circulating
MVAr is effecting network characteristics and providing
unnecessary amount of reactive power in the circuit lines.

6
7
8
9
10

Number of Total Lines


Number of Total Transfomers
Number of Load Buses
Shunt Reactors
Shunt Capacitors

834
347
481
50
392

4251 MVAR
2997 MVAR

Load flow study results of Rajasthan power system


network for 400 kV and above network voltage level are
plotted at Fig. 2. Power supply of in and around Jaipur
city area is being met from 1 no. 765 kV GSS, 3 nos. 400
kV GSS, 10 nos. 220 kV GSS and 10 nos. 132 kV GSS.
In Jaipur city many of 132 kV GSS have been
upgraded to 220 kV voltage level by using LILO of
existing 220 kV Lines. Therefore, adjoining 220 kV
substations are connected through short distance 220 kV
as well as 132 kV lines. Transformers of different MVA
capacity and impedance have been installed at 220 kV
substations. Transformers tap setting are changed to
control the 132 kV bus voltages without any coordination
with tap setting of transformers of adjoining substations.
Thus circulating MVARs are flowing in the network.

III. TEST SYSTEM MODELLING


Rajasthan State Power System has an area of 1, 32,
147 Square miles and had a population of 6.86 Crores [6].
The highest transmission voltage in Rajasthan is 765 kV.
There are two 765 kV GSS, twenty one 400 kV GSS, one
hundred eleven 220 KV GSS, three hundred ninety three
132 kV GSS as on 31stmarch 2016. Power map of
Rajasthan power system is placed at Fig. 1.
Fig. 2: Load Flow Study Results of 400 kV and 765 kV Network

Single line diagram of Jaipur city EHV network is


drawn in Fig.3.

Fig. 1: Rajasthan Power Map

Rajasthan power system has been electrically


modeled in Mi Power software. Load has been represented
at 132 kV voltage level. All EHV lines upto 132 kV
voltage level and transformers up to 220/132 kV voltage
have been modeled. In the Rajasthan, 62 generators exist
at power plants of RVUN and Central sector, which have
been represented in the simulation model. The input data
file detailing the modeling of Rajasthan power system is
described in Table I.
TABLE 1: RAJASTHAN POWER SYSTEM DATA
Sl. No.
1
2
3
4
5

Input Data
Total Real Power Load
Total Reactive Power Load
Load Power Factor
Number of Generator Buses
Total Number of Buses

No.
62
750

Data Values
10000 MW
5917 MVAr
0.90
-

Fig. 3: Single Line Diagram of Jaipur City Network

In Jaipur city, 220 kV GSS at Chaksu, Sanganer and


Mansarovar are connected through 220 kV and 132 kV
voltage level. Following are the interconnections at these
220 kV substations.
1
2
3
1
2
3
4

220/132 kV Auto transformer


220 kV GSS Chaksu 1x160 MVA
220 kV GSS Sanganer 1x100 MVA
220 kV GSS Mansarovar 2x160 MVA
220 & 132 kV Transmission Line
34.19 kM 220 kV S/C Chaksu-Sanganer line
32.19 kM 132 kV S/C Chaksu-Sanganer line
9 kM 220 kV S/C Sanganer-Mansarovar line
9 kM 132 kV D/C Sanganer-Mansarovar line

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MVAR Control in Rajasthan (India) Transmission System 959

Percentage impedance of installed Transformers at


above 220 kV substations is tabulated in Table II.
TABLE 2: TRANSFORMERS PERCENTAGE IMPEDANCE
Sl. No.
1
2
3
4

Name of 220 KV
GSS
Chaksu
Sanganer
Mansarovar
Mansarovar

Transformer
MVA Raing
160
100
160 (Ist Unit)
160 (IInd Unit)

Percentage
Impedance
12.39
9.22
12.39
12.39

Sl. No.
1
2
3

TABLE 5: ACTUAL TAP POSITION OF TRANSFORMERS


Name of 220 KV
Transformer
Actual Tap
GSS
MVA Raing
Position
Chaksu
160
8
Sanganer
100
6
Mansarovar
160 (Ist Unit)
8
nd
160 (II Unit)
8

Total number of taps at transformers installed at 220


kV substations Chaksu, Sanganer and Mansarovar are 21
and nominal tap position is 9. X/R ratio of all four
transformers is 20. On load tap changers are attached with
all four transformers to control the secondary voltage. 220
kV bus voltages at various tap positions of transformers
are tabulated at Table III.
TABLE 3: 220 KV BUS VOLTAGE AT VARIOUS TAP POSITIONS
Tap Position
1
(Minimum Tap)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 (Nominal Tap)
10
11

220 kV Bus
Voltage
242

Tap Position

220 kV Bus
Voltage
211.7

239
236
233
231
228
225
222
220
217
214.5

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
(Maximum Tap)

12

209
206
203.5
200.7
198
195
192.5
189.7
187

Zebra and panther conductors have been used for


construction of 220 kV and 132 kV lines. Parameters
obtained for the conductors are provided in the Table IV.
TABLE 4: CONDUCTOR PARAMETERS
Type of
Conductor

Zebra
Panther

Line Parameters
R /km/ X /km
B/2
Ckt
/ckt
mho/km
/ckt
0.1622
0.3861
1.46E-06
0.0748
0.3992
1.47E-06

SIL
Value
MW

Thermal
Rating
MVA

150
50

170
71

IV. SIMULATION STUDY


To diagnosis, circulating MVAR flow in power
system actual power flow on transmission lines connected
between 220 kV GSS Chaksu, Sanganer and Mansarovar
have been gathered on 15TH April 2016 at 5.30 PM.
From the analysis of gathered data, it was found that
circulating MVARs were flowing between the substations.
To simulate the actual field condition in MiPower
software, actual tap settings of transformers at
Mansarovar, Chaksu and Sanganer substation have been
taken and tabulated at Table V. The results of load flow
study (Case-I) are plotted at Fig. 4. The simulated results
have been showed in the image & provided separately too.

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Fig. 4: LFA of Test System with Actual Tap Setting of Transformers


As per load flow study results, 220 kV and 132 kV bus
voltage at 220 kV GSS Chaksu, Sanganer, Mansarovar are
tabulated in Table VI.
TABLE 6: BUS VOLTAGE IN EXISTING SYSTEM CONDITION
Sl. No.

Name of 220 KV GSS

1
2
3

Chaksu
Sanganer
Mansarovar

220 kV Bus
Voltage (kV)
218.23
217.57
217.23

132 kV Bus
Voltage (kV)
127.88
127.04
126.95

As per load flow study results, circulating MVARs


are flowing on 220 kV and 132 kV transmission lines
connected between 220 kV GSS Mansarovar, Sanganer
and Chaksu which are tabulated in Table VII.
TABLE 7: CIRCULATING MVAR FLOW ON INTERCONNECTED LINES
Sl. No.
1
2
3
1
2
3
4

Name of 220 KV GSS


220/132 kV Auto Transformer
220 kV GSS Chaksu 1x160 MVA
220 kV GSS Sanganer 1x100 MVA
220 kV GSS Mansarovar 2x160 MVA
220 & 132 kV Transmission Line
34.19 kM 220 kV S/C Chaksu-Sanganer line
32.19 kM 132 kV S/C Chaksu-Sanganer line
9 kM 220 kV S/C Sanganer-Mansarovar line
9 kM 132 kV D/C Sanganer-Mansarovar line

MVAR Flow
12.26
(-) 12.56
30.96
11.69
(-) 3.86
13.44
(-) 8.74

From above tabulated results following points are


observed:
11.69 MVARs are flowing from 220 kV GSS
Sanganer to 220 kV GSS Chaksu through 220 kV
line whereas 3.86 MVARs are flowing from 220 kV
GSS Chaksu to 220 kV GSS Sanganer through 132
kV line. Therefore, 3.86 MVARs are circulating
between 220 kV GSS Chaksu and Sanganer.
13.44 MVARs are flowing from 220 kV GSS
Sanganer to 220 kV GSS Mansarovar through 220 kV
line whereas 8.74 MVARs are flowing from 220 kV
GSS Mansarovar to 220 kV GSS Sanganer through
132 kV line. Therefore, 8.74 MVARs are circulating
between 220 kV GSS Chaksu and Sanganer.

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960 1 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems (ICPEICES-2016)

Total 12.60 MVARs are flowing from 220 kV


substaions at Mansarovar and Chaksu to 220 kV
GSS Sanganer through 132 kV lines which are
stepup to 220 kV voltage level through 132/220 kV
transformer at 220 kV GSS Sanganer and then
flowing on 220 kV lines toward Mansarovar and
Chaksu GSS and again stepdown at these substaions
and flows toward Sanganer on 132 kV voltage level.
This is the case of circulating MVAR flow in the
power system.
Presently, there is no coordination between substation
operators at 220 kV GSS Mansarovar, Chaksu and
Sanganer for tap setting of transformers. Substation
operators independtly set the tap position of their
transformers to control the 132 kV bus voltage. To remove
the circulating MVAR flow in the power system, tap
position of transformer at 220 kV GSS Sanganer is
increased to 7 through on load tap changer. Results of load
flow study for CaseII are plotted at Fig. 5.

In case-III circulating MVARs between substaions


have been removed. Above results also obtained in real
field applications at these substaions on 15th April, 2016.
V. RESULT ANALYSIS
Tap setting of transformers at Mansarovar, Chaksu
and Sanganer substation for Case I, II and III is tabulated
at Table VIII.
TABLE 8: TAP POSITION OF TRANSFORMERS FOR SIMULATION STUDY
Name of 220 Transformer
KV GSS
MVA Raing
Chaksu
160
Sanganer
100
Mansarovar
160 (Ist Unit)
160 (IInd Unit)

Case I
8
6
8
8

Tap Position
Case II
Case III
8
8
7
8
8
8
8
8

Results of load flow study of Case-I, II and III are


plotted at Fig. 4, 5 & 6 respectively and has been analyzed
in the following subsections:
A. Effect on MVARs Flow on Lines and Transformers
MVAR flow on lines and transformers of Test System
have been tabulated at Table IX.
TABLE 9: MVAR FLOW ON LINES & TRANSFORMERS
Sl.
No.
1
2

Fig. 5: LFA of Test System with Tap Setting of Transformers at


Mansarvar-8, Sanganer-7 and Chaksu-8

From the load flow study results it is observed that


circulating MVARs are reduced as compared to Case-I but
still some MVARs are circulating, therefore, tap position
of transformer at 220 kV GSS Sanganer is increased to 8
through on load tap changer. Results of load flow study
for CaseII are plotted at Fig. 6.

4
5
6
7

Particulars

220 kV S/C
Sanganer - Chaksu Line
132 kV S/C
Sanganer Chaksu Line
220 kV S/C
Sanganer - Mansarovar Line
132 kV D/C
Sanganer - Mansarovar Line
1x160 MVA, 220/132 kV
Transformers at Chaksu
1x100 MVA, 220/132 kV
Transformers at Sanganer
2x160 MVA, 220/132 kV
Transformers at Mansarovar

MVAR Flow
Case I Case
Case
II
III
11.69 10.38
9.02
(-)
3.86
13.44

(-)
1.86
9.63

0.20

(-)
8.74
12.26

(-)
2.34
10.09

4.25

(-)
12.56
30.96

(-)
4.30
24.22

6.05

5.65

7.87

17.30

From the simulation study it is observed that:


Reactive power circulation between 220 kV GSS
Sanganer, Chaksu and Mansarovar has been removed
in Case III.
Reactive power loading on all four transmission lines
and four transformers have been reduced in Case-III
as compared to Case III.
B. Effect on MW Flow on Lines and Transformers
MW flow on transmission lines and transformers of
Test System have been tabulated at Table X.
Fig. 6: LFA of Test System with Tap Setting of Transformers at
Mansarvar-8, Sanganer-8 and Chaksu-8

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MVAR Control in Rajasthan (India) Transmission System 961

Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

TABLE 10: MW FLOW IN LINES & TRANSFORMERS


Particulars
MW Flow
Case I Case
Case
II
III
220 kV S/C
120.37 120.51 120.65
Chaksu - Sanganer Line
132 kV S/C
26.61 26.45 26.28
Sanganer Chaksu Line
220 kV S/C
33.91 33.43 32.94
Sanganer - Mansarovar Line
132 kV D/C
35.67 36.48 37.32
Sanganer - Mansarovar Line
1x160 MVA, 220/132 kV
69.90 69.73 69.56
Transformers at Chaksu
1x100 MVA, 220/132 kV
41.15 42.12 43.13
Transformers at Sanganer
2x160 MVA, 220/132 kV
107.50 106.66 105.82
Transformers at Mansarovar

From Table X it is observed there is marginal


disparity on MW flows on transmission lines and
transformers with the variation of 220/132 kV transformer
tap setting at 220 kV GSSSanganer.
C. Effect on Loading on Lines and Transformers
Ampere loading of transmission lines of Test System
have been tabulated at Table XI.
TABLE 11: AMPERE LOADING ON LINES & TRANSFORMERS
Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Name of Lines

Ampere Loading
Case Case Case
I
II
III
128
120
118

132 kV S/C
Sanganer Chaksu Line
220 kV S/C
Sanganer - Mansarovar Line
132 kV D/C
Sanganer - Mansarovar Line
220 kV S/C
Chaksu - Sanganer Line
1x160 MVA, 220/132 kV
Transformers at Chaksu
1x100 MVA, 220/132 kV
Transformers at Sanganer
2x160 MVA, 220/132 kV
Transformers at Mansarovar

98

93

89

167

166

159

320

320

320

188

186

185

113

112

116

298

290

284

From Table XI it is observed loading on transmission


lines and transformers have been decreased in Case-III as
compared to Case-I which is due to removal of circulating
MVAR flow on lines and transformers. This spare
capacity can be used to meet the increasing demand of
respective areas and avoid the augmentation of system.
D. Effect on Voltage
Bus voltage in Test System for Case I, II and III are
tabulated at table XII.
TABLE 12: EFFECT OF TAP SETTING OF TRANSFORMERS ON B US
VOLTAGE
Name of
GSS
Chaksu
Sanganer
Mansarovar

220 kV Bus Voltage (kV)


Case I Case
Case
II
III
218.23 218.27 218.30
217.57 217.52 217.47
217.23 217.25 217.27

132 kV Bus Voltage (kV)


Case
Case
Case
I
II
III
127.88 128.13 128.39
127.04 127.50 127.96
126.95 127.32 127.69

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It is seen that network voltage profile in Case-III is


better than Case-I. 220 kV bus voltages is also improved
with removal of circulating MVAR flow on the lines and
transformers.
E. Effect on Losses
The effect of coordinated tap setting of Transformers
to remove the circulating MVAR flow in system on MW
losses of Rajasthan power system are tabulated in
Table XII.
TABLE 13: EFFECT OF TAP SETTING OF TRANSFORMERS ON MW LOSSES
Particulars
MW losses of Rajasthan
Power System

Case I
333.0500

Case I
333.0092

Case I
332.9879

The MW loss reduction from 333.05 MW to 332.9879


MW in Case III as compare to Case I. Transmission losses
are reduced by 62.10 kW.
Annual Energy Savings
AES = kW Saving x 8760/ 105 LUs/Annum
AES = 5.44 LUs/Annum
Annual Savings can be found by multiplying the tariff
rates to the annual units saved. Average tariff rate in
Rajasthan is 5 Rs/unit which have been considered to
calculate the Annual Cost Saving.
Annual Cost Savings
ACS = No. of units saved x Per unit tariff
ACS =27.20 Lakhs/Annum
Above saving is removal of circulating MVAR flow
only between three 220 kV substations. There are one
hundred eleven 220 kV substations and twenty one 400
kV substations in the Rajasthan wherein different MVA
rating and percentage impedance transformers have been
installed. Approximately 100 loops of various voltage
levels have been created on which circulating MVARs are
flowing due to lack of coordination of substation operators
for tap setting of transformers. From the studies carried
out in this research paper it is inferred that there is a
significant saving in transmission losses if substations
operators set the tap position of their transformers in
coordinated manner to remove the circulating MVAR flow
in the system.
Proposed methodology has been successfully tested
on Rajasthan power system in April, 2016 to remove the
circulating MVAR flows on 220 kV and 132 kV network.
Power flow data were taken from these substations and it
was observed that circulating MVARs were flowing
between these 220 kV substations due to mismatch of tap
position of transformers. Shift Engineers were asked to set
the tap position equal. Shift Engineers change their tap
position in coordinated way with monitoring of MVAR
flows on lines after which circulating MVAR flow on 220
kV and 132 kV lines have been removed.
VI. OPTIMUM TAP SETTING OF TRANSFORMERS
In Case-III, circulating MVAR flow on lines and
transformers have been removed but voltage profile of 132
kV system is poor. Therefore, tap ratio of transformers at

st

962 1 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems (ICPEICES-2016)

220 kV GSS Chaksu, Sanganer and Mansarovar have been


increased in steps to achieve nominal voltage of 132 kV
system. Results of load flow study for tap ratio 9
(Case IV), 10 (Case-V) and 11(Case-VI) are plotted at
Fig. 7, 8 and 9 respectively. In Case-VI, voltage of 132 kV
systems is near to nominal value.

Fig. 7: Load Flow Study for Case IV

indicate that in power system circulating MVAR flows


due to lack of coordination between substation operators
for setting of transformers tap position. Substation
operators independently set the tap position of their
substation transformers to maintain their LV bus voltage.
As per simulation studies as well as application on real
system, with coordinated tap setting of transformers,
circulating MVAR flow in transmission system have been
removed. Studies have been carried for existing tap setting
(Case-I) versus coordinated tap setting for removal of
circulating MVAR flows (Case-III). Following are the
conclusions of studies.
1. Reactive power circulation between substations has
been removed in Case-III.
2. Reactive power loading on transmission lines and
transformers have been reduced in Case-III as
compared to Case-I.
3. There is marginal change on MW flows on
transmission lines and transformers with the
variation in transformer tap setting.
4. The loading on transmission lines and transformers
have been decreased in Case-III as compared to
Case-I which is due to removal of circulating MVAR
flow on lines and transformers. This spare capacity
can be used to meet the increasing demand of
respective areas and avoid the augmentation of
system.
5. It is seen that network voltage profile in Case-III is
better than Case-I. 220 kV bus voltage is also
improved with removal of circulating MVAR flow on
the lines and transformers. MW losses are
significantly reduced in Case III as compare to Case I.
REFERENCES

Fig. 8: Load Flow Study for Case V


[1]

Fig. 9: Load Flow Study for Case VI

It is seen that MW loss decreased from 333.05 MW to


332.7711 MW in Case VI as compare to Case I.
Transmission losses are reduced by 278.90 kW which is
equivalent to 24.44 LUs energy saving per year. Loading
of transformers and lines is also lesser in Case-VI as
compared to Case-I.
VII. CONCLUSION
In this paper, circulating MVAR flow and its control
in Rajasthan power system have been studied. Studies

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[7] Rajasthan Electricity Regulatory Commission Grid Code, Jaipur,
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[8] MI-Power simulation software Developed by PRDC Pvt. Ltd.
Bangalore ,
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http://www.prdcinfotech.com/products.html.

978-1-4673-8586-2/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE