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# Chapter 4: Activated

Sludge Modelling
Ral Muoz
Pedro Garca Encina

Microbial growth
Exponential Phase:
dX/dt = X

## Typical Growth Pattern

Where:
X = cell concentration (mgDW or
VSS /L)
dX/dt = volumetric cell production
rate (mg/Ld)
= specific growth rate (h-1 or d-1)

Microbial Growth
Xf

rg = dX/dt = X
rg = volumetric cell production

Pf

## rate (g VSS m-3 d-1)

X = cell concentration (g VSS L-1)

Sf
time

## Likewise: rsu = dS/dt = - qS

rsu = volumetric substrate
consumption rate (g S m-3 d-1)
S = substrate concentration (g L-1)

## Y = True Yield Coefficient (gVSS/gS) = biomass produced / substrate

consumed
Y = (Xf X0)/(S0 Sf) rg = - Yrsu or rsu = - X/Y

## Solving the Exponential Model

By solving dX/dt = X :
Xt = X0 exp((t - t0))
Or ln(Xt/X0) = (t - t0)
Doubling time t at which X = 2X0?
t = ln2/

## The Monod kinetic model

= mS/(Ks + S)

rg = X = [mS/(Ks + S)]X

max

## m = maximum specific growth rate (d-1)

Ks = saturation or Monod constant (g

l-1)

max/2

Ks

## rsu = -rg/Y = X/Y = maxSX/(Y(Ks +S))

Substrate concentration

The cell growth rate (and therefore the substrate removal rate) increases
with the substrate concentration, up to a certain level when it stabilize at
m. If the limiting substrate concentration is low: conditions of slow growth!

Endogenous decay
If part of the biomass produced is degraded, rg = - Yrsu is no longer true!
With endogenous decay: rg = -Yrsu kdX
With kd = endogenous coefficient decay (d-1)
rg = Volumetric biomass production rate (g VSS/m3d)
-Yrsu = Rate of biomass production from substrate consumption
kdX = Rate of biomass consumption by endogenous respiration

And = mS/(Ks + S) - kd
Note that rsu is unchanged!!!!!
rsu = -rg/Y kdX/Y = -Y-1(X + kdX) = - maxSX/(Y(Ks + S))
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## Other models: Maintenance Costs

no maintenance requirement

multiply

at

too

low

substrate

## concentration as all the substrate is

maintenance requirement

used

for

maintenance

(or

not

detected)
Substrate concentration

Growth rate

## The growth rate drops when the

substrate concentration is too high
due to cell inhibition. Examples of
inhibiting substrate are phenolics,
acids, and oxygen.
S concentration
7

## Continuous Treatment in well

mixed reactors (CSTR)
Under a steady state in a well mixed reactor
X = Xr and S = Sr (X and S = concentrations)
Under a steady state dX/dt = dS/dt = 0

## This also means:

Q(X Xo) = Px = biomass production rate

Q
X0
S0

V
Vr
Xrr
X
Srr
S

Q
X
S

## Q(So S) = Ps = substrate consumption rate

VdXr/dt = cell in - cell out + cell produced = QX0 - QX + rgV
For simplification, X0 = 0 and by definition rg = X XV=XQ = Q/V
By definition D = dilution rate = Q/V = = 1/HRT (Hydraulic Retention
Time): The growth rate is dictated by the dilution rate.
8

## S and X in CSTR (no decay)

Monod model: = mS/(Ks +S)
Under steady state: = D, therefore D = mS/(Ks +S)
Solving this equation S = DKs/(m D)
S mass balance: VdS/dt = 0 = QS0 QS + rsuV rsuV = - Q(S0-S)
Since rsuV= (-rg/Y)V = - VX/Y = -DVX/Y = -QX/Y (since D = Q/V)
Q(S0 S) = QX/Y

=D

X = Y(S0 S)
(This could have be obtained directly from the expression of the true
yield)

Exercise
The growth of a strain of Lactococcus lactis on a medium containing
glucose as the growth limiting substrate is characterized by the
following parameters: m = 0.6 h-1 ; Ks = 0.03 g L-1 ; Y = 0.3 g g-1
The feed contains 1g L-1 of glucose. The culture is growing in a 5 L
CSTR being fed at 2.75 L h-1. Using the Monod model, calculate the
steady state values of the dilution rate, the hydraulic residence time,
the glucose concentration (S) and the biomass concentration (X) in the
reactor.
Calculate X and S when:
a. The dilution rate is changed to 0.3 h-1 and 0.6 h-1
b. The substrate concentration is increased to 3 g L-1
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Solution
By definition D = Q/V = 0.55 h-1 and HRT = 1/D = 1.82 h
Using S = DKs/(m D), S = 0.33 g L-1 and X = Y(S0-S) = 0.201 g L-1
At D = 0.3 h-1 and S0 = 1 g L-1: S = 0.03 g L-1 and X = 0.291 g L-1
At D = 0.6 h-1: S = 1 and X = 0: washout!

## Conclusions: A CSTR cannot be operated at too high dilution rate,

otherwise the cell do not grow fast enough to compensate the cell lost.
The cell concentration rapidly drops and the process fails! Lower dilution
rates allow better efficiency but require higher reactor volume (at
constant flow).

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## Maximum Dilution Rate: Dmax

Cell concentration

Cell concentration

Output of cells Dx
Substrate
concentration

S1

S2
max

Dilution rate

Substrate
concentration

max

Dilution rate

CSTR: = D = Q/V
At washout condition: S = S0 = DmaxKs/(m Dmax)
Dmax = mS0/(Ks + S0) = m/(1 + Ks/ S0)
Cell wash-out occurs at too high dilution rates (D >Dmax) and is especially
sensitive at low initial substrate concentration.
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## Influence of endogenous decay

Now = mS/(Ks +S) kd
S: The biomass balance is identical, hence: D = = mS/(Ks +S) kd. Solving this equation
gives: S = Ks (D + kd)/(m D kd)
S mass balance: VdS/dt = 0 = QS0 QS + rsuV
rsu = -rg/Y-kdX/Y = -X/Y-kdX/Y = -X(D + kd) /Y
Solving this equation gives: X = YD(S0 S)/(D + kd) = Y(S0 S)/(1 + kd/D)
Dmax is obtained for S = S0 = Ks (D + kd)/(m D kd)
Solving this equation gives Dmax = m/(1 + Ks/S0) - kd

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Influence of nbVSS
An amount of non biodegradable, also called inert, VSS is introduced into
the reactor in the WW. This amount is not degraded biologically and
therefore, at a steady state, the nbVSS concentrations in the effluent
and reactor are similar to the nbVSS concentration in the influent (X0,i)

The total mass of VSS in the Bioreactor includes the biomass produced
(rg), the nbVSS introduced (X0,i) and the debris released from the
endogenous decay:

Q
X0
S0

Vr
Xr
Sr

Q
X
S

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Influence of nbVSS
rVSS = total VSS production rate = rg + QXo,i/V + fd(kd)X

decay (kdX)

## fd(kd)X = rate of cell debris production with fd = fraction of biomass remaining

as cell debris. The cell debris production is directly proportional to the
biomass concentration and kd

QXo,i/V = Amount of nbVSS in the influent (Q = influent flow rate, X0,i= influent
nbVSS and V = reactor volume).
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Influence of nbVSS
Fraction of active biomass: Fx,act = X/VSS = rg/rVSS
Indicate how much of the VSS is active (serve to COD removal)
Net biomass yield: Y = - rg/rsu
Observed yield: Yobs = - rVSS / rsu

## We assume the debris have a

similar composition to the
biomass, and the same COD
equivalence of 1.42 g COD/g VSS

= COD debris

## O2-required = CODused CODbiomass CODproducts

O2-required (kg/d) = Q(S0-S) 1.42(rg + fdkdX)

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## The activated sludge

process

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Biomass retention
Cell washout is more likely to occur:
At low temperature
At low substrate concentration
At too high flow
What can be done to prevent it?
Large reactors: \$\$\$
Harvest and recycling: activated sludge
Immobilization: biofilm
Biomass retention is almost always needed during WWT:
Large flow rates continuous processes
Low COD concentrations continuous processes risk of
washout!
This is not the case for small WWT!

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Activated sludge

19

Aeration

Diffused
Surface
\$\$\$ Aeration consumes up to
60% of electricity in a WWTP!

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Secondary clarifier
Use of classical clarifier
Very important part of the process: the
sludge must have the best settleability
possible, measured by the Sludge
Velocity Index

mg
( Settled Volume of Sludge in 30 min, ml ) (1000
)
L
mL
g
SVI

g
( X , mg )
L

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22

Feed
Q0, X0, S0
Aeration tank
Q, X, S

Clarifier
Effluent
Qe, Xe, Se

Recirculation

Waste

Qr, Xr, Sr

Qw, Xw, Sw

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Overview
Application

## Organic chemical, textile, municipal sewage,

steel, pulp and paper

Costs

## Operating 0.16 - 0.8 \$ /m3, capital 500 - 1,900 \$

/(m3-d) for flow rates of 100 - 1,000 m3/d

configurations

## High sludge production, dependent on settling

0.3 - 3 kg BOD/(m3-d)

HRT

4 - 8 h (municipal)

BOD removal

85 - 95% (municipal)

## Source: Environmental Biotreatment. CN Mulligan.

This is given as an example only, very specific of North America

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Overview
Dissolved O2

## > 2 mg/L; DO > 4 mg/L increase aeration costs

Qw

4000-12000 mg/L

Qr/Q0

0.5-0.75

Sludge blanket
Height (/1)

0.1

Typical Operation
Problem

bacteria

## Source: Environmental Biotreatment. CN Mulligan.

This is given as an example only, very specific of North America

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## Solid Retention Time (SRT)

The SRT is defined as the average time the solids stay inside the
aeration tank. When VSS = active cells (X), the SRT is also called
Mean Cell Retention Time (MCRT) with:
SRT =

## Amount of active biomass in the system

Production rate of active biomass

## Amount of active biomass = VX (kg)

The production rate can be obtained from the biomass mass balance
under steady state as Xout Xin = Production with
Xout = QeXe + QwXw
Xin = Q0X0
SRT for BOD removal 3 day at 18-25 C or 5-6 at 10 C
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## Solid Retention Time (SRT)

Total biomass in the reactor

SRT =

VX

VX

(QeXe + QwXw)

out

in

## Amount of sludge wasted

Note Xr = Xw
Often Xw >> Xe and QwXw + QeXe QwXw
Other name of SRT: Sludge Age

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Expression of S
Biomass balance:
VdX/dt = 0 = Q0X0 - (QeXe + QwXw) + Vrg
(QeXe + QwXw) - Q0X0 = VX
From the definition of SRT:
(QeXe + QwXw) - Q0X0 = (QeXe + QwXw)= VX/SRT
1/SRT =
= mS/(Ks + S) kd
S = Ks(1 + (kd)SRT)/(SRT(m kd) 1)

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Expression of X
X can be obtained from S mass balance:
VdS/dt = Q0S0 (QeSe + QwSw) + rsuV = 0
With the assumptions that S = Sw = Se = Sr (S = bsCOD) and since (Qe
+ Qw) = Q0, this becomes:
Q0(S0 S) = -rsuV
Since rg = -Yrsu kdX; rg = X = X/SRT and HRT = V/Q
X = (SRT/HRT) Y(S0 S)/(1 + (kd)SRT)

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## Total mixed liquor VSS (MLVSS)

MLVSS = active biomass + inert nbVSS = (X) + (Xi)
Xi = X0,i (nbVSS introduced) + Xd (concentration of cell debris in the
reactor)
Q0, X0,i
Qe, Xe,i
Xi

Qr, Xr,i

Qw, Xw,i

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## Solids production rate

PMLVSS = rgV (active X) + rdV (debris) + QX0,I (nbVSS) = [kgVSS/d]
rg = X = X/SRT with X= (SRT/HRT)Y(S0 S)/(1+ kdSRT)
rd = cell debris production rate = fdkdX
QX0,i = amount of nbVSS introduced
PMLVSS = QY(S0 S)/(1 + kdSRT) + fdkdXV + QX0,i
Remember the solid fraction in made of active biomass, cell debris and
an inert VSS introduced from the influent. The last 2 fractions will
impact process efficiency because larger settler and reactor tank will
be needed.
During wastewater treatment, one must also add the solid fraction due
to inorganics.
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## ..and if we have nitrification??

PMLVSS = rgHV (Heterotrophic X) + rgNV (Nitrifying bacteria) + rdV (debris) +
QX0,I (nbVSS)
O2 required = Q0(S0-S) - 1.42 (PXBio) + 4.33Q [NO3-]
where PXBio = Production of Heterotrophic and nitrifying Biomass and cell
debris Production
[NO3-] = [TKN] - [Neffluent] - [Nitrogen assimilated] = [TKN] - [Neffluent] 0.12PXBio

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## Processes for BOD Removal and

Nitrification
Heterotrophic Microorganisms

Nitrifying Microorganisms

33

## Processes for BOD Removal and

Nitrification
Computational Step for a correct Design of an AS process:
1.

2.

3.

4.

## Select a design DO in the aeration basin (typically 2 mg/L)

5.

Determine the specific growth rate for nitrifyiers, that due to their low
growth control AS design, based on DO and effluent [N-NH4+]

nm N DO

k dn
n
K n N K o DO

SRT 1

6.

7.

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Nitrification
8.

PXBio
9.

1 k d SRT
1 k d SRT
1 k n d SRT

## N balance to calculate NO3- (Find the real NO3- production based on

the N removed during biomass growth)

10. Calculate the TOTAL VSS and TSS mass in the aeration basin
PMLVSS = rgHV (Heterotrophic X) + rgNV (Nitrifying bacteria) + rdV (debris) +
QX0,I (nbVSS)
PMLSS =[ rgHV (Heterotrophic X) + rgNV (Nitrifying bacteria) + rdV (debris) +
QX0,I (nbVSS)]/0.85 + Q (TSSo-VSSo)
11.

## Select a design MLSS concentration (Typically 2500-3500 mg/L for a

good settler performance) and determine the aeration volume and
HRT
XVSS V = (PMLVSS)SRT

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## Processes for BOD Removal and

Nitrification
12. Check alkalinity Balance:
Alkalinity to maintain pH at 7 (typically 80 mgCaCO3/L) = Influent Alk
Effluent Alk Alk consumed (typically 7.14 g CaCO3/g N-NH4+)
13. Design secondary clarifier (chapter 6) Area based on desktop
design approach or model based Xr RAS flow rate
Q + Qr

Xe 0

Qr

Qr X r (Q Qr ) X
R

Qr
Q

RAS R

X
Xr X

Xr

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## Processes for BOD Removal and

Nitrification
Process Configuration for BOD Removal Exclusively
Suitable when space is limited
When nitrification is not needed to meet treatment discharge limits
A) High purity oxygen
O2 absorption 2-3 times greater
than conventional AS
Enclosed systems
Higher MLSS and Organic
Shorter HRT Low reactor V

## Inhibition of Nitrification due to

CO2 accumulation low pH
High Invest and Operation Costs37

## Processes for BOD Removal and

Nitrification
B) High Rate Aeration Systems.

## SRT 0.5 - 2 days / HRT 1.5-3 h

low HRT
Less stable operation, lower quality effluent, High Sludge Production

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## Processes for BOD Removal and

Nitrification
Process Configuration for BOD Removal and Nitrification
A) Complete Mixed systems

## SRT 3 - 15 days / HRT 3-5 h

Disadvantage: Promotes the development of filamentous Bacteria
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## Processes for BOD Removal and

Nitrification
B) Plug Flow
3 to 5 channels used
Difficult to match BOD and
aeration thoughout wastewater
movement

Proven efficiency!!

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## Processes for BOD Removal and

Nitrification
C) Step feed plug flow

Wastewater introduced
in 3 to 4 points

## Organic load is provided uniformly easier to match with O2 supply

Disadvantage: More complex operation than conventional plug flow

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## Processes for BOD Removal and

Nitrification
D) Low-Cost Systems: operated at long SRT High Tank Volumes
Suitable for Small communities where land is not a limitation

## E) Sequential Batch Systems

Only 1 bioreactor used
3 h fill 2 h aeration 0.5 h settling 0.5
h withdrawal
2 bioreactors operated simultaneously
No need for secondary settler

42 h

## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal
4 main categories:
Preanoxic configuration: Wastewater and RAS meet in the Preanoxic
tank. Nitrate is recycled from the aerobic compartment. Electron donor is
influent BOD

## Rate of Denitrification affected by rbCOD, [MLSS], and T

Postanoxic Configuration: Anoxic zone follows aerobic zone
The electron donor can be either an external C
source (typically methanol) or lysis substrate
from endogenous respiration of activated
sludge (in this last case denitrification is 3-8
times slower than preanoxic denitrification
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## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal
Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification:
It requires an strict DO control
It has been observed in reactors
with long SRT

Two-sludge process: A first step for BOD removal and nitrification and a
second one for denitrification (supplemented with an external e- donor)

44

## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal: Preanoxic Treatment
The most common Configuration is the Preanoxic Treatment because:
Easy retrofit of exiting plants originally designed for BOD removal
and Nitrification
Benefits from the selector (anoxic zone) to avoid bulking
Production of alkalinity before nitrification
Two Types of Preanoxic Configuration:
Single Feed

Step-Feed

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## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal: Preanoxic Treatment
Key design parameters of Anoxic/Aerobic reactors:
Anoxic HRT

[bCOD]

[MLSS]

[rbCOD]

Temperature

## Two design approaches:

1- Nitrogen mass balances and the parameter SDNR (g N-NO3- reduced/ g
MLVSS d)
2- ASM models

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## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal: Preanoxic Treatment
Specific Denitrification Rate (SDNR)
The amount of nitrate removed in the anoxic tank is:

## NOx Vanox SDNR [ MLVSS ],

where Vanox is anoxic tank volume (m 3 )
SDNR specific denitrification rate (g N - NO 3- / g MLVSS d)
MLVSS (g/m 3 )
In full-scale facilities SDNR range from 0.040. 42 g N-NO3-/g MLVSS d
(T 20 )

## SDNR is a function of: Temperature ( SDNR SDNR20 1.026

) ratio
rbCOD/bCOD, and the F/Mb ratio defined as the ratio of the influent BOD

Q So
F / Mb
Vanox X b
Note: Active biomass Xb is calculated as described in the BOD removal and nitrification section

47

## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal: Preanoxic Treatment

SDNR is also affected by the internal recirculation (IR, typically 3-4) if F/Mb is > 1

Mb

) 0.0078

Mb

) 0.012

48

## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal: Preanoxic Treatment
Computational Steps for a correct Design of an Anoxic/Aerobic process:
1.

## Determine wastewater characteristics (emphasis in rbCOD/bCOD ratio)

and effluent requirements

2.

Determine the SRT from the procedure established for nitrification design

N DO
1
k dn
n nm
SRT
K n N K o DO
3.

## Determine the active biomass concentration for the nitrification design

Q SRT Y S o S
Xb

V 1 k d SRT
4. Determine IR using the NOx concentration previously determined from the
N balance in the nitrification design and the desired N-NO3- in the effluent

## in the aerobic zone

effluent IR
RAS

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Q NO 3 N e Q IR Q R Q

## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal: Preanoxic Treatment
5.

Calculate the amount (kg/d) of nitrate fed to the anoxic tank. The design
in based on the assumption that all the nitrate fed is reduced.

6.

7.

## Calculate de F/Mb based on the biomass calculated in the nitrification

design (Xb)

8.

Estimate SDNR based on the F/Mb and rbCOD/bCOD ratios (Fig 8-23 in
Metcalf & Eddy, 2003). Correct for T and IR

9.

Using the SDNRadj and the VAnox selected in step 6 calculate the potential
NO3- removed. Compared with the amount calculated in step 5

10. Repeat the procedure from step 6 by selecting a higher or lower VAnox.
11. Check alkalinity Balance:
[Alkalinity to maintain pH at 7 (typically 80 mgCaCO3)] = [ Influent Alk] + [Alk
produced (typically 3.57 g CaCO3/g N-NO3- reduced)] [Effluent Alk] [Alk
consumed (typically 7.14 g CaCO3/g N-NH4+ oxidized)]

50

## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal: Postanoxic Treatment
Postanoxic denitrification can be performed using activated sludge
endogenous respiration. SDNRs range from 0.01-0.04 g N-NO3-/g MLVSS d
Treatment following nitrification (bCOD has been fully depleted)

1.42
SDNRb
k d 0.5k d ; where k d is the biomass endogeneous
2.86
decay coefficient and the fraction of denitrifying biomass
SDNRb is a function of SRT
SDNRb 0.12SRT

0 .706

SDNRb SDNRb

20 C

1.08(T 20 )

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## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal: Post-anoxic
Post-anoxic denitrification can be carried out in a two-sludge process
using an external C source (typically methanol)
An SRT of 5 days is normally used. Effluent N < 3 mgN/L
The anoxic tank is followed by a short aeration time of 10-20 min to
release the N2 bubbles entrapped in the MLVSS
High operation costs!!!
The process is designed based on methanol denitrification kinetics

52

## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal
Computational steps for a correct design of a postanoxic process with
1. Determine the amount of N-NO3- to be removed Q([NO3- influent] [NO3effluent])
2. Select an anoxic tank SRT (typically 5 d)
3. Calculate the residual methanol concentrations in the effluent
S = Ks(1 + (kd)SRT)/(SRT(m kd) 1)
4. Calculate the methanol dose (methanol required for N-NO3- reduction +
methanol in the anoxic tank effluent
[CH3OH]required= bCOD + [CH3OH]effluent = 2.86[N-NO3-]/(1-1.42Yn)+ [CH3OH]effluent
in gram of COD/m3
5. Calculate the total amount of methanol required = Q [CH3OH]required
6. Calculate the TSS production
PMLSS =[ rgHV (Heterotrophic X) + rgNV (Nitrifying bacteria) + rdV (debris) +
QX0,I (nbVSS)]/0.85 + Q (TSSo-VSSo)
7. Determine the VAnox from the TSS production and SRT

53

## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal: Process configuration
A) Modified Ludzack Ettinger

## Energy savings in aeration by

the use of NO3- for BOD removal
5-8 mg Ne /L are possible
Potential problems of bulking

## SRT 7-20 d; HRTanox 1-3 h; HRTaer 4-12 h; IR 2-4

B) Step feed MLE
MLVSS in the first stages
5-8 mg Ne /L are possible
Potential problems of bulking
54

## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal: Process configuration
c) Sequential Batch Reactor

## Denitrification during filling,

settling and decant periods
5-8 mg Ne /L are possible
Redundant units and complex
operation

## SRT 10-30 d; HRTanox & HRTaer variable (total 20-30 h)

d) Oxidation ditch, NitroxTM

## Large HRT (20-30 h) and long

SRT 20-30 d
Ne < 10 mg N /L are possible
55

## Processes for Biological Nitrogen

Removal: Process configuration
E) Bardenpho

## Simultaneous P & N Removal

Ne < 3 mg N /L
Large Reactor Volumes

SRT 10-20 d; HRTanox 1-3 h 1st stage 2-4 h 3rd stage HRTaer
(4-12 h 2nd stage and 0.5-1 h 4th stage)

## E) OrbalTM (Simultaneous N/DN

1st channel DO < 0.3 mg/L; 2nd channel 0.5 < DO <
1.5 mg/L; 3th channel 2 < DO< 3 mg/L
Significant energy savings
Ne < 3 mg N /L
Large Reactor Volumes
SRT 10-30 d; HRTanox 6-10 h HRTaer (3-6 h 1st stage and 2-3 h 2nd
stage)

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## Processes for Biological

Phosphorous Removal
Based on a sequence of an anaerobic P releasing step followed by an
aerobic P uptake step
Key Design Considerations:
1- Wastewater Characteristics: rbCOD is the most important parameter
rbCOD

## PHB for energy and

growth in aerobic and
anoxic stages

P released
during uptake

## Competition of Denitrifyiers and PAOs for rbCOD

Continuous VFA supply from primary sludge fermentation is beneficial in
57
BPR

## Processes for Biological

Phosphorous Removal
2- Anaerobic Contact Time: periods of 0.25 to 1 h are sufficient for
rbCOD fermentation. Too long contact times (> 3 h) result in secondary
P release not associated to PHB accumulation

## 3- SRT. Long SRT bring about lower P-REs due to:

a)- at high SRT less PAO biomass is produced
b)- at high SRT PAOs are in a more extended endogenous
phase, consuming their intracellular storage products.
4- Waste sludge Processing. The use of gravity thickeners for sludge
concentration might result in a significant release of P that is recycled to
the process.
5- Chemical precipitation might be needed when insufficient amounts of
rbCOD are present in the influent wastewater.

58

## Processes for Biological

Phosphorous Removal
Methods to enhance BPR.
1- Provide supplemental acetate by direct purchase or by primary sludge
fermentation

VFA

2- Reduce SRT
3- Add alum or Fe salts in primary treatment (Fe salts remove malodours)
4- Reduce the amount of Nitrate or O2 entering the anaerobic zone

59

## Processes for Biological

Phosphorous Removal
5 Processes most commonly used: A/OTM, A2/OTM , UCT, Phostrip, and
Modified Bardenpho
A) A/OTM.

## It does not include nitrification (limited by short SRT)

Very simple operation
HRT anaerobic 0.5-1.5 h (higher HRT cause a secondary P released) and
1-3 h in the aerobic zone
SRT 2-5 d
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## Processes for Biological

Phosphorous Removal
B) A2/OTM: Suitable for weak Wastewaters (low bsCOD)
Simple operation
Anoxic Zone for DN
Energy savings and Alk production
Need for a high BOD/P ratio
IR 1-4

## SRT 5-25 d; HRTanae 0.5- 1.5 h; HRTanox 0.5-1 h; HRTaer 4-8 h

C) University of Capetown (UCT): Suitable for weak wastewaters (low bsCOD)
Minimize the effect of NO3- in
bsCOD removal in the anaerobic
stage
RAS to the Anoxic Tank and IR from
the anoxic to the anaerobic
IR 2-4

61

## Processes for Biological

Phosphorous Removal
Modified UCT process offers a
higher
protection
of
the
Anaerobic tank against the
pernicious effects of Nitrate
More complex operation

## d) PhoStrip: Combined biological and chemical P removal

No N removal
P is released from Biomass in an
anaerobic gravity settler receiving
RAS
Overflow from the settler is treated
chemically with alum, lime or Fe salt
The RAS is returned to the aerobic
62
stage

## Processes for Biological

Phosphorous Removal
PhoStrip can be easily incorporated in existing AS plants
It can achieve [Ortophosphate] < 1 mg/L
Less dependent on bsCOD
High operation cost due to chemical use.
High maintenance when using Lime
SRT 5-20 d; HRTanae 8-12 h; HRTaer 4-10 h
E) Modified Bardenpho
The second anoxic stage
RAS free of Nitrates
3-5 mg/TN
Less efficient for P removal
Large Tank Volumes

63

ASM n1

64

ASM n1

Characteristics

## Developed in 1987 (Henze et al., 1987)

Presented in a matrix format
Incorporates

Carbon oxidation
Nitrogen removal

Nitrification / Denitrification

Alkalinity Check

## Phosphorous Removal was later described in model ASM2, ASM2d,

ASM3
Target parameters: Activated Sludge Concentration & Electron
Acceptor requirements!! (Not Substrate concentrations!!
65

## Biological reaction kinetics

Microorganisms decay:
Considered as 1st order kinetics

Rate of decay b X
Physiological aspects described by decay: cell lysis and
endogenous respiration and predation
Environmental factors (organic substrate, O2, etc..) that affect growth:
Required substances: Modelled as switching functions that
activate or deactivate reactions if the substance is present or
absent:
KO
SO

K O SO

K O SO

## Growth Rates are described by simple Monod Kinetics

Arrhenius functions: to show the influence of environmental
factors such as T
66

ASM Structure
Definitions
The model is presented in a matrix format (Petersen matrix)
Component

Xb

Ss

So

Process rate

Process

1 Growth

2 Decay

-1

-1/Y

(1-Y)/Y
-1

SsXb/(Ks+Ss)
bXb

## Components: (column) All the substances involved in transformations

(processes)
Processes : (rows) Transformations that take place in the system
Stoichiometric coefficients (relationship between components)
Kinetic expressions (rate equations for processes)
67

Model presentation
MASS BALANCES:
Basic equation for mass balances (in terms of COD)

## Input Output + Reaction = Accumulation

Input and Output are transport terms and depend on the systems (e. j. Q x
Ss)
Reaction term for each component obtained by summing the products:

j

## and j the reaction rates of each particular process

The partial derivative for the component will be the sum of biological
reaction effects and the effects from input and outputs
68

Model Presentation

Continuity check

## In the transformations there are not unbalances in mass or

electric charge.
This mass conservation can be easily checked in the matrix:
The sum of the stoichiometric coefficients for each
transformation (process) must be zero (consistent units)

## Remember that Oxygen COD is negative (the

stoichiometric coefficient must be multiplied by -1!!

69

Components in ASM1
Organic matter characterization:
Units (COD)
Division of different substrates based on biodegradability
Soluble/particulate (assumptions)

total COD

COD

SS

XS

COD non

XO

SI

XI

70

Components in ASM1
Nitrogen Characterization (components)
N total
Kjeldahl (TKN)

Ammonia Nl
SNH

Organic N

Organic N
soluble

SNI

Nitrates
SNO

Organic N
particulate

SNS

XNI

XNS

## Composition of N in active biomass 0.086 gN g Cell-COD

Composition of N in biomass debris 0.06 gN g Cell-COD

71

Components in ASM1

72

Components in ASM1
The i = 13 column represents Alkalinity
It provides an indication of the buffer capacity of the
wastewater
The balance must include all the reactions that
involve addition or removal of species with proton
accepting capacity
Nitrification tend to decrease and denitrification to
increase
Risk of pH instability at alkalinities < 50 g CaCO3/m-3
Lime addition is often use to maintain the pH
73

Processes in ASM1
Biological processes
j

Process

## Autotrophic growth (Nitrification)

Heterotrophic decay

Autotrophic decay

Ammonification

## Organic nitrogen hydrolysis

Biomass Growth

Biomass decay
Ammonification of organic N
Organic Matter Hydrolisis

74

Processes in ASM1
ORGANIC
NITROGEN
SOLUBLE

ORGANIC
NITROGEN
PARTICULATE

SOLUBLE
INERT
SUBSTRATE

SUSPENDED
INERT
SUBSTRATE

SNS

XNS

SI

XI

NITRATES
AMMONIA
NITROGEN

SNO

SNH

AUTOTROPHIC
BIOMASS

SNI

XBA

SUBSTRATE

HETEROTROPHIC
BIOMASS

SS

XBH

SLOWLY
SUBSTRATE

SOLUBLE INERT
NITROGEN

DEBRIS
FROM
BIOMASS

No interaction

XO

Nitrogen Removal

XS

## Organic Matter Removal

75

ORGANIC
SOLUBLE
NITROGEN

ORGANIC
PARTICULATE
NITROGEN

SNS

XNS

INERT
SUBSTRATE
SOLUBLE SI

XI

NITRATES
AMMONIA
NITROGEN

SNO

INERT
SUBSTRATE
SUSPENDED

AUTOTROPHIC
BIOMASS

SNH

INERT SOLUBLE
NITROGEN
XNI

XBA

SUBSTRATE

SS

DEBRIS
FROM
BIOMASS

HETEROTROPHIC
BIOMASS
XBH

XO

7
SLOWLY
SUBSTRATE
XS
76

Aerobic growth of heterotrophic biomass (1)
COD-Balance

S s (1 YH ) S o i XB S NH YH X BH (1 YH )CO2

SO

1 YH
YH

SS

1
YH

S NH

BH

SS
SO

1 H
K S S S K OH S O

S A LK

i XB

i XB
14

BH

Switching function

Assumptions:
(deactivation at low DO)
Type of substrate (SS). No non-growth associated SS storage
Relationship between catabolic and anabolic reactions (Yield)
N consumption for growth (and associated alkalinity)

77

Aerobic Growth of heterotrophic biomass: Monod Kinetics
H

1 H
2

H H

SS
K S SS

KS

SS

## H : Heterotrophic biomass growth rate

H : Maximum specific rate for heterotrophic biomass

## It provides and indication of

the affinity of the biomass
for the substrate

Particulate matter must undergo a hydrolysis step before uptake

78

XS

SS

XS

X
7 k h BH
X
K X S
X BH

SO

K OH S O

K OH
h

K OH S O

S NO

K NO S NO

X BH

Assumptions:
Extracellular (enzyme dependent: Xs/XBH).
Takes place both in aerobic and anoxic conditions (but at different rates)
79

Two empirical facts:
A) The rate is a first order reaction with respect to the active biomass
B) The rate saturates when the amount of Xs entrapped is large

KH

KH
KH

KX

X S / X BH
K X X S / X BH
X S / X BH

## The introduction of Xs introduces a time delay in the consumption of

80
electron acceptor

Heterotrophic biomass decay (4)
X BH

XO

XS

X NS

fP

1 fP

i XB f P i XB

4 bH X BH

Assumptions:

## Biomass decay results in slowly biodegradable material (XS) and inert

particulate material (Xo)
Biomass decay is not coupled to electron acceptor utilization (this would result
in four equations with a large number of switching functions)
Biomass decay accounts for predation, lysis and energy maintenance
81

Nitrification
Nitrification Kinetics
ORGANIC SOLUBLE
NITROGEN

SNS

PARTICULATE
ORGANIC

INERT
SOLUBLE
SUBSTRATE

NITROGEN

3
AMMONIA
NITROGEN
SNH

XI

SI

XNS

INERT SUSPENDED
SUBSTRATE

NITRATES
SNO

SUBSTRATE

HETEROTROPHIC
BIOMASS

SS

XBH

INERT SOLUBLE
NITROGEN

AUTOTROPHIC
BIOMASS

sNI

XBA

PARTICULATE
ORGANIC
INERT
XO

SLOWLY
SUBSTRATE
XS

82

Nitrification
Aerobic growth of autotrophic biomass (3)
X BA
1

S NH

i XB

S NO

1
YA

S NH
3 A
K NH S NH

1
YA

SO

K OA S O

SO

X BA

S ALK

4.57 Y A
YA

i XB
1

14
7 YA

The oxygen
equivalence for NH4+

Characteristics:
Not depending on organic matter (autotrophs)
Single step nitrification
Alkalinity and oxygen consumption
83

Nitrification
Autotrophic biomass decay (5)
Modeled in the same way as Heterotrophic Biomass decay

X BA

XP

XS

X ND

fP

1 fP

i XB f P i XB

5 b A X BA

84

Nitrification
Organic Particulate Nitrogen Hydrolysis (8)

X NS

S NS

XS

X
BH
kh
X
K X S
X BH

SO
K OH
h

K OH S O
K
S
OH
O

S NO

K NO S NO

X NS
X BH
XS

## Rate associated to organic matter hydrolysis.

85

Nitrification
Soluble organic N ammonification (6)
S NH

S NS

S ALK

-1

1 14

6 k a S NS X BH

Characteristics:
First order kinetics
Alkalinity release (charge balance)
86

Denitrification
Denitrification kinetics
ORGANIC SOLUBLE
NITROGEN SNS

ORGANIC
PARTICULATE

SOLUBLE INERT
SUBSTRATE

NITROGEN

SI

SUSPENDED INERT
SUBSTRATE
XI

XNS
NITRATES
AMMONIA
NITROGEN

SNO

SNH

SUSPENDED INERT
NITROGEN

AUTOTROPHIC
BIOMASS

XNI

XBA

SUBSTRATE

HETEROTROPHIC
BIOMASS

SS

XBH

PARTICULATE
ORGANIC
INERT
XO

SLOWLY
SUBSTRATE
XS

87

Denitrification
Heterotrophic Biomass Anoxic Growth (2)
SS

X BH
1

SS
2 H
KS SS

1
YH

S NO

1 YH
2.86 YH

S NH

S ALK

i XB

1 YH
i
XB
14 2.86 YH
14

K OH

S NO

g X BH
K OH S O K NO S NO

Characteristics:
Nitrates as electron aceptor
Alkalinity release for charge balance
Assumption: not all biomass growth in anoxic conditions.
88

## Coefficients and parameters in

ASM1

89

Stoichiometric Matrix

90

Conclusions
ASM1 is a model for organic matter and
nitrogen removal in activated sludge
biological reactors
Some constraints:
Not valid for P removal
Experimentally unable to estimate:

## Difference between (XI) and (XO)

Ammonification (not linked to organic matter
91

Conclusions

## The Model works at constant T and pH

The composition of organic matter was assumed constant
Constant stoichiometric coefficients
It does not account for N or P limitations
Constant distribution of heterotrophic populations
The type of electron acceptor does not affect biomass decay
The Model does not consider biomass settling (SRT > 3 days)
Biomass concentration should range between 750 and 7500 mg/L
to avoid settling problems
The unaerated fraction of the reactor should not exceed 50 % to
avoid a deteriorated biomass settling

92

In BioWin3
Biowin 3 allows to simulate AS processes in CSTR.
Bioreactor0

## Either DO (typically 2 mg/l) or air supply rate

can be set. Aeration by air diffusion
T of operation is also required
Typical Power requirements for maintaining
good mixture range from 20 to 40 W m-3

MediaBioreactor

## An inert support for biofilm attachment is

used. This element requires:
Specific area of the carrier
Specific Volume of the carrier
% of reactor filled with carrier
Number of layer constituting the carrier
Boundary layer thickness

93

In BioWin3
Bioreactor Brush aerator
Similar to a regular bioreactor but aeration
is provided via superficial brush aerator.
Power supply rate is used instead of air
supply rate.

## Similar to a regular bioreactor but aeration

is provided via superficial agitation. Power
supply rate is used instead of air supply
rate.

94

In BioWin3
Sequencing Batch Reactor
Cycle setting must be introduced

## Post anoxic Denitrification can be simulated

Methanol influent element that requires:
Methanol concentration
Input type: Constant or variable (time scheduled)
95