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LCM16

Version:
Issue Date:
Review By Date:
Owned By:
Authorised By:

1.1
August 2006
June 2008
Engineering Manager D & P
Executive Manager D & P

LINE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL LCM16

PILE FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION


REVISION TABLE
Version No

Date of Revision

1.0

June 2006

1.1

August 2006

Details of Amendment
Initial Release
Numbering changed to represent previous version

The above table lists in summary the amendments which have been made with most recent issues of this standard.
The table is updated with each re-issue. The latest amendments within the documents are marked with a change
indicator (|) in the outer margin.

CONTACT
This standard is the responsibility of the
Development and Projects Division, ElectraNet.
Please contact the indicated owner of the standard
with any inquiries.

ElectraNet
52-55 East Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000
PO Box 7096, Hutt Street Post Office,
Adelaide, South Australia 5000
Ph (08) 8404 7966, Fx (08) 8404 7104

L I M I TATI O N O F L I A B I L I T Y AN D
D I S C L A I M E R O F W AR R A N T Y
ElectraNet makes no representation or warranty as
to the accuracy, reliability, completeness or
suitability for particular purposes of the information
in this document. ElectraNet and its employees,
agents and consultants shall have no liability
(including liability to any person by reason of
negligence or negligent misstatement) for any
statements, opinions, information or matter
(expressed or implied) arising out of, contained in
or derived from or for any omissions from the
information in this document, except in so far as
liability under any statute cannot be excluded.

2006 ElectraNet Pty Limited trading as ElectraNet. No part of this document may be reproduced
or copied in any form or by any means (graphic, electronic, mechanical, including photocopying,
recording, taping or information retrieval systems) without the prior written permission of ElectraNet.

LCM16

ElectraNet

TABLE OF CONTENTS
16.1

SCOPE......................................................................................................................................................3

16.2

GENERAL...............................................................................................................................................3

16.3

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS..............................................................................................3

16.3.1
16.3.2
16.4

SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION...................................................................................................................3
RESPONSIBILITY FOR CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES..........................................................................3
PILE FOOTING SYSTEMS..................................................................................................................4

16.4.1
16.4.2
16.4.3
16.5

GENERAL............................................................................................................................................4
SETTING OUT......................................................................................................................................4
UNDERGROUND SERVICES..................................................................................................................4
PILE MANUFACTURE & INSTALLATION......................................................................................4

16.5.1
16.5.2
16.5.3
16.5.4
16.5.5
16.5.6
16.5.7
16.5.8
16.5.9
16.6

TOLERANCE........................................................................................................................................5
STEEL PILES........................................................................................................................................5
PRE-CAST CONCRETE PILES...............................................................................................................5
CAST-IN-PLACE PILES OR BORED PIERS.............................................................................................5
PILE DRIVING RECORDS.....................................................................................................................6
CUTTING OFF OF CONCRETE PILES.....................................................................................................6
PILE TESTS..........................................................................................................................................6
DEFECTIVE PILES................................................................................................................................6
CONSTRAINTS ON PILING OPERATIONS..............................................................................................6
EXCAVATION FOR PILE CAPS..........................................................................................................6

16.6.1
16.6.2
16.6.3

SETTING OUT......................................................................................................................................6
EXCAVATION.......................................................................................................................................7
DEWATERING & SHORING...................................................................................................................7

16.7

WELDING...............................................................................................................................................7

16.8

BACKFILL ADJACENT TO PILE-CAPS...........................................................................................7

16.9

AS-BUILT REVISIONS.........................................................................................................................7

16.1 SCOPE
This section specifies requirements for supply
and installation of pile footings and pile caps
for transmission structures.

16.2 GENERAL
The Contractor shall excavate soil and/or rock,
fix tower steel and reinforcement and place
concrete in foundations in accordance with
this section and the Drawings.
Concrete work shall be carried out in
accordance with the Drawings and LCM20
Normal Class Concrete.
The Contractor shall allow, in the Structure
Foundations Schedule, for all costs for the
construction of the foundation in the soil types
shown on the appropriate drawings including
The Designer shall:
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Provide a line
schedule
detailing the type of structure &
footing required at each
location;
Provide
footing
structural
drawings;
Layout Details;

K-pt heights;

Tower/footing connection (Stub


or base-plate & HD bolt detail);

Provide a route plan with access


details;

Arrange survey for pegging of


line
route
and
structure
positions.
The Construction contractor shall:

Supply pre-fabricated piles as


applicable;

Supply
concrete,
steel
reinforcement, stubs and all
materials necessary for footing
construction;

Provide construction access for


piles;

Set out, excavate and install


pre-fabricated or insitu piles and
pile caps;

Remove excess excavated soil


from site;

Provide As-Built drawings.

16.3 GEOTECHNICAL
INVESTIGATIONS
16.3.1
Scope
Investigation

of

Geotechnical Investigation Report included


with contract documents is given to provide
guidance for assessment of ground conditions
for access and construction purposes.
The contractor is advised that investigations
may not have been conducted at all structure
sites nor necessarily at the exact location of
any particular structure site. Thus conditions
described in the Geotechnical Investigation
Report may not accurately depict actual
conditions encountered.

Version: 1.1

16.3.2
Responsibility
Construction
Procedures

for

The Contractor is responsible to allow for site


conditions described in the geotechnical report
and/or determined from site inspection in
development of construction procedures.
It is expected the Contractor make due
allowance for variations in soil properties and
groundwater conditions, caving soils or any
other difficulties that could reasonably be
interpreted from the geotechnical report and/or
inspections. Costs of dealing with any such
difficulties shall be included in the tendered
rates.
Should conditions deviate significantly from
that defined in the geotechnical report, the
Contractor should refer to the Designer for
assessment prior to revising construction
procedures and/or selection of footing type.
Review by ElectraNet of the Contractors
interpretation of the geotechnical information
and proposed construction procedures shall
not limit the Contractor from full
responsibility of achieving the intent of the
works in accordance with the specification.

16.4 PILE FOOTING SYSTEMS


16.4.1

General

Footings shall be constructed so as to provide


durable structure supports sufficient to
withstand design actions for the specified
design life. Construction materials and
practices shall be adopted to minimise risk of
environmental damage. The contractor shall
submit engineering construction procedures,
prepare detailed engineering and survey
drawings, and undertake footing testing to
prove foundation capacity.
Unless otherwise approved, pile footings shall
be of the following types:
Steel tube or H-piles;

Pre-cast concrete piles;

Cast-in-place concrete piles.

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16.4.2

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Setting Out

Each structure position shall be identified with


a centre peg and two pegs per structure on line
for orientation. The centre peg will have the
structure number marked on it. All angle
structures will have offset pegs to show the
structure alignment.
The Contractor shall prepare footing pegging
drawings and submit to the Designer for
approval prior to construction. The location
and level of structure footings shall be set out
from these pegs and in accordance with the
approved pegging & arrangement drawings.
The Contractor shall ensure that all structure
footings are orientated correctly in relation to
the centre line of the line as detailed in the line
schedules.
On completion of each set of structure
footings the Contractor shall supply a certified
plan prepared by a Licensed Surveyor or
Chartered Engineer of the actual position and
level of stubs relative to their design position
to confirm that footings have been constructed
within tolerance.

16.4.3
Underground
Services
It is the Contractor's responsibility to locate
any
underground
services
such
as
telecommunication, electricity, water, gas, or
other services, which could interfere with
construction. If any such services are
subsequently damaged by the Contractor
during the course of the work, this will
become the responsibility of the Contractor
and the cost of restoration of the damaged
services shall be paid by the Contractor.

16.5 PILE MANUFACTURE &


INSTALLATION
Supply & installation of pile footings shall
generally be in accordance with AS2159
unless otherwise specified herein.
All pile footing types shall be installed a
minimum embedment of 3.0 metres into
founding soil strata.
Each pile shall be driven continuously until
the minimum penetration specified is achieved

Version: 1.1

and the pile has reached a capacity sufficient


to resist the design ultimate loads. The
Contractor shall inform the Designer without
delay if an unexpected change in driving
characteristics is observed or if the Contractor
believes that the specified requirements cannot
be met.

16.5.1

Tolerance

Piles shall be installed in position and


alignment to the specified design tolerances.
Tolerances for Pile foundations shall be in
accordance with LCM 20 Normal Class
Concrete.
On completion of pile installation and cut-off
operations for each structure location the
Contractor shall provide a survey of the level
and plan location of each pile. The survey
should specify pile length and orientation of
rake. The survey shall be carried out by a
licensed surveyor or chartered engineer.

16.5.2

Steel Piles

Steel piles may comprise:


Steel tube;

Permanent steel casing filled with a


reinforced concrete core. The concrete
core shall extend to a minimum depth
that provides for full transfer of load
to the steel casing beyond the
corrosion zone. Pile casings driven
without a shoe or internal plug shall
be mucked out to a depth equal to the
embedment of the reinforced concrete
core so that no foreign matter is
contained within the casing;
H-pile sections.
Piles may be driven without helmet protection
at the pile casing head.
Welding of steel piles shall conform to section
7 of this work instruction. Welds shall be
sufficient to prevent splitting of the steel
casing joints while driving and for transfer of
applied design actions.

16.5.3
Pre-cast Concrete
Piles
Pre-cast concrete piles shall be manufactured
and installed as per AS2159. Minimum

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longitudinal reinforcement shall extend for the
full length of the pile.

b)

Penetration record per metre for


the full length of each pile;

Concrete damaged during driving operations


shall be removed and reinstated in a manner
approved by the Designer.

c)

Nominal dimensions of tension


bulb and/or enlarged pile shaft
including volume of concrete
placed in bulb and shaft if
applicable;

d)

All
information
regarding
observations, delays and other
interruptions to the sequence of
work.

Segmented piles shall not be used unless the


contractor can demonstrate to the satisfaction
of the Designer that joints are durable and
have sufficient bending capacity to transfer
design moments at all sections along pile
length. Under no circumstances can joints be
located above lowest permanent water table
level.

16.5.4
Cast-in-place Piles
or Bored Piers
The contractor shall demonstrate to the
satisfaction of ElectraNet that construction
procedures ensure the removal of debris from
the base of the pile/pier toe that would
otherwise cause undue contamination of
concrete and/or disruption of concrete-steel
bond. Extensive clean out of the excavation
should then not be necessary.
Cast-in-place concrete may be placed by the
wet-shaft process. Concrete shall be placed in
a continuous operation. Appropriate work
procedures shall be adopted for placing
concrete under water if necessary and/or to
prevent necking of pile by ingress of soil
upon withdrawal of the temporary casing.
Where applicable, the sequence of pile driving
shall be arranged so as not to disrupt green
concrete in adjacent piles. Before commencing
pile installation, the Contractor shall consult
with the Designer on the proposed driving
sequence.

16.5.5
Pile
Records

Driving

The Contractor shall keep driving records of


the installation for each pile in accordance
with AS2159 and details listed below. A copy
shall be forwarded to ElectraNet within 24
hours of the installation.
a)

Version: 1.1

16.5.6
Cutting
off
Concrete Piles

of

Reinforced concrete piles shall finish such that


they can be cut off to sound concrete within
the pile cap. Sufficient length of pile
longitudinal reinforcement shall extend
beyond cut-off level to ensure specified
anchorage can be achieved within the pile cap.
Due care shall be taken to prevent excessive
damage to pile reinforcement. Excessive
damage of reinforcement is defined as any
reduction in cross-section of the bar or bends
in the bar with an overall radius less than
twice bar diameter. Reinforcement deemed to
be damaged should be made good as directed
by the Designer.

16.5.7

Pile Tests

Pile testing shall be carried out in accordance


with LCM 19 Pile Foundation Testing.

16.5.8

Defective Piles

If any pile fails to meet the specified


requirements regarding position, tolerance,
materials, workmanship and/or testing, an
assessment shall be provided of strength and
durability of the pile.
Actions taken to rectify an unsatisfactory pile
shall be subject to approval by the Designer.
Should the pile capacity be downgraded or the
pile rejected, the Contractor shall modify the
footing design and re-submit for approval by
the Designer.

Structure number; Pile sequence


reference number for pile group
if applicable;

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16.5.9
Constraints
Piling Operations

on

When installing driven pile footings the


contractor shall maintain vibration to
acceptable limits as determined by the
stakeholders of adjacent services or
equipment. In particular when they are being
installed adjacent to a high voltage switchyard
or substation, the contractor shall ensure that
ground vibrations arising from piling do not
cause any disruption of electrical equipment
operation in the switchyard. ElectraNet shall
inform the contractor of ground vibration
limits for ElectraNet switchyards upon
request.

16.6 EXCAVATION FOR PILE


CAPS
16.6.1

Setting Out

The Contractor shall ensure that pile caps are


installed within allowable tolerances of the
design position depicted on approved
construction drawings.

16.6.2

Excavation

The footings shall be excavated to the


dimensions stated in the approved footing
drawing(s) and carried out in such a manner
that unnecessary disturbance of the
surrounding ground is avoided.

16.6.3
Dewatering
Shoring

&

The Contractor shall be responsible to


determine and make due allowance for any
dewatering and/or shoring of the excavations
which may be required at the footing sites.
If pumping is necessary to remove ground,
storm or surface water, all such pumping shall
be the responsibility of the Contractor and
comply with current legislation and council
bylaws.

16.7 WELDING
Welding shall conform to AS1554.3.

Version: 1.1

The Contractor shall develop appropriate


welding
procedures
utilising
welding
equipment & consumables compatible with
design intent and shall be such as to minimise
weld defects, distortions or restraint.
Welders shall be qualified for welding with the
equipment proposed, in the positions required
and for the steel grade used, and shall be
approved by ElectraNet prior to commencing
work.
ElectraNet reserves the right to conduct
acceptance tests on any welders and
procedures.

16.8 BACKFILL ADJACENT TO


PILE-CAPS
The Contractor shall place & compact backfill
adjacent to the sides of the pile cap. Backfill
shall be compacted to the requirements
specified by the designer. If no specific
requirements are provided, backfill shall be
compacted sufficiently to ensure subsidence is
minimised.
Finished ground level shall be evenly graded
to ensure adequate drainage away from
structure footings. Under no circumstances
shall soil be mounded above the level of
concrete pile-caps.
Where the excavated matter contains a high
proportion of rock, sufficient fine spoil shall
be added to the backfill to ensure a
homogeneous mass capable of being properly
compacted. Rates shall allow for this
requirement and for carting suitable material
where none is available on site.
During the course of the contract works and
the maintenance period the Contractor shall be
responsible for reinstating any excavation in
which subsidence of the backfill has occurred,
and shall be responsible for injury to any
person or stock caused by his failure to
comply with this requirement.

16.9 AS-BUILT REVISIONS


Supply and installation of footings shall satisfy
design
intent.
Revisions
to
design
specifications proposed by the Contractor shall
be submitted to the Designer for review and
approval prior to implementation. Should

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approval not be granted, construction shall be
carried out in accordance with approved
design specifications.
Non-conformance reports shall be submitted
to the Designer for review and approval.
Should approval not be granted, construction
shall be corrected to conform to design
specifications.
For any item that varies from its initial design,
the Contractor shall prepare and supply to
ElectraNet, documents and/or drawings that
represent the item as it is actually constructed
or supplied.

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