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# Experiment 8

## Force and Forced Vortex Apparatus

Objective:
The activity aims to plot the surface of various forced vortices formed under different speed conditions.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
At the end of the activity, the students shall be able to:
1. Demonstrate the free and forced vortices.
2. Identify the surface profile of a free and forced vortex.
3. Locate and describe the total head variation in free and forced vortex.
4. Sketch the shape of a free vortex by measurement of the surface profile coordinates..
Discussion:
When at rest, the surface of mass of liquid is
horizontal at PQ as shown in the figure. When this mass
of liquid is rotated about a vertical axis at constant angular
velocity radian per second, it will assume the surface
ABC which is parabolic. Every particle is subjected to
centripetal force or centrifugal force CF = m2x which
produces centripetal acceleration towards the center
of rotation. Other forces that acts are gravity force

A
h
P

## W = mg and normal force N.

tan = 2 x
g
Where tan is the slope at the surface of paraboloid at any distance x from the axis of rotation.

## From Calculus, y = slope, thus

y = 2x2
2g
For cylindrical vessel of radius r revolved about its vertical axis, the height h of paraboloid is
h = 2r2
2g

Other Formulas
By squared-property of parabola, the relationship of y, x, h and r is defined by

r2 =x2
h y
Volume of paraboloid of revolution
V = r2 h
Important conversion factor

Resources/Instruments Required:

## Free and Forced Vortex Apparatus

Hydraulic Bench
Water

Procedure:

Measurements

1.

Insert combined radius and height gauge in mount from underneath and secure using
star-type nut.

For measurement, loosen star-type nut and set new height; then use knurled
nut and set new height ; then use knurled nut on cross member to move
gauges to surface of vortex.

## Readings are taken at the following points:

Height: Shoulder of retaining rod; this indicates the height of the gauges above
the bottom

2. Height gauge

Pull combined radius and height gauge downwards out of mount and insert 10 mm gauge
in hole; secure with star-type nut.

## Insert 3 mm gauges in holes in gland bolts and secure

For measurement, position gauges on surface of vortex. As all gauges are of equal length,
a rule can be used to measure the distance between the top edge of the mount and the
end of the gauge.

## Velocity determination by way of number of revolutions

1. Allow a small piece of paper or polystyrene to drop into the surface to measure the velocity of
the vortex.
2. Then use a stopwatch to determine the time taken for the piece of paper to perform 10
revolutions with the vortex.
3. Determine the radius on which the paper revolves.

## Angular velocity is.

= 2 . .n in 1/s

with n in Revolutions/seconds

Laboratory Report:
Group No.:
Date Performed:
Group Members:

Section:
Date Submitted:

## 1. Data and Results:

FORCED VORTEX
mm
Height h in
mm

30

50

70

90

110

(rpm)

9.6

10.4

11.1

13

14.9

17.2

126

c)
13.19

11.1

14.9

126

13.19

10.4

13

17.2

126

13.19

Experimental
(right)
Experimental
(Left)
-

315.24

875.689

1716.35

30

50

70

2837.23

4238.336 791.68

82.90

Theoretical
FREE VORTEX
mm
Height h in
mm

90

110

10.9

13

15

17.8

21.9

(rpm)
138

13

17.8

138

14.45

10.9

15

21.9

138

14.45

14.45

Experimental
(right)
Experimental
(Left)
-

378.19

1050.54

2059.06

3403.750

5084.61 867.08

90.80

Theoretical
2. Observations:
Based on observation in our experiment, we only get the height of the vortex in a given specific radius.
Then record the velocity of the paper rotating in the vortex, to get the angular velocity. The subject of this
experiment is a complex nonlinear fluid flow; however the experiment does not require special
knowledge of fluid dynamics. Rather, it involves general physical principles such as dimensional analysis

and conservation laws. The method is based on an electromagnetic technique for generating the flows.
This method is not routine, and although simple, is used in advanced research.

3. Analysis

FORCED VORTEX
21 rev 60 sec
x
=126 rpm
10 sec 1min

30
126 rpm
1 rpm

In theoretical:
=2 ( 2.1 )=13.19 rev /sec

## ( 601 minsec )=791.68 rpm

30
791.68 rpm
1 rpm

30
( 2)
82.902
=315.248 mm
2 ( 9.81 ) (1000)
2 r2
h=
=
2g

50
(
2)
82.902
=875.689 mm
2 ( 9.81 ) (1000)
2 r2
h=
=
2g

70
( 2)
82.90
=1716.35 mm
2 ( 9.81 ) (1000)
2 r2
h=
=
2g
2

90
( 2)
82.902
=2837.23 mm
2 ( 9.81 ) (1000)
2 r2
h=
=
2g
110
(
2)
82.902
=4238.336 mm
2 ( 9.81 ) (1000)
2 r2
h=
=
2g

## FREE VORTEX SOLUTION:

23 rev 60 sec
x
=138 rpm
10 sec 1min

30
138 rpm
1 rpm

In theoretical:
=2 ( 2.3 )=14.45 rev /sec

## ( 601minsec )=867.08 rpm

30
867.08 rpm
1 rpm

30
( 2)
90.80
=378.19 mm
2 ( 9.81 ) (1000)
2 r2
h=
=
2g
2

50
( 2)
90.802
=1050.54 mm
2 ( 9.81 ) (1000)
2 r2
h=
=
2g

70
( 2)
90.802
=2059.06 mm
2 ( 9.81 ) (1000)
2 r2
h=
=
2g

90
(
2)
90.802
=3403.750 mm
2 ( 9.81 ) (1000)
2 r2
h=
=
2g
110
( 2)
90.802
=5084.61mm
2 ( 9.81 ) (1000)
2 r2
h=
=
2g

4. Source/s of Error/s:

## Measuring the height of the fluid inside the apparatus

Inherent limitation of measuring devices used
The apparatus may not be properly levelled
The use of accepted density of water, 1000 kg/m3

5. Conclusions:
I therefore conclude that as the rotation in the cylinder increases, the radius of a vortex surface at the
axis also increases. I also conclude that the curve made in a vortex is a parabolic curve. The position of
the curve is depending on the speed of the fluid. In this experiment we can identify the components of
the parabola. We can also know the discharge of the water.
Assessment (Rubric for Laboratory Performance):

CRITERIA

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

I. Laboratory Skills
Manipulative
Skills

## Members do not demonstrate

needed skills.

Members occasionally
demonstrate needed skills.

## Members always demonstrate

needed skills.

Experimental Setup

materials.

## Members are able to set-up

the materials with supervision.

## Members are able to set-up the

material with minimum supervision.

Process Skills

## Members do not demonstrate

targeted process skills.

Members occasionally
demonstrate targeted process
skills.

## Members always demonstrate

targeted process skills.

precautions most of the time.

at all times.

Safety Precautions

precautions.

SCORE

Time
Management /
Conduct of
Experiment

## Members do not finish on time

with incomplete data.

incomplete data.

## Members finish ahead of time with

complete data and time to revise
data.

Cooperative and
Teamwork

## Members do not know their tasks

and have no defined
responsibilities. Group conflicts
have to be settled by the teacher.

## Members have defined

responsibilities most of the
time. Group conflicts are
cooperatively managed most
of the time.

## Members are on tasks and have

defined responsibilities at all times.
Group conflicts are cooperatively
managed at all times.

Neatness and
Orderliness

the experiment.

## Clean and orderly workplace

with occasional mess during
and after the experiment.

## Clean and orderly workplace at all

times during and after the
experiment.

## Members require occasional

supervision by the teacher.

## Members do not need to be

supervised by the teacher.

Ability to do
independent work

the teacher.

TOTAL SCORE
RATING

= (

TotalScore
24

x 100%

## Questions and Problems:

1. A rectangular tank 20 ft. long by 6 ft. deep by 7 ft. wide contains 3 ft. of water. If the linear
acceleration horizontally in the direction of the tanks length is 8.05 ft./sec2, determine the greatest
pressure at the bottom of the tank.

2. If the tank in Problem 1 is filled with water and accelerated in the direction of its length and the rate of
5 ft./sec2, how many gallons of water are spilled?

3. A tank is 1.5 square and contains 1m of water. How high must its sides be if no water is spilled when
the acceleration is 4 m/sec2 parallel to a pair of sides?

4. An open cylindrical tank 6 fthigh and 3 ft in diameter contains 4.5 ft of water. If the cylinder rotates its
geometric axis,
a. What is the greatest constant angular velocity that will be allowedwithout spilling the water?

5. A U-tube with right angles bends is 305 mm wide and contains mercury that rises 229 in each leg
when the tube is at rest. At what speed must the tube be rotated about an axis 76 mm from one leg
so that there will be no mercury in that leg of the tube.