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Part 1 - Terms of Conduct

Before learning Draft Survey , we must be posting the step by step Draft Survey Calculation, it
is necessary to attach the popular terms of conduct for Draft Survey for references.
Aft Perpendicular (AP) : an imaginary vertical line, at right angles to the keel, passing through
the first frame and so located on or nearby the ships rudder post.
Ballast Tanks : tanks aboard the vessel specially designed to receive ballast water or, in the case
of tanks vessels, cargo tanks used to contain ballast.
Boiler Feedwater Tanks : tanks provided aboarf the vessel to contain water used for the
production of steam.
Bilges : spaces at the bottom of the engine room or pumprooms where water is allowed to
accumulate. As the bilges usually also contain waste oil, they may not be discharged within the
port limits. For draught survey purposes, the quantity of liquid in the bilges should be
controlled/sounded before and after loading or discharge, so that any change in quantity can be
detected.
Bunker tanks : tanks intended to contain fuel oil either for stam raising purposes or for the
provision of power to the main engines and auxiliaries.
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Calibration Tables : (see sounding table).


Centre of Floation : the point around which a ship tips, often called the tipping center. The
center of the waterplane area.
Cofferdams fwd and aft : these terms apply more particularly to ocean tankers, coastel tankers
and tank barges. They are empty spaces provided in order to separate the cargo tanks from the
machinery space aft and from the forward peak and other forwardparts of the ship. Cofferdams
frequently contain water, either intentionally or accidentally, and should therefore always be
sounded.
Constant : the difference between the light ship weight according to ships documents and the
net empty survey displacement after deducting all measurable weights.
Deadweight : the weight of a vessels cargo, fuel, water and stores.
Deckline : a line clearly marked on the port and starboard side of the vessel, amidships as
required by International Loadline Regulations.
Deeptanks : tanks situated near to the bottom of the vessel.
Density (true) : the mass of a volume unit of a liquid.
Displacement table/scale : a table, specially prepared for each vessel, giving the displacement
corresponding to various drafts.
Double Bottom Tanks : tanks situated in the vessels double bottom and used either for bunkers
or ballast water.
Draft : depth of water from the water surface down to the bottom of the ships keel.

Draft Marks : a series of figures painted or welded on the vessels hull, usually forward,
midships and aft, on both port and starboard sides and indicating the draft of the vessel at the
points where the draft marks are situated
Draft (Draught) Survey : a system of cargo measurement based on measuring the draft of the
vessel before and after loading or discharge, making into accound any changed in weight other
than cargo, which may have taken place during cargo handling operation, i.e. changes in the
weight of water ballast, bunkers, stores etc.
Even Keel : when the forward and aft drafts of a vessel are identical, the ship is said to be on an
even keel
Forepeak Tank : a compartment situated at the extreme forward part of the vessel often used to
contain ballast water.
Forward perpendicular (FP) : an imaginary vertical line, at right angles to the keel and passing
through the point where the summer loadline intersects the vessels stern.
Freeboard (assigned or statutory) : the distance from the upper part of the deckline to
the summer loadline as assigned or stated in the Freeboard Certificate relating tho the vessel
concerned.
Hogging : the deflection of a cessel loaded in such manner that the draft amiship is less than the
mean of the forward and aft drafts.
Hydrostatic Curves : a document specially prepared for each vessel indicating, among other
things, the centre of floating or tipping centre at various drafts.
LCF : Longitudinal Centre of Floatation.

Length Between Perpendiculars (LBP) : distance between the forward and aft perpendiculars
measured parallel to the keel.
List : inclination of the vessel from the vertical position measured at the longitudinal midships
axis.
Lightship Weight : the weight of vessel ofter completion of construction but without fuel
bunkers, stores, etc.
Mean Forward Draft : average of the forward drafts on port and starboard side.
Mean Midships Draft : average of the midships drafts on port and starboard side.
Midships : longitudinal center of the vessel as indicated on the hull by the Port and Starboard
loadline marks.
Moment To Change Trim 1 cm (MTC) : the force required to change the trim of a vessel by 1
cm.
Plimsoll Line : another name for summer load mark. The line permanently marked by centre
punh, or by welding, on the port and starboard sides of the vessel amidship.
Port Side : the left-hand side of the vessel as seen by an observer facing forward.
Rudder Post : the vertical axis around which the rudder turns.
Sagging : the deflection of a vessel loaded in such manner that the draft amidships is greater
than that the mean of forward and aft drafts.
Sounding Pipe : a fixed pipe through which soundings are taken.

Sounding Tables : a table containing the tank volume as taken measured by sounding.
Starboard Side : the right-hand side of the vessel as seen by an observer facing forward.
Stem Correction : correction applied to the mean forward draft when the forward draft marks
are not situated at the forward perpendicular.
Stern Correction : correction applied to the mean aft draft when the aft draft marks are not
situated at the aft perpendicular.
Summer Loadline : an imaginary line, parallel to the keel passing through the upper edge of the
summer mark which corresponds to the maximum draft permitted in the summer zone in sea
water.
Ton Per Cm Immersion (TPC) the number of metric tones required to change the mean draft of
a vessel by 1 cm.
Trim : the difference between the mean draft and the mean draft forward, both measurements
having been corrected to the aft and forward perpendiculars (FP/AP).
Trim Corrections : corrections applied to the displacement of the vessel is not floating on an
even keel.
Ullage : the distance between the surface of a liquid in a tank and the top of the tank or
corresponding sounding pipe.

Part 2 : Procedures and Calculation

Procedures and calculation of Draft Survey ascertained as the following series :


Reading the draftmark of the ship, which consist of six (6) points of draftmarks, i.e.; Fore,
Midship, and After at both sides of the ship,
1. Sampling and testing the sea water or dock water density at the place where the vessel
floats,
2. Determining of deductible weights by measuring and sounding of ballast tanks, fuel oil,
fresh water that existing onboard at the time of survey,
3. Using Hydrostatic Table provided onboard to calculation.
Reading the Draftmark of the ship
Commonly, all ship are designed with draftmark for working with Draft Survey to determined
their actual weight. The draftmark could be find at six (6) points on the below places:

Forward Port Side (FP),

Forward Starboard Side (FS),

Midship Port Side (MP),

Midship Starboard Side (MS),

Aftward Port Side (AP),

Aftward Starboard Side (AS),

View the Draftmark:

Draftmark illustration
Use the small boat to go around the ship and get as near as possible to the draft mark for best
viewing. The surveyor should be read all above marks clearly, because reading the draftmark is
the first and most essential process. I am not saying that other processses is not essensial, but this
process is hard to do and involves many rules of conduct to gain the correctness and accuracy
of Draft Survey itself (I will post it later). The draftmark read is recorded on the surveyor
notebook, do not try to remember it or write down in your palm hand. Its useless and unprofessional.
Sampling and testing the sea water or dock water density
After reading the draftmark, directly engage with the sampling of sea water or river water around
the ships dock. Why? Because the ship draft will not be the same at different water densities (at
the lower density means the ship more sink and at the higher density means the ship more
float). Where as the water density is subject to changes which follow with water tide that
carrying different water salinity and temperature on to the ship dock. The sea water density
is indeed at density 1.025 and the fresh water at density 1.000. To determine the density of water,
we need the instrument named Hydrometer or Density Meter. Inserted the Hygrometer on to the
water sample on the Sampling Can or Tube, then we could check the scale pointed on the surface
of the sampling water. Records the water dock density as survey data.

Determining of deductible weights by measuring and sounding


Deductible Weight could measure by sounding the tanks which used the Sounding Tape or
gauging the tank level by visual inspection. Any deductible weight such as Ballast Water, Fresh
Water, Fuel and Diesel Oil, and Bilges is notify to check. Records all in the survey book includes
with the density for Ballast and Bilges, and for Oil complete it with density and
temperature . The Fresh Water was at density 1.000.
View the Sounding Pipe:

Sounding Pipe
Using Hydrostatic Table provided onboard to begin calculation,
I think all necessary data was completed, so we could do calculation. The calculation is uses
Displacement Table or usually called Hydrostatic Table. This table is included all data that we
need to complete the calculation.

Raw Draft Calculation; Fore Mean or Fm = (FP+FS)/2, Mid Mean or Mm = (MP+MS)/2,


and Fore Mean or Am = (AP+AS)/2. while Apparent Trim or AT = Am Fm. the Apparent
Trim is the Trim that visually find.

Draftmark posision and correction to perpendicular. As the ship draftmark is not placed at
the perpendicular, the Fore and After draft should be corrected with distance from the
draftmark to perpendicular. The correction rules is: if the Trim by Stern, the Fore correction
should be minus and After correction plus, and if theTrim by Head (stem), the Fore correction
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should be plus and After correction minus. The Midship correction is parallel with the fore
correction with the same pattern. Some Hydrostatic table provided with these correction result.
But if not the reference pattern is for Fore Correction or Fc = (Fd x AT) : LBM and
After Correction

or Ac

(Ad

x AT) /

LBM.

Where

Fd

= Fore

distance

to

perpendicular, Ad = After distance to perpendicular, and LBM = Length Between Mark or


Length between Fore and After draftmarks or LBM = LBP (Fd + Ad).

True Draft Calculation / Draft Corrected; Fore draft corrected or Fcd = Fm + Fc, Mid
draft corrected or Mcd = Mm + Mc, and After draft corrected or Acd = Am + Ac.

True Trim or TT : Actual Ship Trim after draft corrected or TT = Acd Fcd.

Fore and After Mean Draft or FAm = (Fcd + Acd)/2, Mean of Mean Draft or MM = (FAm
+ Mcd)/2, and Mean of Mean of Mean Draft or MMM or Quarter Mean = (MM + Mcd)/2.

The above calculation is similar with : MMM = {(Fcd x 1) + (Acd x 1) + (Mcd x 6)}/8.

Coresponding to the MMM or Quarter Mean result, the surveyor could check the value of
needed parameters on Hysdrostatic table like; Displacement, TPC, LCF, and MTC. Records
them accurately.

Get the Displacement or Disp.

First Trim Correction or FTc = (TT x LCF x TPC x 100) / LBP. Could be plus or minus
depend on LCF.

Second Trim Correction STc = (TT x TT x MTC x 50) / LBP. The result always plus (+).

Displacement corrected by Trim or DispT = D (FTc + STc).

Density Correction or Denc = DispT x {(Aden 1.025) / 1.025}. where the Aden is
Actual Density that surveyor has taken sampling and testing previously. The density correction
commonly in minus (-), due to the Actual Density is usually lower than 1.025 (fresh sea water).
In case of at some port where the water salinity is high, the density correction could be plus
(+).

And we have got the Displacement corrected by Density or DispDenc = DispT + Denc.
(after corrected by density we will get the actual ship weight as per shown byDraft Survey)

Deductible Calculation. The same as draft, the deductible also need to corresponding to
the table that named Tank Table / Tank Capacity Table. Refer to the sounding records that done
before, the surveyor could be calculate the total deductbile existing onboard. Total Deductible
or Deduct = Ballast Water + Fresh Water + Bilges + Fuel Oil + Diesel Oil, this total should be
minus to the Displacement corected by Density.

The Net Displacement or NDisp = DispDenc Deduct.

The Net Displacement is the actual ship weight after minus with deductible weight. For
Unloading, to estimate the quantity of cargo onboard, the Net displacement should be minus
with Light Ship and Constant.

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Part 3 - Specimen of Calculation

Ok, now we could directly go to the point. The vessel has alongside at the wharf in port
to discharge the grain cargo.
The Ships Particulars shown :
Name of Vessel : MV. OCEAN BALL,
- Port of Registry (POR) : Panama,
Lenght Over All (LOA) : 182.00 M,
Lenght Between Perpendiculars (LBP) : 179.00 M,
Breath (B) : 32.20 M,
Depth (D) : 17.15 M,
Gross Tonnage (GT) : 28,342 MT,
Net Tonnage (NT) : 17,664 MT,
Summer Draft (SD) : 12.163 M,
Summer Deadweight (DWT) : 52,998 MT,
Light Ship (LS) : 7,780 MT, Constant (CS) : 320 MT,
Fore Distance to Perpendicular (Fd) : 1.70 M,
After Distance to Perpendicular (Ad) : 9.45 M.

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See Picture :

Fore & Aft Distance


The Surveyor came onboard and made Draft Survey to determine the quantity of cargo on
arrival. During inspection, shes draft marks and others data finds as the followings :
- Fore Draft Port (FP) : 10.79 M / Fore Draft Starboard (FS) : 10.81 M.
- Mid Draft Port (MP) : 10.90 M / Mid Draft Starboard (MS) : 11.03 M.
- Aft Draft Port (AP) : 11.16 M / Aft Draft Starboard (AF) : 11.19 M.
- Density of Sea Water Sample (Den) : 1.021.
- Ballast Water (BW) : 265.00 Cubic Meter at Density 1.025, Fresh Water (FW) : 183.00 MT.
- Fuel Oil (FO) : 612.00 MT, - Diesel Oil (DO) : 161.00 MT, Lub Oil (LO) : 29.00 MT.

The Draft Survey Calculation is described as below :


Raw Draft Calculation
- Fore Mean (Fm) = (FP + FS) / 2 = (10.79 + 10.81) / 2 = 21.60 / 2 = 10.800 M.
- Mid Mean (Mm) = (MP + MS) / 2 = (10.90 + 11.03) / 2 = 21.93 / 2 = 10.965 M.
- Aft Mean (Am) = (AP + AS) / 2 = (11.16 + 10.19) / 2 = 22.35 / 2 = 11.175 M.
- Apparent Trim (AT) = Am Fm = 11.175 10.800 = 0.375 M.
- Length Between Mark (LBM) = LBP (Fd + Ad) = 179.00 (1.70 + 9.45)
= 167.85 M
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Draft Correction to Distance to Perpendicular.


- Fore Correction (Fc) = (Fd x AT) / LBM = (1.70 x 0.375) / 167.85 = 0.003798
= 0.004 M (rounded to 3 Decimals).
- Mid Correction (Mc) = (Md x AT) / LBM = (0.00 x 0.375) / 167.85
= 0.000 M (Not Available)
- Aft Correction (Ac) = (Ad x AT) / LBM = (9.45 x 0.375) / 167.85 = 0.021112
= 0.021 M (rounded to 3 Decimals).
True Draft and True Trim
- Fore Draft Corrected (Fcd) = Fm + Fc = 10.800 + (-0.004) = 10.796 M.
- Mid Draft Corrected (Mcd) = Mm + Mc = 10.965 + 0.000 = 10.965 M.
- Aft Draft Corrected (Acd) = Am + Ac = 11.175 + 0.021 = 11.196 M.
- True Trim (TT) = Acm Fcm = 11.196 10.796 = 0.400 M.
Final Draft Calculation
- Fore and Aft Mean (FAm) = (Fcd + Acd) / 2 = (10.796 + 11.196) / 2 = 21.992 /2 = 10.996 M.
- Mean of Mean Draft (MM) = (Mcd + FAm / 2) = (10.965 + 10.996) /2 = 21.961 / 2
= 10.9805 M.
- Quarter Mean (MMM) = (MM + Mcd) /2 = (10.9805 + 10.965) /2 = 21.9455 /2 = 10.97275 M
= 10.973 M.
- Or MMM = {(Fcd x 1) + (Acd x 1) + (Mcd x 6)} / 8 = {(10.796 x 1) + (11.196 x 1) + (10.996 x
6)} / 8 = (10.796 + 11.196 + 65.790) / 8 = 87.782 / 8 = 10.97275 M = 10.973 M.

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Hydrostatic Table
Refer to the Table, we could obtain :
Displacement (Disp)
- Disp at 10.970 M : 54,266.860 MT (DISP. FULL).
- Disp at 10.980 M : 54,321.070 MT (DISP. FULL).
- Disp at 10.973 M : 54,266.860 +[ {(10.973 - 10.970) / (10.980 - 10.970)}
x (54,321.070 - 54,266.860)] = 54,266.860 {(0.003 /0.010) x 54.210} = 54,266.86 + (0.3 x
54.210) = 54,266.860 + 16.263 = 54,283.123 MT
Ton Per Centimeter (TPC)
- TPC at 10.970 M : 54.210 MT (Below TPC on Table).
- TPC at 10.980 M : 54.220 MT (Below TPC on Table).
- TPC at 10.973 M : 54.210 +[ {(10.973 - 10.970) / (10.980 - 10.970)}
x (54.220 - 54.210)]
= 54.210 {(0.003 /0.010) x 0.010} = 54.210 + (0.3 x 0.010)
= 54.210 + 0.003 = 54.213 MT.
Longitudinal Centre Flotation (LCF)
- LCF at 10.970 M : 1.180 MT (Below LCF on Table).
- LCF at 10.980 M : 1.190 MT (Below LCF on Table).
- LCF at 10.973 M : 1.180 +[ {(10.973 - 10.970) / (10.980 - 10.970)} x (1.190 - 1.180)]
= 1.180 {(0.003 /0.010) x 0.010} = 1.180 + (0.3 x 0.010) = 1.180 + 0.003 = 1.183 M.

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Hidrostatic Table

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Moment To Change Trim (MTC)


- MTC = MTC 1 MTC 2.
- MTC 1 = MMM + 0.5 = 10.973 + 0.5 = 11.473 M.
- MTC 1 at 11.470 M : 709.910 (Below Table).
- MTC 1 at 11.480 M : 710.060 (Below Table).
- MTC 1 at 11.473 M : 709.910 +[ {(11.473 - 11.470) / (11.480 - 11.470)} x (710.060 - 709.910)]
= 709.910 {(0.003 / 0.010) x 0.150} = 709.910 + (0.3 x 0.450) = 709.610 + 0.045 = 709.955.

- MTC 2 = MMM - 0.5 = 10.973 - 0.5 = 10.473 M.


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- MTC 2 at 10.470 M : 686.460 (Below MTC on Table).


- MTC 2 at 10.480 M : 686.770 (Below MTC on Table).
- MTC 2 at 10.473 M : 686.460 +[ {(10.473 - 10.470) / (10.480 - 10.470)}
x (686.770 - 686.460)]
= 686.460 {(0.003 /0.010) x 0.310} = 686.460 + (0.3 x 0.310) = 686.460 + 0.093 = 686.553.

So, MTC = MTC 1 MTC 2 = 709.955 686.553 = 23.402.

**** From the above results, we collected the data as follows:


- Disp = 54,283.123 MT, - True Trim (TT) = 0.400 M, - LBP = 179.00 M,
- TPC = 54.213, LCF = 1.183, - MCT = 23.402.
First Trim Correction (FTc)
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- FTc = (TT x TPC x LCF x 100) / LBP = (0.400 x 54.213 x 1.183 x 100) / 179.000
= 256.35916 / 179.00 = 14.331615 = 14.332 MT.
Second Trim Correction (STc)
- STc = (TT x TT x MTC x 50) / LBP = (0.400 x 0.400 x 23.402 x 50) / 179.000
= 185.536 / 179.00 = 1. 045899 = 1.046 MT.
Displacement Corrected to Trim (DispT)
- DispT = Disp + (FTc + STc) = 54,283.123 + (14.332 + 1.046) = 54,283.123 + 15.378
= 54,298.501 MT.
Density Correction (Denc)
- Actual Density (ADen) = Sample Sea Water Density = 1.021
- Denc = DispT x {(ADen 1.025) / 1.025} = 54,298.501 x {(1.021 1.025) / 1.025}
= 54,298.501 x (-0.004 / 1.025)
= 54,298.501 x (-0.0039024) = -211.89947 = -211.899 MT.
Displacement Corrected to Density (DispDenc)
- DispDenc = DispT + Denc = 54,298.501 + (-211.899) = 54,086.602 MT.
Deductible Weight (Deduct)
- BW = 265.00 x 1.025 = 271. 625 MT, FW = 183.000 MT, FO = 612.000 MT,
- DO = 161.000 MT, LO = 29.000 MT.
- Total Deduct = 1,256.625 MT.
Displacement Minus to Deductible Weight = Net Displacement (NDisp)
- NDisp = DispDenc - Deduct = 54,086.602 1,256.625 = 52,829.977 MT.

Estimated Cargo onboard (EstCOB)


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- To estimated quantity cargo onboard, we need to know about Light Ship and Constant. Light
Ship and Constant data is provided on the Ships Loading Manual.
For the new ship, we could refer to the Constant on the Manual, but for the old ship it Constant
may vary, please refer to the Chief Officer Constant Declaration or Draft Survey Previous Port,
or we could calculate it in the final survey after the Ship completing to discharge her cargoes
(empty Ship).
- Light Ship (LS) = 7,780.000 MT, Constant (CS) = 320.000 MT.
- EstCOB = NDisp (LS + CS) = 52,829.977 (7,780.000 + 320.00)
= 52,829.977 8,100.000 = 44,729.977 MT.

See the following Draft Survey Report Form below :


(next page)

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We have completed the Initial Draft Survey,

Part 4 - Membaca Draft Mark Kapal


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Kunci dalam perhitungan Draft Survey adalah Pembacaan Draft Kapal.


Apakah Draft Kapal itu?
Draft Kapal adalah suatu seri angka-angka yang diterakan atau dilekatkan (bisa dilas/welding
atau hanya dicat saja) di lambung kapal sebelah kanan dan kiri pada bagian depan atau haluan,
dibagian tengah atau midship dan dibagian belakang atau buritan, dimana angka-angka tersebut
menunjukan kedalaman bagian kapal yang masuk ke dalam air laut atau sungai.
Zaman dahulu draft kapal menggunakan sistem peneraan imperial dengan satuan inchi dan angka
romawi, namun saat ini telah disepakati berlakunya Metric System dengan peneraan angka latin.
Dengan draft kapal yang diterakan dalam satuan metric, draft mark diterakan dengan satuan cm
(centi meter), setiap angka draft mark berseling jarak 20 cm dengan tinggi tiap-tiap angka 10 cm
dan tebal angka biasanya 2 cm dan satuan berat total muatannya dalam Metric Tons, gambar
dibawah adalah contoh draft mark kapal tersebut;

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Untuk anda ketahui juga dalam satuan imperial, draft mark diterkan dalam satuan feet atau inchi,
dengan tinggi angak 6 dan lebar garis 1, seperti gambar dibawah ini:

Cara perhitungan Draft Survey sering juga disebut metode perhitungan tidak langsung karena
kita tidak dapat langsung mengetahui hasilnya sebab harus melalui beragam koreksi dengan
perhitungan-perhitungan yg cukup rumit.

Urutan pekerjaan draft survey adalah sebagai berikut :


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1.

Membaca Draft Kapal

2.

Mengambil Berat Jenis air (Density Air) dimana kapal mengapung

3.

Menghitung deductible weight, berat barang-barang di atas kapal selain muatan.

4.

Membaca table dan data kapal yg diperlukan dalam perhitungan ini.

5.

Menghitung Draft Survey atau Draught Survey itu sendiri.


Dalam tahapan-tahapan pekerjaan tersebut diatas harus juga diperhatikan factor-faktor yg dapat
menyebabkan perhitungan draft survey menjadi tidak akurat, diantara;

1.

Faktor Cuaca, termasuk tinggi alur dan ombak diperairan tersebut.

2.

Usia Kapal

3.

Human Error, menjadi faktor paling dominan dalam kesalahan perhitungan.

4.

Kerjasama dengan crew kapal juga menentukan keakuratan perhitungan.


5. Mempelajari dokumen kapal yg dipakai dalam perhitungan dan dapatkan informasi
terkini tentang kondisi kapal tersebut, seperti Bibliography book, atau hydrostatic table
dan sounding table/tank capacity curve.
6. Dalam melakukan pengukuran cairan-cairan lain yang ada diatas kapal seperti fresh
water, Ballast water, Fuel oil, diesel oil, Lub. oil, Hydrolic oil dan lainnya harus akurat.
7. Pastikan mengukur density air perairan dan ballast serta Density dengan teliti dan alat yg
terkalibrasi, untuk density bahan bakar bias berdasarkan informasi dari tanda pengisian
terakhir kali kapal tersebut.

8.

dan hal-hal non teknis

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Part 5 : Pelaksanaan Draft Survey Di Lapangan

PELAKSANAAN DRAUGHT SURVEY

PELAKSANAAN DRAUGHT SURVEY :


Tahap I :
Mempelajari dokument kapal yang dipakai dalam perhitungan draught survey dan mencari
informasi kondisi kapal terkini.
Tahap II :
Pembacaan draught kapal di lambung kiri dan kanan bagian depan (forward), tengah (midship),
belakang (after part)
Tahap III:
Melakukan pengukuran cairan-cairan yang ada diatas kapal (fresh water, Ballast water, Fuel oil,
diesel oil, Lub. oil, Hydrolic oil, other.
Tahap IV :
Mengukur density air perairan dan ballast
Density bahan bakar berdasarkan informasi dari tanda pengisian terakhir
Tahap V :
Perhitungan draught survey
Buku-buku dokumentasi yang diperlukan dalam perhitungan (Bibliography book, atau
hydrostatic table, sounding table/tank capacity curve)

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Syarat Ideal pelaksanaan Draught survey :


* Kapal tidak kandas/dapat mengapung bebas
* Tali pengikat tidak terlalu kencang, kapal dapat bebas terapung
* kapal tidak miring lebih dari 2derajat
* tanda draught kapal dapat terbaca jelaz
* pipa sounding/level gauge dapat terbaca jelaz
* tinggi ombak tidak lebih 0,5 m
* trim kapal tidak melebihi batas koreksi trim dalam table tanki
* Table dalam kondisi up to date
* Alat ukur dalam kondisi baik dan terkalibrasi
* tidak ada pergerakan cairan dan alat bongkar pada saat survey
Pada waktu pelaksanaan draft survey hubungi Chief Officer agar selama operasi draft
survey, kapal tidak mengerjakan :
- pengisian atau pembuangan atau pemindahan dari tanki ke tanki air ballast.
- pengisian atau pemindahan bahan bakar dari tanki ke tanki
- memasukkan atau mengeluarkan (swinging) batang pemuat/kran
- dan lain-lain.

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Koreksi-koreksi yang mesti diperhatikan dalam perhitungan :


Draft Corrections
Draft marks (marka draft) pada lambung kapal seharusnya diterakan pada garis perpendikular, yaitu pada forward perpendicular, mid-perpendicular dan after perpendicular. Karena pada
kenyataan dilapangan draft mark tidak terletak pada perpendiculars maka perlu dilakukan
koreksi draft.
Koreksi untuk draft depan disebut stem correction, sedangkan koreksi untuk draft belakang
disebut stern correction dan pada midship disebut Mid correction.

Rumus :
stem corr = (Trim obs x df) / Lbm
stern corr = (Trim obs x da) / Lbm
mid corr = (Trim obs x dm) / Lbm
Dimana :
Trim observe : selisih draft mean Forward dan draft mean after
df : Jarak antara draft mark forward/depan dengan perpendicular depan (FP)
da : Jarak antara draft mark after/belakang dengan perpendicular belakang(AP)
dm : Jarak antara draft mark tengah dengan midship
Lbm : Lbp - (df + da)
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Trim and density correction


Perlu diketahui bahwa Hydrostatic Table dll.nya dibuat dengan kondisi :
1. kapal dalam keadaan rata-rata air (even keel) - kapal tidak mengalami trim.
2. kapal terapung di air dengan Berat Jenis = 1,025 (air laut).
Jika kapal mengalami trim dan terapung di air dengan berat jenis tidak sama dengan 1,025, maka
displacement tersebut harus dikoreksi dengan :
- density correction
- trim corrections.
Displacement yang didapat dari tabel disebut scaled displacement, sedang displacement yang
sudah dikoreksi dengan berat jenis disebut measured displacement dan yang telah juga dikoreksi
dengan trim kapal disebut corrected displacement.
FTC = Trim x TPC x LCF x 100 first trim correction
LBP
STC = Trim^2 x (dm/dz) x 50 second trim correction
LBP
dimana :
trim = trim setelah dikoreksi pada draft correction
dm/dz = selisih MTC1+0,5 dan MTC2-0,5

Density correction = density obs - 1,025 x Displacement corr for trim


1,025
dimana :
density observe = density air laut yang telah diukur dengan hydrometer.
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List correction/ koreksi kemiringan

Metric sistem LC = 6 (TPC1 - TPC2)m/t x (Dm1 - Dm2)mtr

Imperial sistem LC = 0.72 (TPI1 - TPI2) long/t x (Dm1 - Dm2)feet

dimana :
Dm1 : Draught tengah terbesar
Dm2 : Draught tengah terkecil
TPC1/TPI1 : adalah TPC/TPI pada draught tengah terbesar
TPC2/TPI2 : adalah TPC/TPI pada draught tengah terkecil

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Pengambilan Sample air untuk mengukur density di sekitar kapal :

Dokumen kapal umumnya didasarkan pada berat jenis (density) air laut (= 1,025). Prakteknya
kapal yang di survey terapung di air dengan density yang berbeda, misalnya density air tawar =
1,000. Karena itu air di sekitar tempat kapal terapung harus diambil samplenya (contoh) untuk
mendapatkan densitynya.

Density (berat jenis) air di sekitar kapal dapat berbeda, karena :


- kedalaman yang berbeda
- tempat yang berbeda sepanjang kapal dari haluan ke buritan

Untuk menghindari pengambilan sample yang tidak benar :


- sample hanya efektif sebelum/sesudah pembacaan draft.
- sampling jangan dilakukan dekat saluran pembuang darat/kapal (cooling
water/ballast water).
- sample diambil pada sisi laut, karena pada sisi darat density dapat berbeda
karena adanya air yang tidak bergerak/stagnant, antara kapal dan daratan.
- segera setelah sample diambil density harus dihitung/dibaca.

Jumlah dan posisi pengambilan sample


- untuk kapal kecil : 2 samples, pada sisi laut dekat draft tengah, pada kedalaman 1/3 dan 2/3 dari
draft tengah.
- untuk kapal besar : paling sedikit 3 samples, pada setiap posisi sampling, pada kedalaman 1/6,
1/2 dan 5/6 dari draft tengah.

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Pengukuran density dengan Hydrometer

Deductibles weight
Adalah jumlah berat yang harus dikurangkan untuk mendapatkan jumlah berat kapal kosong atau
berat muatan itu sendiri.
Deductible weights terdiri atas : - berat kapal kosong
- air ballast
- bahan bakar
- air tawar
- minyak lumas
- perlengkapan, stores
- konstan, dll.

Constant.
Constant atau konstan adalah sejumlah berat yang timbul karena ada perbedaan antara
displacement dan berat semua barang yang ada di kapal termasuk berat kapal kosong.
Constant = displacement - deductible weights.
Jadi konstan adalah berat benda di kapal yang tidak dapat diperkirakan, seperti lumpur di dalam
tanki, karat dan lain lain. Dan dapat juga kesalahan terhadap suatu penafsiran berat suatu benda
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di kapal, termasuk juga kesalahan penerapan draft marks (pengelasan/ pengecatan) tidak pada
posisi yang tepat.
Berapa konstan dapat ditanyakan kepada Nakhoda atau Chief Officer, dan apakah ada konstan
yang negatif ?

Negative constant
Ada beberapa sebab mengapa sebuah kapal mempunyai konsran negatif atau kecil sekali.
Hal ini dapat disebabkan oleh beberapa alasan :
1. dokumen yang ada di kapal sebenarnya adalah dokumen untuk kapal yang identik (sister ships).
2. hydrostatic particulars tidak akurat.
3. ada peralatan atau bagian kapal yang sudah dipindahkan/dibuang, misalnya tweendeck, crane atau
lainnya hal yang biasa dilakukan oleh kapal kecil untuk menambah daya muat.
4. estimasi terlalu kecil terhadap draft kapal.
5. estimasi terlalu tinggi terhadap deductible liquid, terutama air ballast.
6. density tidak mewakili yang sebenarnya.
Jika didapatkan negative constant, periksalah lagi apa alasan atau penyebabnya, jika mungkin
bandingkan dengan hasil survey yang terdahulu.
Jika tidak ada alasan atau penyebab yang dapat diterima, maka keadaan ini harus dinyatakan
dalam laporan bersama-sama dengan :
a. hasil efektif dari draft survey.
b. hasil dari loaded survey lightweight (dari dokumen kapal) konstan (dari informasi
Nakhoda).
Nakhoda harus menanda tangani pernyataan yang berhubungan dengan konstan yang telah di
informasikannya.

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CARGO LOSSES
Sebab terjadinya Cargo Losses/kehilangn atau kerugian cargo dapat terjadi pada saat :
- Kegiatan muat/loading
- Pada saat transportation
- Kegiatan bongkar/ discharging

Pada saat Loading/transfer dapat menyebabkan cargo losses dikarenakan :


- Tumpahan Cargo
- Debu terbang (cargo halus)
- Peningkatan kelembaban
- Pengurangan ukuran
- Kontaminasi / bercampur dengan sisa muatan sebelumnya atau tanah
- Adanya sampling dan analisa
- Salah sampling (berpengaruh terhadap kualitas)
- Salah berat (mempengaruhi kuantitas)
- pengukuran tidak akurat
- keadaan cuaca yang kurang mendukung
Salah draught survey (mempengaruhi kuantitas)
- Salah membaca draft
- Salah perhitungan deductibles
- kesalahan hitung

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- Absolute (salah) hidrostatik tabel


- Salah sampling dari air laut
Pada kegiatan transportasi :
- Peningkatan kelembaban
- Cargo tumpah
- Peningkatan suhu yang cepat
- Berlebihan emisi metana
- Kekurangan dalam pemuatan
- Bercampur dengan kargo sebelumnya
- Pengurangan ukuran
Pada kegiatan bongkar:
- kalibrasi yang tidak akurat
- kondisi cuaca
- kapal/ barge tidak stabil
- trim kapal/barge terlalu besar
- kesalahan pada draught survey
- sampling dan analisis
Cargo losses atau kehilangan cargo juga dapat disebabkan oleh faktor fisik :
- penguapan
- tumpahan atau kebocoran
- menumpahkan
- kejahatan/pencurian

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ALAT-ALAT YANG DIGUNAKAN PADA DRAUGHT SURVEY


1.

Draught reading Device at rough Sea condition :

Peralatan yang digunakan untuk melihat sarat kapal bila ada ombak besar
Untuk melakukan survey dalam keadaan ombak besar diperlukan alat khusus yaitu :
- tali polyphropelyne dia 8mm secukupnya
- selang plastik warna putih dia 19mm panjang 6-8 m
- selang plastik warna putih dia 12mm panjang 2 m
- besi pemberat
- lem plastik
- gabus berwarna sebagai pengapung
Cara menggunakan alat ini :
- tempatkan alat ini didekat marka sarat
- usahakan bahwa selang plastik dia 19mm ditengah-tengah dari garis air
- meski air dalam kondisi bergelombang, pengapung dalam selang dari alat ini akan tetap
menunjukkan permukaan air dengan teliti
(see pict below)

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Draught reading Device at rough Sea condition


2. Design Water sampling device :
Alat pengambilan contoh air.
Perlengkapan yang dibutuhkan
- Polyphropelyne
- Tabung stailess steel dia 14cm dan panjang 60cm
- besi pemberat 3,5 kg
Hindari pengambilan contoh air untuk pengukuran density di dekat keluarnya air pendingin
mesin dari lambung kapal.

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Design Water sampling device


3. Sounding tape
Spesifikasi :
- pita (tape) panjang min 25 m
- bahan : stailess steel
- tebal 1mm
- pembagian jarak per 10 mm
- berat pemberat 400gr

Sounding tape

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4. Hydrometer dan tabung pembacaan


Alat pengukur berat jenis air dalam satuan Kg/ltr, dilengkapi dengan sertifikat test laboratorium
yang diakui. Dan secara teratur diperiksakan/diterakan dengan hidrometer bersertifikat, sehingga
diketahui koreksinya.

Hydrometer dan tabung pembacaan

5. Water finding paste


Pasta yang digunakan untuk mendapatkan atau mengetahui pembacaan yang teliti dari tinggi
cairan didalam tanki. Pasta ini adalah bahan yang dapat berubah warna menjadi merah bila
terkena cairan. Dipergunakan dengan cara dioleskan pada sounding tape untuk mendapatkan
pembacaan yang teliti.

Water finding paste

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Part 6 : The Accuracy of Draft Survey

Sometimes the accuracy of Draft Survey is a big question, especially when the cargo loaded or
discharged from the vessel shown extremely different weight with the references Weight Scale or
Counter Weight. Unfortunately, the parties concerns would be doubt on to the weight resulted by
Draft Survey, as they have been relying upon the mentioned scales for many years.

Draftmark
The Draft Surveyors as the person in charge should be solve this issue to prevent any claim in the
future. Where is the doubt came from? The next investigation is required to calm down these
issues.
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Draught Survey UN ECE: Code of Uniform Standards and Procedures


UN ECE was published the Factors Affecting Draft Survey as follows :
1- Incorrect hydrostatic information or draft marks: Investigations carried out in specially
performed draft surveys have indicated that there can be significant errors in the determination of
displacement due to typographical errors or arithmetical errors in the ships hydrostatic tables.
This could be improved if the tables furnished to the surveyorbore an approval stamp by the flag
government or the classification society. A number of years careless re-painting of draftmarks,
especially if they have not been permanently marked on the hull, can cause erroneous readings.
If there is any doubt, the draft marks should be re-sited at the next dry-docking.
2- Incorrect tank calibrations: This is normally ascertained after a number of draft surveys when
a constant error may appear. It may be verified by a carefull draft survey when just the tank(s) in
question are filled or emptied with no other weight changes. Clasification societies, upon request
of the shipsowners, may however issue the special calibration certificates for each compartment
of the vessel.
3- Mud and/or scale in ballast tanks: The quantity of mud and/or scale will increase over a period
of years, depending on the sediment in any ballast taken, on the extend of scale formation and on
the cleaning which is carried out. It is very difficult to quantify. The effect on ballast calculations
can be minimized unless there are reasons to the contrary by leaving a measurable quantity of
water in the ballast tank instead of pumping it dry. The calculation would then use a difference in
known water quantities rather than assume that a tank is completely empty : in this way the error
would be confined within the density differential of the mud and the ballast water. Regularly
large bulk carriers arrive at unloading ports with a slight trim by the head as a result of burning
fuel from the aft located fuel tanks during long sea passages. Since generally the sounding pipes
are located aft only, dry soundings of ballast tanks do then not necessarily mean that no water is
present, since any water will accumulate in the fore end. When the ballast tables are subsequently
entered with zero sounding and the head trim, considerable quantities of residual ballast water
are found. Again, this water does not actually have to be present. Consequently, when one
assumes empty or tabulated quantities, both may be wrong.
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4- Bottom shell growth: Marine growth on the bottom of the ship, especially if dry docking is
delayed or if there is a failure in the anti-fouling paint, adds weight to the ship. But, because this
weight should not change between the start and finish surveys, it has no effect on the calculation
of the cargo weight, unless the vessel is docked for a long period or the antifouling paint
deteriorates.
5- Water disturbance: Normally due to wind, swell or passing traffics. Accurate reading of the
draft requires the use of a draft reading tube.
6- Variations in seawater density: If a loaded vessel has a small underkeel clearance, the seawater
may hold mud/sediment in suspension, or chemicals in solution could effect its density. This may
be apparent from the bottom layer sample. If it is suspected, a sea water sample should be taken
from the maximum draft as a check. In river ports or in proximity of river mouths or of industrial
plants, there may be numerous layers of water with differing densities, which may substantially
affect the accuracy of the water samples unless properly detected.
7- Vessel squat: When a vessel is moored in a tidal stream or a fast flowing current, in shallow
water, it will squat in the water, i.e. its draft will increase. This is due to the fall of the pressure of
the water between the bottom of the hull and the seabed. The sinkage is due to a number of
complex factors due to the hydrodynamic properties of the hull, especially where underkeel
clearance is small and which cannot be accurately determined by theoretical calculations. There
appears to be no effect at current speeds below 2,5 knots. If conditions are inductive to squat, the
surveyor and the master should monitor carefully that the vessel is fully afloat and not touching
the bottom and for best accuracy, consider waiting for slack water, or shifting the vessel to
another berth where the effect of squat are known to be less or absent.
8- Asymmetrical hull deflections: If the mean draft midships differs from the mean of the
forward and after drafts, it is assumed that the deflection of the hull shape takes the form of a
parabolic curve. This assumption is inherent in the two-thirds and quarter-mean methods of
correcting for hull deflection. If there is no difference between the mean draft midships and the
mean of the forward and after drafts, it is assumed that the hull shape has not been deflected.
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Both assumptions may be incorrect. In practice, the hull deflection may not be a parabolic curve
or there may be deflections between the ends of the vessel and the midship points (i.e. as a
modified sine curve). If the draft is not read at all six draftmarks, the hull may be twisted without
the fact being known.
9- Solar bending: Vessels of approximate 50.000 mt deadweight and upwards, may be subject to
hull deflections caused by solar bending of the deck and structure above the waterline. The effect
would normally be a hogging which can be appreciable. Some readings taken on a 74.000 mt dwt
bulk carrier and reported in Seaways (March 1987), showed that the fully loaded vessel was
sagged 5 cms at 07.00 hrs and 27,5 cms at 17.00 hrs on the same day with no movement of
weight within the vessel (apart from normal oil/water consumption for an anchored vessel).
10- Use of approximate methods for corrections: The mathematical methods used to correct for
trim and/or hull deflections, if these conditions exist, are approximations because of limitations
of time, expense and the work site. However, if the same methods are correctly and uniformly
employed in all surveys, the resultant error in the exact cargo weight will be minimal. However,
if in better equipped ships, correction tables for trim and/or hull deflection are available, then
such tables should be used instead of the approximate methods.
11- Draught gauges: Draught gauges may be very helpful as a check, but should never replace
the reading of draughts using the fixed draught marks on the ships hull.
12- Squat: While measures the draught, when there is a strong current running and there is water
depths of less than twice the draught of the vessel, the draught readings may be misleading, due
to the effects of squat. The survey report should include reference to Possible Squat Effects, even
if a suitable correction to the draught readings cannot be determined.
13- Anchors and Chains: The anchors may be in the housed position, where they contribute to the
lightship, or they may have been used in the mooring of the ship. Then the anchors will be on the
sea bed along with a given length of cable. The loss of weight due to its removal is weight taken
from the light displacement, this amount should therefore be added to the quantity of cargo.
41

There should be information available on board to enable the surveyor to establish or calculate
the weight of the missing anchor and cable.
In case of the chain cable, it can be calculated with reasonable accuracy by the following
formula:
Weight per shackle (Tonne) = 15 x (link diameter in cm)2 x 3,87
1000
The link diameter is the diameter of the steel rod, which makes up each individual link. In the
case of the anchor itself, this will vary from ship to ship, but this information should be available
on board. This anchor weight should be rounded to the nearest half tonne.

Draft Surveys Volume And Weight Calculations:


Draft Surveys are to determine the quantity of cargo loaded in, or discharged from a vessel or
barge and are dependent on the fact that the vessel or barge is always afloat, and that all the
drafts are visible. Some of the common problems during draft surveys one should always be
aware of are:
* Unusable sounding pipe i.e., inaccessible, blocked or broken
* Ballast holds, which are poorly calibrated
* Tunnel space/duct keel that cannot be sounded
* Loaded vessel aground prior to commencement of discharge
* Loaded vessel aground after completion of loading prior to sailing
* Listed vessel, which has its effect on displacement and soundings of liquids in tanks and other
spaces
* Weights other than the cargo, ballast, or consumables that are not the same between the starting
and the finishing surveys.

42

Surveyors opinion:
All the above are very clear explanations and guides. Additionally, Surveyors has concerned to
Draft Mark Reading. Draft Mark reading is the essential part of Draft Survey, where the Draft
Survey is begin from the reading part. The vessels staffs cooperation is needed to success the
good reading. The following are some rules to get the best result :
- Vessel is secured properly,
- No any ships gears movement allowed at the time, (such as crane, derrick etc),
- No any ships liquids transfer activity allowed during reading, (ballast, fresh water, fuel and
diesel oil),
- Read the Draft Marks as close as possible, taken pictures for the next clarifying,
- Use the small boat to read close the Draft Marks, do not see it from the ships maindeck,
- Find the draft in meter first then continue with centimeter to prevent big error.
- For the heavy swell sea condition it is recommended to read and record 12 times, taken out 1
biggest and 1 smallest of the reading results, and make an average draft from the 10 results
remained.

43