You are on page 1of 14

Workbook Answer Key for

The Study of

Orchestration
Fourth Edition

Workbook Answer Key for

The Study of

Orchestration
Fourth Edition

Samuel Adler
Professor Emeritus, Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester
Composition Faculty, Juilliard School of Music

W. W. Norton and Company


New York London

W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder
Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the Peoples Institute, the
adult education division of New York Citys Cooper Union. The Nortons soon expanded their program
beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By midcentury, the two major pillars of Nortons publishing programtrade books and college textswere
firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees,
and todaywith a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional
titles published each yearW. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house
owned wholly by its employees.
Copyright 2016, 2002, 1989, 1982 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
All rights reserved
Editor: Justin Hoffman
Project Editor: David Bradley
Editorial Assistant: Grant Phelps
Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson
Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi
Production Manager: Andy Ensor
Composition: Graphic World
W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110
www.wwnorton.com
W. W. Norton & Company, Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London WIT3QT

Contents
Preface vii
Test Yourself I: Strings
1
Worksheet 1: Clefs
2
Worksheet 2: Bowings
6
Worksheet 3: String Harmonics
7
Listen and Score 19
8
Worksheet 5: Harp
13
Test Yourself II: Woodwinds
14
Worksheet 7: Woodwind Transposition
15
Listen and Score 1018
18
Test Yourself III: Brass
24
Worksheet 11: Brass Transposition
25
Listen and Score 1926
27
Test Yourself IV: Percussion and Keyboard
34
Worksheet 22: Reducing a Full Orchestral Score to a Piano Score
36
Listen and Score 2734
39

Preface
In this answer key, youll find solutions to the exercises that appear in the workbook that accompanies
The Study of Orchestration. The workbook features a range of exercises, including:

Test Yourself activities, which gauge students comprehension of key concepts from the text.
Worksheets, which provide opportunities to practice orchestrating. With this new edition, Ive

added many new examples to be orchestrated. Quite a few of these examples are lengthy and can be
divided into several assignments if necessary. I have selected excerpts that lend themselves to discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of particular orchestrations.

Listen and Score activities, which ask students to identify instrumentation aurally and notate it. Ive
also expanded the number of listen and score exercises. I urge instructors to assign as many of these
exercises as possible, since they are very useful for training students ears.

In addition to the answers to workbook exercises, this volume also includes two sample semester
plans, one for a single-term course and one for a yearlong course. I hope that instructors will find these
materials useful in designing their orchestration classes.
Samuel Adler
March 2016

vii

Plan for a Single-Term Orchestration


Course
I suggest organizing a single-term orchestration course as follows. Some instructors may prefer to begin
with woodwinds or brass rather than strings. The plan below assumes that the class meets twice each
week over thirteen weeks.
Week 1
Pre-assign Chapter 1 before the first class.
Session 1: Violin and viola (Chapter 3).
Session 2: Vibrato, glissando-portamento, and the various uses of the bow (Chapter 2).
Week 2
Session 1: Trills and coloristic effects without the bow plus the use of the mute (Chapter 2).
Session 2: Cello and double bass (showing how the concepts previously studied also apply to these
string instruments, Chapter 3).
Week 3
Session 1: Study harmonics (natural harmonics and touch-4th harmonics) for all the string
instruments (Chapter 2).
Session 2: Review Chapters 2 and 3 and discuss any remaining workbook assignments.
Week 4
Sessions 1 and 2: Ask each student to arrange two to three exercises for strings. Perform as many of
these as possible. Also, listen to examples in the text as well as passages from additional passages
discussed in the book (Chapter 5).
Week 5
Session 1: Continue scoring for strings and add discussion of the harp (Chapters 45).
Session 2: Introduce the woodwind choir, skipping the subject of transposition (Chapter 6).
Week 6
Session 1: The flute and oboe families (Chapter 7).
Session 2: The clarinet family and transposition (Chapters 67).
Week 7
Session 1: The bassoon family plus any remaining topics concerning woodwinds (Chapter 7).
Session 2: Assign exercises for scoring for winds and strings and listen to as many examples from the
book as possible (Chapter 8).
Week 8
Session 1: Listen to as many examples arranged by the students as possible. Use a string quintet if a
string orchestra is not available. Continue listening to examples from the book.
Session 2: Introduce brass instruments, skipping mutes (Chapter 9).
Week 9
Session 1: Horn and trumpet, including tonguing, ranges, mutes, and transposition (Chapters 910).
Session 2: Trombone and tuba families (Chapters 9 and 10).
Week 10
Sessions 1 and 2: Writing exercises for strings, winds, and brass.
Week 11
Session 1: Percussion. Watch videos or include live demonstrations of as many instruments as possible
(Chapter 12).
Session 2: The piano as an orchestral instrument; assign as many orchestration exercises as possible
(Chapters 1314).
ix

Weeks 1213
Listen to as much orchestral music as possible and analyze and perhaps reduce some scores. If possible,
during the final week there should be a reading of a full orchestral score by each of the students.
Discuss the preparation of scores (Chapter 18).
Other suggestions:
1. A
 lways assign the parts of the chapter to be discussed in class ahead of the session so that the student
will be somewhat acquainted with the subject. At the same time, encourage the student to listen to as
many examples in that chapter as possible.
2. C
 hapter 19 is of great importance, especially since band and wind ensembles are such an integral part
of our musical scene and the repertory is so very important. Therefore, I suggest that examples from
Chapter 19 be assigned as soon as the wind and brass chapters have been covered.
3. P
 lay as much music in class as possible. Live demonstrations are ideal, but the recordings are also
very helpful.

Plan for a Yearlong Orchestration Course


A yearlong orchestration course is the ideal. Here is my suggestion for organizing a 28-week course.
Week 1
Pre-assign Chapter 1 before the first class.
The violin: Construction, tuning, fingering including double stops. The bow and bowing: pizzicato,
muting, scordatura and harmonics (Chapters 23).
Week 2
The viola: Use the same formula as the violin so that after the tuning, fingering, and construction of the
viola, there is an opportunity to review all the bowing techniques and other subjects that are similar
or the same on both violin and viola (Chapters 23).
Week 3
The cello and the double bass: Since more successful harmonics can be used on these instruments, this is
a good place to explore the topic in depth (Chapters 23).
All the exercises in the workbook pertaining to individual string instruments should be assigned and
completed at the end of these three weeks.
Weeks 46
Scoring for strings with lots of performances and listening to the examples provided in the book. Assign
Worksheets and Listen and Score exercises in the workbook and the Listen and Score works. Discuss
transcribing from piano to strings (Chapter 5).
Week 7
Discuss the woodwind section of the orchestra and introduce transposition (Chapter 6).
Weeks 89
Introduce each woodwind instrument separately, making sure to demonstrate each one in class. If
players are not available, use the videos provided with the text. Try to get as many of the auxiliary
instruments for each section into live presentations. Keep discussing transposition and assign
Worksheets and Listen and Score exercises (Chapter 7).
Weeks 1011
Scoring for winds and strings: Listen to student exercises in class and also listen and analyze the
examples in the book as well as some of the additional passages for study suggested in the text
(Chapter 8).
Weeks 1214
Introduce and demonstrate all the brass instruments. Once again, assign as many exercises from the
workbook, including listen and score activities. Use the study of brass instruments again to practice
transpositions since that subject is often difficult to understand and apply, especially for students who
play non-transposing instruments (Chapters 910).
Week 15
Assign and perform orchestrations for brass, as well as brass combined with strings and winds
(Chapter 11).
Weeks 1617
Discuss and demonstrate as many percussion instruments as possible. The provided videos should
help a great deal if some of the instruments are not available in your school. Assign and perform
workbook exercises (Chapter 12).
Weeks 1820
Continue with percussion, and introduce plucked strings and keyboard instruments, paying special
attention to the harp (Chapters 4, 1213).
xi

Weeks 2124
These weeks should be devoted to orchestration rather than instrumentation, and as much time as
possible should be spent on score study and listening. The orchestra as accompanist can be discussed
here as well as choral ranges (Chapters 1517).
Weeks 2526
Explore writing for band. Listen to as many examples in the book as possible and write transcriptions
for band as assignments. Some of the exercises provided in the workbook to be transcribed for
orchestra should be used to transcribe for band (Chapter 19).
Weeks 2728
Discuss preparation of score and parts and then review any remaining questions. Arrange for a band or
orchestra to perform student projects (Chapter 18).

xii

Workbook Answer Key for

The Study of

Orchestration
Fourth Edition