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JANGLOT

ARMY SCHOOL

RAYON PRODUCTION
In the production of rayon, purified cellulose
is chemically converted into a soluble
compound. A solution of this compound is
passed through the spinneret to form soft
filaments that are then converted or
regenerated to into almost pure cellulose.
Because of recon version of the soluble
compound to cellulose, rayon is referred to as
regenerated cellulose fibre.
Three methods of production lead to distinctly
different types of rayon fibres: viscose rayon,
cuprammonium rayon and sponified cellulose
acetate.

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STRUCTURE - RAYON
In regenerated cellulose, the unit cell
structure is an allotropic modification of
cellulose 1 designated as 2 (other
allotropic modification are also known as
cellulose 3 and cellulose 4).
The structure of cellulose derivatives could
be represented by a continuous range of
stages of local molecular order rather than
definite polymorphic forms of cellulose which
depend upon the conditions by which the
fibre is made. Rayon fibre properties depend
upon :

How cellulose molecules are arranged and


held together.
The average size and size distribution of the
molecules.

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PROPERITIES RAYON
Thermal properties : Viscose rayon
loses strength above 1400 C, chars and
decomposes at 1770 C to 2040 C. It does
not melt or stick at elevated temperatures.
Chemical properties : Hot dilute acids
attack rayon , whereas bases dont seem to
significantly attack rayon. Rayon is
attacked by bleaches at very high
concentration and by mild under severe
moist and hot conditions. Prolonged
exposure to sunlight causes loss of strength
because of degradation of cellulose chains.
Abrasion resistance is fair and rayon
resists pill formation. Rayon has both wear
crease recovery and crease retention.
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Highly

absorbent.

Soft

and comfortable.

Easy

to dye.

Drapes

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well.

RAYON : MAJOR USES


1.

Apparel : Dresses, jackets, sport

shirts, ties etc.

2.

Home furnishings : Bed sheets,

curtains, sheet cloth, table cloth etc.

3.

Industrial uses : Industrial

products, surgical products, tire cord


etc.
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PROCEDURE
The cellulose is dissolved into
cuprammonium hydroxide [Cu (NH3)4] (OH) 2
and the procedure to be followed is as given
below:

(1)To prepare cuprammonium


hydroxide solution.
Weigh about 20.0 g of crystalline
copper sulphate in a clean watch glass.
Dissolve it in 100 ml of water taken in a
beaker.

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SOLUTION OF CuSO4 IN WATER

Add dilute NaOH solution slowly with


stirring and note the separation of
precipitate of Cu (OH) 2.

ADDING NaOH TO CuSO4 SOLUTION

Filter the precipitate on water pump


and wash the precipitate thoroughly
with water so that a portion of filtrate

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does not indicate presence of sulphate


ions on testing with BaCl2 solution.

FILTERING OF PRECIPITATE
Now transfer the precipitate to a 250
ml beaker and add 50 ml of liquor
ammonia.

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ADDITION OF LIQUOR AMMONIA


The precipitate will dissolve resulting
in a deep blue solution of
cuprammonium hydroxide (Schweitzers
solution).

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CUPRAMMONIUM SOLUTION
This is the solvent for dissolving
cellulose.

(2) Dissolving Cellulose matter.


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This is the solvent for dissolving


cellulose.
Weigh about 1 g of ordinary filter
paper and cut it into small pieces.
Add these pieces to the cuprammonium
solution taken in a beaker.

ADDITION OF FILTER PAPERS

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Close the flask with rubber stopper and


allow it to stand for 3-4 days.
In this time, filter paper completely
dissolves leaving a viscous solution
called viscose.

VISCOSE SOLUTION

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(3) Formation of rayon filament


The viscose solution is taken in a
syringe.
Then the nozzle of the syringe is
dipped in a 5M Sulphuric acid
solution taken in a wide mouthed
beaker.

SQUEEZING OUT VISCOSE INTO 5M


H2SO4 SOLUTION
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Squeeze out the viscose into the acid


solution and at the same time keep
on moving the nozzle in the acid.
Long filaments of rayon
formed in the beaker.

will

be

FILAMENTS OF RAYON
The acid bath is left undisturbed for
24 hours, until the blue color of rayon
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filaments

changes

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to

white.

Rayon filaments are removed from


the acid bath, washed with water
and dried by keeping them on
filter paper.
When the threads are completely
dried, weigh them and determine
the maximum length formed.

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ACNOWLEDGEMENT
It is our pleasure to take this opportunity
to express our deep gratitude to Mr. Kirat
Singh under whose able guidance and
supports this project has been completed.
I am also thankful to our lab assistant
Mrs. Nirmala, who provided me with the
required apparatus and chemicals.

I am also thankful to the members of the


school and staff for their cooperation in
completion of this project.

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CONTENTS
AIM
INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

EVOLUTION OF RAYON THREADS


DEFINITIONS
RAYON PRODUCTION
STRUCTURE RAYON
PROPERITIES RAYON
MAJOR USES
EXPERIMENT-1
PROCEDURE

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BIBLOGRAPHY
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PREPRATION OF RAYON