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Topic

Chapter 17
Questions/Main Ideas:
17-1

17-2

17-3

17.4

Name: Ruochen Wu
Teacher: Dr. Williams
Class: Chemistry B4
Date: 4/3/13
Notes
-bc of greater electronegativity, oxygen attracts electron pairs of covalent O-H bond
And acquires a slightly negative charge
-less electronegative hydrogen atoms acquire slightly positive charge
-surface tension-inward force, or pull, that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid
-surfactant-a wetting agent such as soap or detergent that decreases surface tension
- bc of hydrogen bonding, water absorbs large amout of heat as it vaporizes or
evaporates
-heat of vaporization is amnt of energy needed to convert 1 g of substance from liquid
to gas at boiling point
-2.26 kJ to convert 1 g of liquid water at 100 Celsius and 1 g of steam at 100 Celsius
-opp. is true for condensation
-ammonia has 17 g and boils at -33 C
-water has 18 g and boils at 100 c
-reason is hydrtogen bonding (more extensive in water than ammonia)
-more heat to disrupt attraction btw water molecules
-as liquid cools, it contracts slightly, and density increases while volume decreases and
mass is constant
-contracts slightly until 4 C. Below 4 C: capacity of water decreases
-ice forms at 0 C
-framework of water molecule collapses in ice form
-heat absorbed when 1 g of water changes from solid to liquid is 334 J/g
-water samples containing dissolved substances-aqueous solutions
-ionic compounds and polar covalent molecules most readily dissolve in water
-water molecules are in continuous motion bc of kinetic energy
-solvent molecules attract salute ions and as individual ions break away from crystal,
compound dissolves
-solvation is process that occurs when solute dissolves
-in some ionic compounds, attraction btw ions in crystals are stronger than those exerted
by water
-cannot be solvated to any significant extent and are insoluble
-electrolytes-compounds that conduct an electric current in aqueous solution or molten
state
-all ionic are electrolytes
-conduct electricity in solution and in molten state
-monelectrolyte-compounds that dont conduct electric current in aqueous solution or
molten state
-some monelectrolytes become electrolytes when dissolved in water
-weak electrolyte-only fraction of solute exist as ion
-strong electrolyte-when dissolved, almost all solute exist as separate ions
-water of hydration-water in a crystal
-compound that contains water of hydration-hydrate
-effloresce-if hydrate has vapor pressure higher than that of water vapor in air, hydrate
loses water of hydration
-hygroscopic-salts and other compounds that remove moisture form air
-desiccant-hygroscopic substances that are used as drying agents
-deliquescent-compounds that remove sufficient water from air to dissolve and form
solutions
-suspensions-mixtures from which particles settle out upon standing
-colloids-heterogeneous mixtures containing particles that are intermediate in size btw

those of suspensions and true solutions


-many are milky in appearance when concentrated but are clear when dilute
-intermediate sized particles in colloid cannot be retained by filter paper and do not
settle w/ time
-Tyndall effect-scattering of visible light in all directions
-Brownian motion-chaotic movement of colloidal particles
-may absorb ions from surrounding medium onto surface
-some absorb + ions and become and others are opposite
-repulsion of like-charged particles prevents particles from forming aggregates, which
keep them dispersed throughout medium
-emulsions-colloidal dispersions of liquids in liquids
-emulsifying agent essential for formation of emulsion and form maintaining its stability

Summary:

Chapter 18
Questions/Main Ideas:
18-1

18-2

18-3

18-4

Teacher: Dr. Williams


Class: Chemistry B4
Date: 4/3/13
Notes
-stirring, temperature, particle size, and surface area determine how fast solute dissolves
-water molecules are in continuous motion and should continue to bombard excess
solid, removing and solvating ions
-not all dissolves because theres an exchange process
-saturated solution-contains maximum amount of solute for given amount of solvent at
constant temperature
-solubility-amount of dissolved in given quantity of solvent at given temperature
-unsaturated-solution with less solute than saturated solution
-immiscible-liquids that are insoluble in each other
-miscible- liquids that dissolve in each other
-temperature, pressure affect solubility of gas
-Henrys law
S(1) = S(2)
P(1)
P(2)
-supersaturated solution-solution that contains more solute than it should theoretically
continue to hold
-concentration of a solution-measure of amount of solute that is dissolved in given qnt
of solvent
-concentrated solution-contains high concentration of solute
-molarity (M)- # of mols of solute dissolved per liter of solution
M = mols of solute
L of solution
-if both solvent and solute are liquids, easy wa to make solution is to measure volume
Percent by volume = volume of solute X 100%
solution volume
Percent (mass/volume) (%m/v)= mass of solute (g) X 100%
solution volume (mL)
-colligative properties-properties that depend only on # of particles in given mass of
solvent
-solution thats nonvolatile always has lower vapor pressure than pure solvent
-decrease in vapor pressure is proportion to number of particles solute makes in solution
-boiling-point elevation-difference in temp btw boiling pt of solution and that of pure
solvent
-freezing-point depression-difference in temp. btw freezing pt of solution and that
of pure solvent
-molarity= moles of solute =moles of solute
kg of solvent
1000g of solvent
X(A) =
n(A)
X(B) = n(B)
n(A) = n(B)
n(A) + n(B)
-magnitude of boiling-pt elevation is directly proportional to molal concentration
-assumes solution is molecular, not ionic
-deltaT(f) = K(f) X m
-molal freezing-point depression constant K(f) is equal to change in freezing pt for 1molal solution of nonvolatile molecular solute