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M9_Trig - 2 - Similar Right Triangles and Trig Ratios Notes

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ORIGINALLY ADAPTED FROM THE BRILLIANT SAM J SHAH

Were
going
to
be
thinking
backwards.
Before
we
were
given
angles,
and
asked
to
come
up
with
missing
sides.

Now
were
going
to
flipflop
that,
and
be
given
sides
and
look
for
angles.

1. I
want
you
to
use
what
you
know
about
similar
triangles
and
the
Platonic
Right
Triangles
book
to
come

up
with
the
missing
angle.
(You
dont
need
a
protractor,
even,
so
dont
use
it!)
Explain
how
you
did
it,
so

that
someone
who
is
confused
about
how
to
find
this
missing
angle
can
understand
your
thought

process.

(a)

(b)

(b)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

3. In
order
to
find
missing
angles
in
a
right
triangle,
we
need
(circle
any
of
the
below
that
apply)

only
one
leg
only
the
hypotenuse
only
one
leg
and
the
hypotenuse

only
both
legs

4. If
I
had
to
succinctly
write
a
conclusion
from
the
previous
question,
I
could
write:

In
order
to
find
the
missing
angles
in
a
right
triangle,
we
merely
need
any
________________________

_______________________________.

Lets
summarize
how
we
can
figure
out
the
missing
angles
given
two
sides

Situation
A:
Given
the
hypotenuse
and
the
leg
opposite
to
the
angle
were
looking
for

leg opposite of angle given triangle

hypotenuse Platonic right triangle

=

3.0976

1

0.5150 leg opposite of angle Platonic right triangle

That matches the right triangle with the 31o angle!

Important Idea:

For
any
right
triangle
with
a
31o angle,
no
matter
how
big
or
small
the
triangle
is,
we

always
know
that:

0.5150

hypotenuse

Situation B: Given the hypotenuse and the leg adjacent to the angle were looking for

Given the triangle on the right, we know we can find the appropriate similar triangle

(and hence the missing angle) in the Platonic Right Triangles book by finding the ratio

of the given leg with the hypotenuse:

leg adjacent to angle given triangle leg adjacent to angle Platonic right triangle

=

hypotenuse given triangle

hypotenuse Platonic right triangle

=

3.0222

1

0.4695 leg adjacent to angle Platonic right triangle

And
then
we
look
for
the
triangle
in
the
Platonic
Right
Triangles
book
which
has
the
leg

next
to
the
angle
with
length
0.4695.

That
matches
the
right
triangle
with
the
62o
angle!

Important
Idea:

For
any
right
triangle
with
a
62o angle,
no
matter
how
big
or
small
this
triangle
is,
we

always
know
that:

0.4695

hypotenuse

Situation
C:
Given
the
leg
opposite
to,
and
the
leg
adjacent
to,
the
angle
were
looking
for.

There
are
a
couple
of
methods
that
can
be
used
to
find
the
missing
angle!

Method
1:

Come
up
with
a
method
for
finding
the
missing
angle
that
uses
the
Pythagorean
Theorem.
Explain
and
show

your
steps
clearly
below.
This
method
should
still
use
the
Platonic
Right
Triangles
book.

Method
2:

Is
there
another
method
that
doesnt
involve
having
to
use
the
Pythagorean
Theorem?

See
if
you
can
come
up
with
the
method.
Explain
your
steps
clearly
below.
This
method

should
still
use
the
Platonic
Right
Triangles
book.

What
was
one
difficulty
with
using
this
method
along
with
the
Platonic
Triangles
Book?
Hint
does
the

hypotenuse
being
equal
to
1
help
in
this
method?

**
important
detail
helper

Its
clear
that
the
ratio
of
sides
is
central
to
everything
weve
been
doing
with
right
triangles.
Lets
remember

our
Platonic
triangles!
All
similar
triangles
look
the
same.
Thus
the
sides
are
in
proportion
to
each
other.

Open
the
Geogebra
applet
titled
Ratio
of
Sides
of
a
Right
Triangle
(can
be
found
on
the
class
website).

5. Use
the
slider
to
pick
an
angle.
Change
the
size
of
the
triangle
big
and
small
and
big
and
small!

Notice
all
the
side
lengths
change.
But
what
doesnt
change?
The
ratio
of
the
sides.
Thats
because
even

though
the
triangle
is
change
its
size,
all
these
triangles
are
similar!

6. We
saw
in
Situation
A,
Situation
B,
and
Situation
C,
the
ratio
of
sides
of
a
right
triangle
are
important
to

determine
angles
in
a
right
triangle.
The
ratios
we
used
were:

leg opposite of angle

leg adjacent to the angle

leg opposite of angle

hypotenuse

hypotenuse

leg adjacent to the angle

And
in
the
Geogebra
applet
you
just
used,
you
saw
that
these
ratios
were
fixed
for
each
Platonic
Right

Triangle
no
matter
how
big
or
small
the
triangles
were!

Use
the
applet
to
find
me
the
Platonic
Right
Triangle
that
has:

leg opposite of angle

leg opposite of angle

(a)

(b)

0.4848

0.8387

hypotenuse

hypotenuse

leg adjacent to the angle

leg adjacent to the angle

(c)

(d)

0.8480

0.9976

hypotenuse

hypotenuse

leg opposite of angle

leg opposite of angle

(e)

(f)

2.0503

0.3249

leg adjacent to the angle

leg adjacent to the angle

Drawing Connections

= 1

leg adjacent to the 45 degree angle

(a picture of this triangle will be helpful!)

leg adjacent to 51 degree angle leg opposite the 39 degree angle

8. Explain why in a 39-51-90 triangle,

=

hypotenuse

hypotenuse

(a picture of this triangle will be helpful!)

9. Find the equation of this line which makes a 37 o with the x-axis. Explain your thinking!

(The Platonic Right Triangles will be helpful!)

7. Explain why in a 45-45-90 triangle,

10. Heres
the
thing:
Each
of
these
ratios
correspond
uniquely
to
a
single
angle.
You
know
that
this
ratio
will

be
true
for
all
similar
right
triangles
with
that
angle.

Instead
of
using
the
Platonic
Right
Triangles,
check
out
this
Table
of
Right
Triangle
Ratios.

The
entire
89
page
book
is
now
encapsulated
in
this
succinct
table!

Angle

(degree)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

hypotenuse

hypotenuse

0.0175

0.0349

0.0523

0.0698

0.0872

0.1045

0.1219

0.1392

0.1564

0.1736

0.1908

0.2079

0.2250

0.2419

0.2588

0.2756

0.2924

0.3090

0.3256

0.3420

0.3584

0.3746

0.3907

0.4067

0.4226

0.4384

0.4540

0.4695

0.4848

0.5000

0.5150

0.5299

0.5446

0.5592

0.5736

0.5878

0.6018

0.6157

0.6293

0.6428

0.6561

0.6691

0.6820

0.9998

0.9994

0.9986

0.9976

0.9962

0.9945

0.9925

0.9903

0.9877

0.9848

0.9816

0.9781

0.9744

0.9703

0.9659

0.9613

0.9563

0.9511

0.9455

0.9397

0.9336

0.9272

0.9205

0.9135

0.9063

0.8988

0.8910

0.8829

0.8746

0.8660

0.8572

0.8480

0.8387

0.8290

0.8192

0.8090

0.7986

0.7880

0.7771

0.7660

0.7547

0.7431

0.7314

leg adjacent to the angle

0.0175

0.0349

0.0524

0.0699

0.0875

0.1051

0.1228

0.1405

0.1584

0.1763

0.1944

0.2126

0.2309

0.2493

0.2679

0.2867

0.3057

0.3249

0.3443

0.3640

0.3839

0.4040

0.4245

0.4452

0.4663

0.4877

0.5095

0.5317

0.5543

0.5774

0.6009

0.6249

0.6494

0.6745

0.7002

0.7265

0.7536

0.7813

0.8098

0.8391

0.8693

0.9004

0.9325

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

0.6947

0.7071

0.7193

0.7314

0.7431

0.7547

0.7660

0.7771

0.7880

0.7986

0.8090

0.8192

0.8290

0.8387

0.8480

0.8572

0.8660

0.8746

0.8829

0.8910

0.8988

0.9063

0.9135

0.9205

0.9272

0.9336

0.9397

0.9455

0.9511

0.9563

0.9613

0.9659

0.9703

0.9744

0.9781

0.9816

0.9848

0.9877

0.9903

0.9925

0.9945

0.9962

0.9976

0.9986

0.9994

0.9998

0.7193

0.7071

0.6947

0.6820

0.6691

0.6561

0.6428

0.6293

0.6157

0.6018

0.5878

0.5736

0.5592

0.5446

0.5299

0.5150

0.5000

0.4848

0.4695

0.4540

0.4384

0.4226

0.4067

0.3907

0.3746

0.3584

0.3420

0.3256

0.3090

0.2924

0.2756

0.2588

0.2419

0.2250

0.2079

0.1908

0.1736

0.1564

0.1392

0.1219

0.1045

0.0872

0.0698

0.0523

0.0349

0.0175

0.9657

1.0000

1.0355

1.0724

1.1106

1.1504

1.1918

1.2349

1.2799

1.3270

1.3764

1.4281

1.4826

1.5399

1.6003

1.6643

1.7321

1.8040

1.8807

1.9626

2.0503

2.1445

2.2460

2.3559

2.4751

2.6051

2.7475

2.9042

3.0777

3.2709

3.4874

3.7321

4.0108

4.3315

4.7046

5.1446

5.6713

6.3138

7.1154

8.1443

9.5144

11.4301

14.3007

19.0811

28.6362

57.2899

Super
Duper
Important
Conclusion:
This
table
of
values
is
simply
a
different
way
of
writing
the
information
in

the
Platonic
Right
Triangles
book.

**Before
moving
on
please
complete
a
some
of
the
questions
from
Practice
Problems
for
Similar
Triangles
and

Trig
Ratios
Part
2.

11. Up
until
now,
we
have
only
considered
integer
angle
measures.
But
it
turns
out
that
we
could
make
a

more
detailed
Table
of
Right
Triangle
Ratios.
They
exist!
An
example:

Angle

(degree)

37.0

37.1

37.2

37.3

37.4

37.5

37.6

37.7

37.8

37.9

38.0

38.1

38.2

38.3

38.4

38.5

38.6

38.7

38.8

38.9

hypotenuse

hypotenuse

0.6018

0.6032

0.6046

0.6060

0.6074

0.6088

0.6101

0.6115

0.6129

0.6143

0.6157

0.6170

0.6184

0.6198

0.6211

0.6225

0.6239

0.6252

0.6266

0.6280

leg adjacent to the angle

0.7986

0.7976

0.7965

0.7955

0.7944

0.7934

0.7923

0.7912

0.7902

0.7891

0.7880

0.7869

0.7859

0.7848

0.7837

0.7826

0.7815

0.7804

0.7793

0.7782

0.7536

0.7563

0.7590

0.7618

0.7646

0.7673

0.7701

0.7729

0.7757

0.7785

0.7813

0.7841

0.7869

0.7898

0.7926

0.7954

0.7983

0.8012

0.8040

0.8069

(a) What
is
the
missing
angle
in
this
triangle
rounded
to
the
nearest
tenth
of
a
degree?

(b) Find
the
two
missing
sides
(rounded
to
three
decimal
places):

(c) Find the two missing sides (rounded to three decimal places)::

12. Write
down
three
pairs
of
complementary
angles
(and
fill
in
the
ratios
from
the
large
Table
of
Right

Triangle
Ratios)
to
create
a
Mini-Table
of
Right
Triangle
Ratios

Angle

(degree)

hypotenuse

hypotenuse

Come
up
with
a
conjecture
based
on
these
observations.

Explain
why
your
conjecture
will
always
be
true!

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