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PART I

Executive Summary

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

The escalating generation of solid waste brought about by fast economic growth and
rapid urbanization is the responsibility of all sectors of society. The problem of
todays solid waste, if improperly handled, carries implications not only for our
environment but also for the health and well being of future generations. When waste
ends up where it is not supposed to be, it becomes useless, causes pollution and poses
health risks. When it is used and put in the right place, it becomes a valuable resource.
Section 17 of the Local Government Code of 1991 provides that Local Government
Units (LGUs) shall exercise such powers and discharge such functions and
responsibilities as are necessary, appropriate or incidental to efficiently and effectively
provide basic services and facilities such as solid waste disposal system or
environmental management system and services of facilities related to general
hygiene.
Pursuant to the above mandate, LGUs initiated the institutionalization of their areawide waste management system which includes the establishment of garbage transfer
stations, programmed garbage collection, maintenance of cleanliness on streets and
sidewalks, consistent monitoring of garbage and waste disposal, instilling public
awareness on right and appropriate waste/garbage disposal and launching such other
projects and programs relative to environmental management, hygiene and sanitation.
The Solid Waste Management (SWM) system has six elements: waste generation,
transfer, recovery/processing, storage, collection and disposal. The audit focused on
SWM collection which is critical among the six mentioned elements. If not given
careful consideration, collection can become the most expensive of SWM function.
The uncollected solid wastes piling up in the streets of commercial and residential
areas of Metro Manila has been the subject of media reporting.
The Government, in its efforts to introduce improvements in the present system of
SWM, enacted Republic Act No. 9003 (Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of
2000), providing for an ecological SWM program, creating the necessary institutional
mechanism and incentives, declaring certain acts prohibited and providing penalties
therefor.
The audit focused on the evaluation of the SWM program of ten cities within Metro
Manila including the City of Malabon. Malabon is a coastal City situated in the
northern part of Metro Manila. Because the City is dissected by a river and a great
part is below sea level, some barangays are often flooded during high tides and rainy
seasons. Inspite of these conditions, the City provides industrial, commercial and
environmental support to the development process of the Metropolis. It is along this

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
line that the City government exerted efforts to push environmental projects that will
help ease the flooding problem.
The City adopted several strategies to address the ever-growing problem on solid
wastes. It aims to achieve high level of cleanliness characterized by proper waste
management facilities to ensure a clean, friendly, healthful and a solid waste-free
locality.
To attain this vision, the City sets the following objectives:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

7.
8.

To ensure the effective implementation of R.A. 9003;


To undertake an intensive information campaign to involve citizens in
the cleanliness and beautification projects of the locality;
To determine basic aspects of the local waste stream, quantity,
composition and source of waste through proper resource inventory and
management;
To improve the haulage and collection system through acquisition of
additional units of trucks, as may be necessary;
To convert the existing final disposal site (Catmon open dumpsite) into a
controlled sanitary landfill and/or develop a new final disposal site either
transfer station or another landfill site;
To institutionalize the ongoing reduction program by way of mobilizing
all stakeholders participation in the waste segregation, recycling and
composting program;
To undertake study for the adoption of a long-range SWM Treatment
Facility; and
To enhance and ensure the active participation of barangays in the
implementation of barangay/city SWM programs.

The SWM Office is in-charge of SWM function. SWMO is divided into 2 units
headed by Public Services Officer III with 4 permanent staff. The Office is supported
by 338 casual/contractual employees in performing the following functions:
No. of staff
assigned
Dumpsite Operation:
Dispatcher
Dumptruck drivers
Palero (Spade wielder)
Volume checker
Backhoe operator
Payloader operator
Monitor
Streetsweeping:
Area supervisors
Bantay Kapaligiran
Bantay Kalinisan(Streetsweeper)

4
14
100
11
1
1
1
6
43
122

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
No. of staff
assigned
River Clean-up
River aides
Total

35
338

The City Government appropriated an amount of P16.5M for CYs 2001 and 2002
which are not enough to cover its expenses as shown below:
2001
Budget
Expenditures
Deficit

P 16,500,000.00
43,907,342.96
27,407,342.96

2002
P 16,500,000.00
25,046,857.33*
8,546,857.33

* Expenditures from January to July 2002 only

AUDIT OBJECTIVE

The objective of the government wide audit was to determine whether the LGUs had
undertaken its SWM function in the most efficient and economical manner giving
consideration to solid wastes generation, selection of contractors and monitoring of
contractors performance.
The Citys SWM function was undertaken by administration and not by contract and
therefore not within the bound of the audit objective. However, since this is a
government wide audit, the audit was pursued for comparison with LGUs undertaking
the SWM function by contract either on a clean-up or per trip basis. For this reason,
the evaluation was focused on the performance of SWMO.

AUDIT SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY


The audit covered the evaluation of selected contracts from January 2001 to June 2002
of 7 Cities undertaking SWM by contracts within the National Capital Region. The
audit also covered evaluation of SWM operation of 3 cities undertaking SWM by
administration for comparison purposes.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The performance of the City was evaluated using the following criteria:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Established policies and procedures


Appropriate resources
Sound management and monitoring mechanisms
Cost measures
Effective quality assurance process

The team performed the following procedures during the audit:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Reviewed existing policies and procedures of the LGUs in


implementing SWM;
Interviewed personnel assigned in SWM;
Conducted ocular inspection of facilities used in SWM collection
function;
Assessed the risk management process in place;
Reviewed and evaluated the roles and responsibilities of other agencies
involved in SWM;

The audit was conducted from August 26 to September 6, 2002 pursuant to COA
Assignment Order No. 2002-021 dated July 18, 2002.

AUDIT CONCLUSION
Generally, the City had not efficiently and effectively carried out its SWM functions
through establishment of adequate guidelines and policies in implementing SWM
strategies and monitoring its accomplishments to ensure that the program implemented
addressed the SWM objectives. Although the City had identified strategies to
implement SWM plans, these strategies were not accompanied by adequate guidelines
to ensure proper collection methods and maintenance of equipment and define
responsibilities of the collection crews. As a result, the City was not able to manage
operational risks associated with SWM operation. In a survey conducted by the team,
59 respondents claimed that there were instances where solid wastes were not
collected.
Moreover, in view of the absence of monitoring guidelines, the monitors were not
properly guided. While they were assigned to look into specific accomplishments,
they were not required to prepare and submit reports. Hence, the adequacy of
monitoring activities and efficiency of SWM operation could not be evaluated. This
hinders the City from instituting measures to improve its performance.
The team also noted that the City has not established methodology in calculating solid
wastes generation from other sources other than from household population. Its factor

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
however for household population of .50 kg. per person is considered within the
standard set under the JICA study of .50 kg. per person in 1997. Under the JICA
study, wastes generation in Metro Manila is escalating by 2% yearly. Hence, the team
considered the factor to be .552 kg. per person for CY 2002.
The less than satisfactory performance of the City on SWM operation can also be
attributed to the failure of the SWM Board to fully operationalize to oversee and
coordinate the implementation of SWM operation.
As SWM is a continuing activity of the City and mishandling of this function would
have a great impact on the environment and health of the Citizens, the City should
seriously consider addressing these concerns.

MANAGEMENTS REACTIONS TO AUDIT OBSERVATIONS


The results of the audit were discussed with the Acting City Mayor and concerned
officials of the City Government in an exit conference conducted on November 7,
2002. The Acting City Mayor submitted the following comments:
Anent your Audit Observation Report on Solid Waste Management of
the City of Malabon, please be informed that we appreciate your
comments and recommendations for a more effective and efficient
implementation of our Solid Waste Management Program.
In general, your findings and evaluation ascertains our needs to focus
further on the SWM long-term plan for the city of Malabon with
emphasis on establishing one particular office or department that will
solely handle the SWM Program (SWMP) of the locality in order that
effective implementation of the projects/activities will be achieved.

The team appreciates the City Governments concern in improving their performance.