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ChemistryIIAP

TypesofGaseousEquilibriumProblems
1.Giventhemolarity(orinfotofindmolarity)ofreactants&products,findKc.
2. Giventhepartialpressure(orinfotofindpartialpressure)ofreactants&products,findKp.
3.GivenKcandallconcentrationexceptforone,solveforremainingconcentration
4.Giveninitialconcentrations,overallequation,andoneequilibriumconc.,solveforremaining
equilibriumconc.andthenKc
5.Givenequilibriumconcentration,solveforpercentionization.
6.Giveninitialconc.andpercentionization,solveforKc
7.Small%ionization,IREproblem,ignoringx
8.Perfectsquareproblem
9.Givenequilibriumconcentrations,makeaconc.change,solvefornewequilibriumconc.
10.CalculatingQandcomparingtoK.
Examples:
1A. Considerthefollowingreaction:2A+3B<====>4C(allgases@35.0oCand1atm.)
WhatisthevalueofKcif[A]=0.350M,[B]=1.50M,and[C]=4.00Mwhenthesystemreaches
equilibrium?Thereactionvesselisa5.00litercontainer.
[C]4
KC==
[A]2[B]3

[4.00]4
256
==619M1
[0.350]2[1.50]3
0.413

{Note#1:volumeofthecontainerdoesnotmattersincemolarityisgiven.}
{Note#2:althoughtheequilibriumhasaunit,becauseitdoesnothaveanysignificance,
itisusuallyomitted.}
1B. Considerthefollowingreaction:2A+3B<====>4C(allgases@35.0oCand1atm.)
WhatisthevalueofKcifthereare4.00molesofC,1.50molesofBand0.350molesofAwhen
thesystemreachesequilibrium?Thereactionvesselisa5.00litercontainer.
[A]=0.350mol/5.00liter=0.0700M
[B]=1.50mol/5.00liter= 0.300M
[C]=4.00mol/5.00liter=0.800M
[0.800]4
0.410
KC===3.10x103M1
[0.0700]2[0.300]3
1.32x104
1C. Considerthefollowingreaction:A+3B<====>4C(allgases@35.0oCand1atm.)
WhatisthevalueofKcifthereare4.00molesofC,1.50molesofBand0.350molesofAwhen
thesystemreachesequilibrium?Thereactionvesselisa5.00litercontainer.
Sincen=0,itdoesntmatterwhetherweusemolesormolarityintheexpression.

[C]4
KC==
[A][B]3

[4.00]4
256
==217M1
[0.350][1.50]3
1.18

2A. Considerthefollowingreaction:2A+B<====>C(allgases@35.0oC)
WhatisthevalueofKPifPA=3.50atm.,PB=1.50atm.,andPC=8.50atm.whenthesystem
reachesequilibrium?Thereactionvesselisa10.0litercontainer.
PC
8.50
8.50
KP= = ==0.463atm2
PA2.PB
(3.50)2(1.50)
18.4
2B. Considerthefollowingreaction:2A+B<====>C(allgases@35.0oC)
WhatisthevalueofKpifthereare4.00molesofC,1.50molesofBand0.350molesofAwhen
thesystemreachesequilibrium?Thereactionvesselisa6.00litercontainer.
Canbesolvedeitheroftwoways:findthepartialpressures,thenKP
ntotal=5.85moles
Ptotal=nRT/V=[(5.85mol)(0.0821)(308K)]/(6.00liter)=24.7atm.
PA=(24.7)(0.350/5.85)=1.48atm
PC
KP= =
PA2.PB

PB=(24.7)(1.50/5.85)=6.33atm. PC=16.9atm.

16.9
16.9
==1.22atm2
(1.48)2(6.33)
13.9

alternatemethod:findthemolarities,thenKC,thenKP
[A]=0.350mol/6.00liters=0.0583M;[B]=0.250M;[C]=0.667M
[C]
KC==
[A]2[B]

[0.667]
0.667
==785M2
[0.0583]2[0.250]
8.50x104

KP=KC(RT)n=785[(0.0821)(308)]2=1.22
3.

Considerthefollowingreaction:2A+2B<====>C(allgases@25.0oC)
IfthevalueofKc=45.0,and[A]=0.350M,[B]=1.50M,whatis[C]whenthesystemreaches
equilibrium?Thereactionvesselisa5.00litercontainer.

[C]
[C]

KC==> 45.0==>[C]=12.4M
[A]2[B]2
[0.350]2[1.50]2

4.

Considerthefollowingreaction:A+2B<====>2C+3D(allgases@25.0oC)
Initially[A]=1.50Mand[B]=1.50M(beforethereactionbegins).Onceequilibriumisreached
theconcentrationofDisfoundtobe1.26M.
A.Whataretheequilibriumconcentrationsoftheotherreagents?
B.WhatisthevalueofKc? C.WhatisthevalueofKp?
A+2B<====>2C+3D
I

A.=

1.501.50

0.0 0.0

R(0.42)(0.84)

(+0.84)(+1.26)

Eq=1.08

0.841.26

0.66

B.=KC=[(0.84)2(1.26)3]/[(1.08)(0.66)2]=1.41/0.470=3.00M

2
C.KP=KC(RT)n=3.00[(0.0821)(298)]2=1.80x103

5.

Considerthefollowingreaction:2A<====>2B+C(allgases@25.0oCand1atm.)
Initially[A]=5.00M(beforethereactionbegins).Oncethedecompositionequilibriumisreached
[C]=0.200M.WhatisthepercentionizationofA?
2A<====>2B+C
I

5.00

0.0

(0.400)

(+0.400)(+0.200)

Eq

4.60

0.400

%ionizationA=(0.400/5.00)x100=
6.

0.0

0.200
8.00%

Considerthefollowingreaction:A<====>B+2C(allgases@25.0oCand1atm.)
Initially[A]=5.00M(beforethereactionbegins).ItisknownthatAonlydecomposes12.0%
Oncethedecompositionequilibriumisreached,whatisthevalueofKc?
A<====>B+2C

I
R

5.00
0.0
[(0.120)(5.00]

(0.600) (+0.600)

0.0

Eq

4.40

1.20

[1.20]2[0.600]
KC==0.196
[4.40]

7.

Considerthefollowingreaction:A<====>B+C(allgases@25.0oCand1atm.)
Initially[A]=8.00M(beforethereactionbegins).Whataretheequilibriumconcentrationsofall
substancesoncethedecompositionequilibriumisreachedifthevalueofKc=1.20x103?

0.600

(+1.20)

A<====>B+C

8.00

x+x+x

Eq

8.00x
8.00

0.0

0.0

xx

x2
KC==1.20x103=>
8.00

x=0.0980

x=[B]=[C]=0.0980M
[A]=8.00x=7.90M
Discusstheimportanceofthemagnitudeofxvs.themagnitudeofK.

8.

Considerthefollowingreaction:2HI<====>H2+I2(allgases@550oCand1atm.)
Initially[HI]=8.00M(beforethereactionbegins).Whataretheequilibriumconcentrationsofall
substancesoncethedecompositionequilibriumisreachedifthevalueofKCis28.8?
WhatisthevalueforKPforthisreactionatthesameconditions?

2HI<====>H2+I2
I

8.00

0.0

0.0

Eq

2x

+x+x

8.002x

xx

x2
x
KC==28.8=> =5.37=>x=3.66M=[H2]=[I2]
[8.002x]2
8.002x

[HI]=8.002x=0.681M

9.

Sincen=0KP=KC

Considerthefollowingreaction:A+2B<====>2C+3D(allgases@25.0oCand1atm.)
Initialequilibriumvalues:[A]=2.50M,[B]=3.50M,[C]=5.00M,and[D]=6.00M.Molesof
BareremoveduntilthenewequilibriumconcentrationofDis5.25M.
A.WhatwasthevalueofKc?KC=[5.00]2[6.00]3/[2.50][3.50]2=176
B.HowmanymolesofBwereremovedifthereactiontookplaceina250.0mlflask?
A+2B<====>2C+3D
I2.50
3.50x
5.00 6.00
R(+0.25)
(+0.50)
(0.50) (0.75)
Eq2.75
4.00x
4.50 5.25
KC=[4.50]2[5.25]3/[2.75][4.00x]2=176x=1.54M
molesB=0.250literx1.54M=0.384moles

10.

Considerthefollowingreaction:2A+B<====>2C+3D(allgases@25.0oC)
ThevalueofKc=50.0.Areactionmixtureisanalyzedandfoundtocontainthefollowing
concentrations:[A]=1.35M,[B]=1.50M,[C]=2.00,and[D]=5.00.
Determinewhetherornotthesystemisatequilibrium.
Ifthesystemisnotatequilibrium,whichwayisthesystemmovingtotheleftortotheright?
Q=[2.00]2[5.00]3/[1.35]2[1.50]=183
Rxnmixtureshiftsleft

Q>Knotatequilibrium