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1.

a) You have been asked to design two PV arrays for integration into the roof and faade
of an office building to supply part of its 40400 kWh annual electricity needs. The
building is located in the city of Nottingham, UK. The building is 24 m wide (along
east-west direction), 10 m deep and 15 m in faade height with a pitched roof of 30
slope (roof top at the middle of the depth). The roof will be integrated with opaque
PV modules with 14% efficiency and 80% of the sun-facing faade integrated with
transparent PV modules with 5% conversion efficiency. The performance ratio of the
PV system is 75%. Estimate the proportion of PV electricity to meet the annual
electrical demand. The annual solar radiation on inclined planes for the location is
as follows:
Inclination from horizontal () facing South
Annual solar radiation (kWh/m2)

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1002

1141

1137

1078

820

b) Recalculate the proportion of PV electricity to meet the annual electrical demand


(40400 kWh), considering that the same building is located in Guayaquil,
Ecuador. The building is 24 m wide (along north-south direction), 10 m deep and
15 m in faade height with a pitched roof of 30 slope (roof top at the middle of
the depth). The roof will be integrated with opaque PV modules with 14%
efficiency and 80% of the sun-facing faade integrated with transparent PV
modules with 5% conversion efficiency. The performance ratio of the PV system
is 75%. The annual solar radiation on inclined planes for the location is as follows:
Inclination from horizontal () facing East
Annual solar radiation (kWh/m2)
Inclination from horizontal () facing West
Annual solar radiation (kWh/m2)

30

45

60

90

1141

1137

1078

1002

820

30

45

60

90

1141

1137

1078

1002

820

Assume that the solar radiation over the surfaces facing North and South is
negligible.

* Remember that for locations at the North Hemisphere, only the surfaces facing South
receive direct (beam) radiation suitable for solar PV electric conversion.
For locations near the equator, the surfaces that receive a substantial amount of beam
radiation suitable for solar PV electric conversion are those facing East and West.