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UPSC MAINS 2016


GS PAPER - 4
Time Allowed: 3 hr.

Max. Marks: 250

1.

Section A
(a) Explain how ethics contributes to social and human well-being.

2.

OR

(b) Why should impartiality and non-partisanship be considered as foundation values in public
services, especially in the present day socio-political context? Illustrate your answer with
examples.
(a) What do you understand by the terms 'governance', 'good governance' and 'ethical governance'?

3.

SC

(b) Discuss Mahatma Gandhi's concept of seven sins.

(a) Analyse John Rawls's concept of social justice in the Indian context.
(b) Discuss the Public Service Code as recommended by the 2nd Administrative Reforms
Commission.
(a) "Corruption cause misuse of government treasury, administrative inefficiency and obstruction
in the path of national development." Discuss Kautilya's views.

GS

4.

(b) How could social influence and persuasion contribute to the success of Swachh Bharat
Abhiyan?
5.

Law and ethics are considered to be the two tools for controlling human conduct so as to make
it conducive to civilized social existence.
(a) Discuss how they achieve this objective.
(b) Giving examples, show how the two differ in their approaches.

6.

Our attitudes towards life, work, other people and society are generally shaped unconsciously
by the family and the social surroundings in which we grow up. Some of these unconsciously
acquired attitudes and values are often undesirable in the citizens of a modern democratic and
egalitarian society.
(a) Discuss such undesirable values prevalent in today's educated Indians.
(b) How can such undesirable attitudes be changed and socio-ethical values considered necessary
in public services be cultivated in the aspiring and serving civil servants ?

7.

Anger is a harmful negative emotion. It is injurious to both personal life and work life.
(a) Discuss how it leads to negative emotions and undesirable behaviours.
(b) How can it be managed and controlled?

8.

"Max Weber said that it is not wise to apply to public administration the sort of moral and
ethical norms we apply to matters of personal conscience. It is important to realise that the
State bureaucracy might possess its own independent bureaucratic morality." Critically analyse
this statement.

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Section - B
9.

A fresh engineering graduate gets a job in a prestigious chemical industry. She likes the work.
The salary is also good. However, after a few months she accidentally discovers that a highly
toxic waste is being secretly discharged into a river nearby. This is causing health problems to
the villagers downstream who depend on the river for their water needs. She is perturbed and
mentions her concern to her colleagues who have been with the company for longer periods.
They advise her to keep quite as anyone who mentions the topic is summarily dismissed. She
cannot risk losing her job as she is the sole bread-winner for her family and has to support her
ailing parents and siblings. At first, she thinks that if her seniors are keeping quiet, why should
she stick out her neck. But her conscience pricks her to do something to save the river and the
people who depend upon it. At heart she feels that the advice of silence given by her friends
is not correct though she cannot give reasons for it. She thinks you are a wise person and seeks
your advice.
(a) What arguments can you advance to show her that keeping quiet is not morally right?
(b) What course of action would you advise her to adopt and why?

SC

OR

10. Land needed for mining, dams and other large-scale projects is acquired mostly from Adivasis,
hill dwellers and rural communities. The displaced persons are paid monetary compensation as
per the legal provisions. However, the payment is often tardy. In any case, it cannot sustain the
displaced families for long. These people do not possess marketable skills to engage in some
other occupation. They end up as low paid migrant labourers. Moreover, their traditional ways
of community living are destroyed. Thus, the benefits of development go to industries,
industrialists and urban communities whereas the costs are passed on to these poor helpless
people. This unjust distribution of costs and benefits is unethical.
Suppose you have been entrusted with the task of drafting a better compensation-cumrehabilitation policy for such displaced persons, how you approach the problem and what
would be the main elements of Your suggested policy ?

GS

11. Suppose you are an officer in-charge of implementing a social service scheme to provide support
to old and destitute women. An old and illiterate woman comes to you to avail the benefits of
the scheme. However, she has no documents to show that she fulfils the eligibility-criteria. But
after meeting her and listening to her you feel that she certainly needs support. Your enquiries
also show that she is really destitute and living in a pitiable condition. You are in a dilemma
as to what to do. Putting her under the scheme without necessary documents would clearly be
violation of rules. But denying her the support would be cruel and inhuman.
(a) Can you think of a rational way to resolve this dilemma?
(b) Give your reasons for it.
12. You are a young, aspiring and sincere employee in a Government office working as an assistant
to the director of your department. Since you have joined recently, you need to learn and
progress. Luckily your superior is very kind and ready to train you for your job. He is a very
intelligent and well-informed person having knowledge of various departments. In short, you
respect your boss and are looking forward to learn a lot from him.
Since you have a good tuning with the boss, he started depending on you. One day due to ill
health he invited you at his place for finishing some urgent work.
You reached his house and before you could ring the bell you heard shouting noises. You waited
for a while. After entering the house the boss greeted you and explained the work. But you
were constantly disturbed by the crying of a woman. At last, you inquired with the boss but his
answer did not satisfy you.
Next day, you were compelled to inquire further in the office and found out that his behaviour
is very bad at home with his wife. He also beats up his wife.

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His wife is not well educated and is a simple woman in comparison to her husband. You see
that though your boss is a nice person in the office, he is engaged in domestic violence at home.
In such a situation, you are left with the following options. Analyse each option with its
consequences.
(a) Just ignore thinking about it because it is their personal matter.
(b) Report the case to the appropriate authority.
(c) Your own innovative approach towards the situation.

SC

OR

13. ABC Ltd. is a large transnational company having diversified business activities with a huge
shareholder base. The company is continuously expanding and generating employment. The
company, in its expansion and diversification programme, decides to establish a new plant at
Vikaspuri, an area which is underdeveloped. The new plant is designed to use energy efficient
technology that will help the company to wave production cost by 20%. The company's decision
goes well with the Government policy of attracting investment to develop such underdeveloped
regions. The Government has also announced tax holiday for five years for the companies that
invest in underdeveloped areas. However, the new plant may bring chaos for the inhabitants
of Vikaspuri region, which is otherwise tranquil. The new plant may result in increased cost
of living, aliens migrating to the region disturbing the social and economic order. The company
sensing the possible protest tried to educate the people of Vikaspuri region and public in
general that how its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy would help overcome the
likely difficulties of the residents of Vikaspuri region. In spite of this the protests begin and
some of the residents decided to approach the judiciary as their plea before the Government
did not yield any result.
(a) Identify the issues involved in the case.

(b) What can be suggested to satisfy the company's goal and to address the residents'
concerns?

GS

14. Saraswati was a successful IT professional in USA. Moved by the patriotic sense of doing
something for the country shereturned to India. Together with some other like-minded friends,
she formed an NGO to build a school for a poor rural community.
The objective of the school was to provide the best quality modern education at a nominal cost.
She soon discovered that she has to seek permission from a number of government agencies.
The rules and procedures were quite confusing and cumbersome. What frustrated her most was
the delays, callous attitude of officials and constant demand for bribes. Her experience and the
experience of many others like her deterred people from taking up social service projects.
A measure of Government control over voluntary social work is necessary. But it should not be
exercised in a coercive or corrupt manner. What measures can you suggest to ensure that due
control is exercised but well meaning, honest NGO efforts are not thwarted?

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UPSC GS MAINS PAPER - 4


HINTS
Section-A
1.

(a) Explain how ethics contributes to social and human well-being.

Thinking Line:

Well-being is a state of being with others, where human needs are met, where one can act meaningfully
to pursue one's goals, and where one enjoys a satisfactory quality of life.

But as human beings live their lives, they acquire a wealth of information about the world. These
ideas keep the human being active to achieve something bigger in life.

But in the race of Scientific and technological advances, economic realities, and global communication
pattern, life has turned to be materialistic and places us apart from the true meaning of life and
happiness. The concept of well-being attached to being satisfied changes to being materialistic.

At this point of dilemma Ethics teaches to differentiate between concepts of good and bad in our
moral life in community. Ethics set some standards to guide behavior, choices and actions".

Ethics helps a person to look at his own life critically and to evaluate his actions/choices/decisions.
It assists a person in knowing what he/she really is and what is best for him/her and what he/
she has to do in order to attain it.

It sharpens general thinking process of the human being.

Thus ethics contributes to social and human well-being by maintaining peace and stability both
external and internal.

GS

SC

OR

(b) Why should impartiality and non-partisanship be considered as foundation values in public
services, especially in the present day socio-political context? Illustrate your answer with
examples.
Thinking Line:

The public service plays an indispensable role in ensuring peace, order and good government.
Whether they are providing advice to ministers, effectively managing a program or providing
service directly to people, all public servants must ensure impartiality and non partisanship.

However, due to politicisation of the Public Service with respect to recruitment, hiring, promotions
and terminations, the foundational value of impartiality and non-partisanship is decreasing.

But Public Officers owe loyalty to the Government of the day. They should always serve the
Government of the day. Public Officers should observe impartiality in their day-to-day functions.

They should not, therefore, act in a way that is determined by party political considerations or use
official resources for party purposes.

They should maintain non-partisanship so that successive governments can have confidence that
the public service will provide the support in their ministerial functions and mandate without
biasness.

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Similarly in social context public office must act and take decisions impartially, fairly and on merit,
using the best evidence and without discrimination or bias.

2.

(a) What do you understand by the terms 'governance', 'good governance' and 'ethical
governance'?

Thinking Line:
"Governance" means the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are
implemented (or not implemented).

Whereas, Good governance is about the processes for making and implementing decisions. It's not
about making 'correct' decisions, but about the best possible process for making those decisions.

Good governance share several attributes as being participatory, consensus oriented, accountable,
transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law.
It assures that corruption gets minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that
the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the
present and future needs of society.

But the concept of inclusive growth requires amalgamation of ethical perspective in the decision
making process.

Ethical governance denotes administrative measures, procedures and policies that fulfill criteria
required for the ethically good or acceptable handling of public affairs, such as in public
administration, public health care, education, and social security.

For example government programs and policies related to developmental projects come under the
concept of good governance as it aims at inclusive growth and development with proper
accountability and transparency system but it becomes ethical governance only when the people
displaced due to land acquisition are rehabilitated properly with required livelihood facilities.

SC

OR

(b) Discuss Mahatma Gandhi's concept of seven sins.


Thinking Line:

The social sin applies to every action against justice in interpersonal relationship, committed either
by the individual against the community or by the community against the individual.

Mahatma Gandhi's concept of seven sins include:

a)

Wealth without work: This refers to the practice of getting something for nothing. This includes
playing the stock market; gambling; sweat-shop slavery; over-estimating one's worth, like some
heads of corporations drawing exorbitant salaries which are not always commensurate with the
work they do.

b)

Pleasure without conscience: People find imaginative and dangerous ways of bringing excitement
to their otherwise dull lives. Their search for pleasure and excitement often ends up costing society
very heavily.

c)

Knowledge without character: Our obsession with materialism tends to make us more concerned
about acquiring knowledge so that we can get a better job and make more money. A lucrative
career is preferred to an illustrious character. Our educational centers emphasize career-building
and not character building.

d)

Commerce without morality: When profit making becomes the most important aspect of business,
morals and ethics usually go overboard. We cut benefits and even salaries of employees. People get
indulge in commerce without morality to make more money by any means possible.

e)

Science without humanity: The person due to very little understanding of the higher human
purposes that the technology is striving to serve, becomes victims of technocracy.

f)

Religion without sacrifice: Religion has been reduced to meaningless rituals practiced mindlessly.
Temples, churches, synagogues, mosques and those entrusted with the duty of interpreting religion
to lay people seek to control through fear of hell, damnation, and purgatory. True religion is based
on spirituality, love, compassion, understanding, and appreciation of each other

[ 2 ]

GS

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g)

Politics without principle: It states that having politics without truth(s) to justly dictate the action
creates chaos, which ultimately leads to violence.

3.

(a) Analyse John Rawls's concept of social justice in the Indian context.

Thinking Line:
Social justice denotes the equal treatment of all citizens without any social distinction based on
caste, colour, race, religion, sex and so on.

Social justice principle of John Rawls identifies that each person should have equal rights to the
most extensive liberties consistent with other people enjoying the same liberties; and that inequalities
should be arranged so that they would be to everyone's advantage and arranged so that no person
would be blocked from occupying any position.

From these two principles Rawls derives an egalitarian conception of justice that would allow the
inequality of conditions implied by equality of opportunity but would also give more attention to
those born with fewer assets and into less favorable social positions.

He argues that the only way we can arrive at a fair and just rule is if we imagine ourselves to be
in a situation in which we have to make decisions about how society should be organised although
we do not know which position we would ourselves occupy in that society. Rawls describes this
as thinking under a 'veil of ignorance'.

He expects that in such a situation of complete ignorance about our possible position and status in
society, each person would decide in the way they generally do, that is, in terms of their own
interests.

This concept can be used in case of distribution of resources, like education, Food health, shelter,
etc., are available to all persons, even if they are not part of the upper class.

The decision should be taken based on rationality not the benevolence or generosity.

SC

OR

Thinking Line:

GS

(b) Discuss the Public Service Code as recommended by the 2nd Administrative Reforms
Commission.

Civil servants have special obligations because they are responsible for managing resources entrusted
to them by the community, because they provide and deliver services to the community and because
they take important decisions that affect all aspects of a community's life.

The community has a right to expect that the civil service functions fairly, impartially and efficiently.
It is essential that the community must be able to trust and have confidence in the integrity of the
civil service decision-making process. Within the civil service itself, it needs to be ensured that the
decisions and actions of civil servants reflect the policies of the government of the day and the
standards that the community expects from them as government servants.

In a democracy, an efficient civil service must have a set of values that distinguishes it from other
professions. Integrity, dedication to public service, impartiality, political neutrality, anonymity etc
are said to be the hallmarks of an efficient civil service.

The public service code recommended by second ARC includes:

a)

At the apex level, there should be a clear and concise statement of the values and ethical standards
that a civil servant should imbibe. These values should reflect public expectations from a civil
servant with reference to political impartiality, maintenance of highest ethical standards and
accountability for actions.

b)

At the second level, the broad principles which should govern the behaviour of a civil servant may
be outlined. This would constitute the Code of Ethics.

c)

At the third level, there should be a specific Code of Conduct stipulating in a precise and
unambiguous manner, a list of acceptable and unacceptable behaviour and actions.

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The Code of Ethics should be given a statutory backing by including them in the proposed Civil
Services Bill.

4.

(a) "Corruption cause misuse of government treasury, administrative inefficiency and obstruction
in the path of national development." Discuss Kautilya's views.

Thinking Line:
It has precisely been defined as a deviant human behaviour, associated with the motivation of
private gain at public expense and, as such, has persisted for centuries.

Corruption promotes illegality, unethicalism, subjectivity, inequity, injustice, waste, inefficiency and
inconsistency in administrative conduct and behaviour.

It destroys the moral fabric of society and erodes the faith of the common man in the legitimacy
of the politico-administrative set up.

Kautilya argued that too much of personal interaction or union among the higher executives leads
to departmental goals being compromised and leads to corruption. This is because human emotions
and personal concerns act as impediments to the successful running of an administration, which
is basically a rule-based impersonal affair.

Similarly, dissension among executives when team effort is required results in a poor outcome.

Kautilya suggested that the decline in output and corruption can be curbed by promoting
professionalism at work. The superintendents should execute work with the subordinate officials
such as accountants, writers, coin-examiners, treasurers and military officers in a team spirit.

Such an effort creates a sense of belonging among members of the department who start identifying
and synchronising their goals with the larger goals of the organisation, thereby contributing to the
eventual success of the state.

Further Kautilya advocated hefty fines to be imposed apart from the confiscation of ill-earned
hordes. If a functionary was charged and proved even of a single offence, he was made answerable
for all other associated offences related to the case. Since taxes paid by the people are utilised for
their welfare, any loss of revenue affects the welfare of the society at large.

SC

OR

Thinking Line:

GS

(b) How could social influence and persuasion contribute to the success of Swachh Bharat
Abhiyan?

Social influence and persuasion is the change in behavior that one person causes in another,
intentionally or unintentionally, as a result of the way the changed person perceives themselves in
relationship to the influencer, other people and society in general.

As the behavior and attitude of person decides his actions, social influence and persuasion technique
can be used to change one's actions and participation towards government schemes.

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is being an essentially 'Clean India Programe' based on participatory
process to achieve considerable success. The foundation of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is to create
a chain of people who will work together and inspire others to clean their surroundings.

But mindset of a major portion of the population habituated to open defecation. Many of them
already have a toilet but prefer to defecate in the open. There is need to change triggering behavior
and involve the citizen in vast section of rural population regarding need to use toilets.

For social influence several celebrities have been nominated and each would, in turn, nominate
others and the others would nominate accordingly - making the whole of India to come under one
fold.

An army of 'foot soldiers' or 'SwachhataDoots' on sanitation could be developed and activated.

People can be persuaded towards sanitation by providing Incentives for individual household latrine
units.

[ 4 ]

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Law and ethics are considered to be the two tools for controlling human conduct so as to make
it conducive to civilized social existence.
(a) Discuss how they achieve this objective.
(b) Giving examples, show how the two differ in their approaches.

Thinking Line:
Law can be defined as a consistent set of rules that are widely published, generally accepted, and
usually enforced. These rules describe the ways in which people are required to act in their
relationships with others in a society. They are requirements to act in a given way, not just expectations
or suggestions to act in that way. Since the government establishes law, the government can use
police powers to enforce laws.

Ethics is the voluntary framework of guiding principles, which brings order and purpose into what
would otherwise be a void between laws. Ethics are internal obligations on an individual whereas
laws are external obligation.

6.

Our attitudes towards life, work, other people and society are generally shaped unconsciously
by the family and the social surroundings in which we grow up. Some of these unconsciously
acquired attitudes and values are often undesirable in the citizens of a modern democratic and
egalitarian society.

OR

(a) Discuss such undesirable values prevalent in today's educated Indians.


Thinking Line:

Values are standards, rules, criteria, attitudes, guidelines, desirable ideas/beliefs and important
things, which play a crucial role in shaping the life of individuals.

The values that a person holds have been derived from family, friends, neighbours, teachers, mass
media and so on.

The undesirable values prevalent in today's educated Indians are:

a)

Tendency to consider material possessions and physical comfort as more important than spiritual
values.

b)

Intolerance towards recognizing and accepting characteristics that differs from one's own.

c)

Insensitivity towards people

d)

Lack of integrity and truthfulness in private and public life

GS

SC

(b) How can such undesirable attitudes be changed and socio-ethical values considered
necessary in public services be cultivated in the aspiring and serving civil servants ?
Thinking Line:

Each person's actions should be guided by following principles:

a)

The person should perform one's Duties. This includes the behaviors expected of persons who
occupy certain roles; that is, the obligations taken on when assuming a role or profession.

b)

The person should have righteous virtues. It is the qualities that define what a good person is; moral
excellence

c)

The person should be guided by principles that form the basis for behavior.

d)

The actions of person should be for the benefits to society i.e. the actions that produce the greatest
good for the greatest number.

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Anger is a harmful negative emotion. It is injurious to both personal life and work life.
(a)

Discuss how it leads to negative emotions and undesirable behaviours.

(b)

How can it be managed and controlled?

Thinking Line:
Anger is "an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury and rage.
The instinctive, natural way to express anger is to respond aggressively and it is a natural outflow
of emotions.

But the anger can be converted or redirected. This happens when person hold in anger, stop
thinking about it, and focus on something positive.

Hence for managing anger following steps are needed:

a)

Angry people need to become aware of their demanding nature and translate their expectations
into desires.

b)

Angry people tend to jump to - and act on - conclusions, and some of those conclusions can be very
inaccurate. Hence, listen carefully to what the other person is saying and take time before answering

c)

Listen to what is underlying the anger.

d)

Find healthier ways to express your anger.

8.

"Max Weber said that it is not wise to apply to public administration the sort of moral and
ethical norms we apply to matters of personal conscience. It is important to realise that the State
bureaucracy might possess its own independent bureaucratic morality." Critically analyse this
statement.

OR

SC

Thinking Line:Section -

Weber has characterized bureaucracy by hierarchical organization, delineated lines of authority,


action taken on the basis of and recorded in written rules, career advancement depends on technical
qualifications judged by organization, not individuals, etc.

He has made a clear distinction between the private and official life of a bureaucrat. He stressed
that bureaucrats were personally free as they were subjected to legal rational authority with respect
to their impersonal official obligations.

They have to work under the clear schedule of duties for which they were responsible and this
excludes them from unlisted duties.

But there has been an enormous increase in the scope of governmental activity and in the range of
its objectives. This expansion has deposited immense power and authority in the hands of public
officials, thereby increasing opportunities for abuse of power and authority, as well as incidents of
unethical activities. For example top position holders may prioritise their power and privileges at
the expense of the bureaucracy goals.

But as they are responsible for managing resources entrusted to them by the community and to
work for the betterment of people, thus basic ethical principles have to be maintained to establish
ethical governance.

GS

Section-B
9.

[ 6 ]

A fresh engineering graduate gets a job in a prestigious chemical industry. She likes the work.
The salary is also good. However, after a few months she accidentally discovers that a highly
toxic waste is being secretly discharged into a river nearby. This is causing health problems to
the villagers downstream who depend on the river for their water needs. She is perturbed and
mentions her concern to her colleagues who have been with the company for longer periods.
They advise her to keep quite as anyone who mentions the topic is summarily dismissed. She
cannot risk losing her job as she is the sole bread-winner for her family and has to support her
ailing parents and siblings. At first, she thinks that if her seniors are keeping quiet, why should
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she stick out her neck. But her conscience pricks her to do something to save the river and the
people who depend upon it. At heart she feels that the advice of silence given by her friends
is not correct though she cannot give reasons for it. She thinks you are a wise person and seeks
your advice.
(a) What arguments can you advance to show her that keeping quiet is not morally right?
Thinking Line:Secti
In the above stated case study the dilemma is to whether take the side of villagers who depends
on the river for their livelihood and getting affected due to pollution or to keep quiet and save one's
job.

It is a case study related to dilemma between job security or working for the greatest good of the
people. Absolute morality is not feasible and practical also.

Keeping quiet is not morally right because:

a)

Decision of giving a blind eye to the situation is incorrect as water pollution is affecting the lives
of many villagers including children.

b)

Keeping quiet for the sake of job and salary is incorrect as due to this selfish act many lives are at
stake. Other jobs can be persuaded but the impact of water pollution is irreversible.

OR

(b) What course of action would you advise her to adopt and why?
Thinking Line:Secti
The course of action can be:

a)

Collecting data about the impact of water pollution on the villagers and designing a proper report
on that to depict its negative impact.

b)

As stated in the case study seniors are indifferent towards this issue, thus the report can be submitted
in government organization (NGT).

c)

Other job can be persuaded and the PIL on the above stated issue can be filed in the court
submitting proper data and records.

GS

SC

10. Land needed for mining, dams and other large-scale projects is acquired mostly from Adivasis,
hill dwellers and rural communities. The displaced persons are paid monetary compensation as
per the legal provisions. However, the payment is often tardy. In any case, it cannot sustain the
displaced families for long. These people do not possess marketable skills to engage in some
other occupation. They end up as low paid migrant labourers. Moreover, their traditional ways
of community living are destroyed. Thus, the benefits of development go to industries,
industrialists and urban communities whereas the costs are passed on to these poor helpless
people. This unjust distribution of costs and benefits is unethical.
Suppose you have been entrusted with the task of drafting a better compensation-cumrehabilitation policy for such displaced persons, how you approach the problem and what
would be the main elements of Your suggested policy ?
Thinking Line:Sect
Compulsory acquisition of land for public purpose including infrastructure projects displaces people, forcing
them to give up their home, assets and means of livelihood. Apart from depriving them of their lands,
livelihoods and resource-base, displacement has other traumatic psychological and socio-cultural consequences.
The compensation-cum-rehabilitation policy should be based on the following principles:
a)

Rehabilitation of tribals with proper arrangement of basic amenities.

b)

Compensation should not be equated only with monetary compensation, proper vocational and skill
development training should be provided.

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The cultural structure of the tribals should be preserved while formulating rehabilitation policy.

Thus the steps which can be initiated are:


Principle of rehabilitation before displacement;

Skill development support and preference in project jobs ( one person per nuclear family );

Option for shares in companies implementing projects to affected families;

Housing benefits to all affected families including the landless;

Monthly pension to the vulnerable, such as disabled, destitute, orphans, widows, unmarried girls,
Skill development support and preference in project jobs ( one person per nuclear family );

Necessary infrastructural facilities and amenities at resettlement areas.

Initiate a livelihood development programmes such as initiation of financial inclusion drive or


formation of self help groups to improve their suitable skills.

Provide a basic education ground for all people and create awareness about their rights provided
under different laws, programmes and policies.

Help them in using their indigenous knowledge for improving crop yield to maintain food security
in the long run.

Provide vocational education.

OR

SC

Compensation is not a replacement for property, it is only indemnification for the losses of the private owner.
So, the right to property cannot be regarded as merely a right to compensation and it cannot be said that a
state has a power to take private property as long as it compensates the owner.

GS

11. Suppose you are an officer in-charge of implementing a social service scheme to provide support
to old and destitute women. An old and illiterate woman comes to you to avail the benefits of
the scheme. However, she has no documents to show that she fulfils the eligibility-criteria. But
after meeting her and listening to her you feel that she certainly needs support. Your enquiries
also show that she is really destitute and living in a pitiable condition. You are in a dilemma
as to what to do. Putting her under the scheme without necessary documents would clearly be
violation of rules. But denying her the support would be cruel and inhuman.
(a) Can you think of a rational way to resolve this dilemma?
(b) Give your reasons for it.
Thinking Line:Sect
In the above case study being an officer in-charge of implementing a social service scheme, it is one's duty
to help the old and destitute women.
But sense of dutifulness should not be swayed by the emotions. Thus as stated above the documents required
for availing the benefits are missing, the steps which can be taken are:
a)

The officer in charge after proper verification can send her with reference to the required office for
getting the documents. This will not be violation of rules as identification of beneficiaries and
providing benefits comes under one's duty.

b)

He should aware her about the other government schemes (antyodaya scheme, pension scheme) so
that after getting proper documents she can avail other benefits also provided by the government.

c)

The campaign can be initiated to identify the beneficiaries for the scheme and to organize camps
for formation of required documents bi-monthly.

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12. You are a young, aspiring and sincere employee in a Government office working as an assistant
to the director of your department. Since you have joined recently, you need to learn and
progress. Luckily your superior is very kind and ready to train you for your job. He is a very
intelligent and well-informed person having knowledge of various departments. In short, you
respect your boss and are looking forward to learn a lot from him.
Since you have a good tuning with the boss, he started depending on you. One day due to ill
health he invited you at his place for finishing some urgent work.
You reached his house and before you could ring the bell you heard shouting noises. You waited
for a while. After entering the house the boss greeted you and explained the work. But you
were constantly disturbed by the crying of a woman. At last, you inquired with the boss but his
answer did not satisfy you.
Next day, you were compelled to inquire further in the office and found out that his behaviour
is very bad at home with his wife. He also beats up his wife.
His wife is not well educated and is a simple woman in comparison to her husband. You see
that though your boss is a nice person in the office, he is engaged in domestic violence at home.

In such a situation, you are left with the following options. Analyse each option with its
consequences.

OR

(a) Just ignore thinking about it because it is their personal matter.


(b) Report the case to the appropriate authority.

Thinking Line:S

SC

(c) Your own innovative approach towards the situation.

The above case is related to incident of domestic violence. In the official duty the person is good at behavior
but at home he is involved in domestic violence. The steps which can be initiated are:
(a) Just ignore thinking about it because it is their personal matter

GS

It is a personal matter and being a subordinate one should not interfere in personal matter of others. But as
stated, it is a matter related to domestic violence thus a blind eye cannot be given to that.
Steps need to be taken to resolve the issue.

(b) Report the case to the appropriate authority.


Reporting a case to the appropriate authority without any evidence will not serve the purpose. It will
deteriorate the relation more between the two and will alert the senior.
Also the judicial laws with respect to family relationships are needs to be accurate and with fair determination
of guilt or innocence. Thus reporting a case should be a last resort. Steps should be initiated to rebuild it.
(c) Your own innovative approach towards the situation.
As cleared in the case, victim is bearing the pain of domestic violence but has not complained about it. So
moving out and complaining to authorities will not serve the purpose as women might not move against his
husband.
Hence, my innovative approach will focus on rebuilding the relationship. The steps which can be taken in
this direction are:
1.

I will develop the informal talks with the senior so that issue can be raised.

2.

I will try to persuade the senior by referring him to different incidents or cases and its implications
on reputation and status of individual.

3.

The support of colleagues (close to boss) in office can be taken to bring change in the mindset of
the officer.

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13. ABC Ltd. is a large transnational company having diversified business activities with a huge
shareholder base. The company is continuously expanding and generating employment. The
company, in its expansion and diversification programme, decides to establish a new plant at
Vikaspuri, an area which is underdeveloped. The new plant is designed to use energy efficient
technology that will help the company to wave production cost by 20%. The company's decision
goes well with the Government policy of attracting investment to develop such underdeveloped
regions. The Government has also announced tax holiday for five years for the companies that
invest in underdeveloped areas. However, the new plant may bring chaos for the inhabitants
of Vikaspuri region, which is otherwise tranquil. The new plant may result in increased cost
of living, aliens migrating to the region disturbing the social and economic order. The company
sensing the possible protest tried to educate the people of Vikaspuri region and public in
general that how its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy would help overcome the
likely difficulties of the residents of Vikaspuri region. In spite of this the protests begin and
some of the residents decided to approach the judiciary as their plea before the Government
did not yield any result.
(a) Identify the issues involved in the case.

(b) What can be suggested to satisfy the company's goal and to address the residents'
concerns?

OR

Thinking Line:S

The business should include the sense of social responsibility. A social responsibility is an obligation that
businesses have to act in ways that benefit the society. It means that businesses have an obligation to help
out the poor, or to help clean up environment.

SC

(a) Identify the issues involved in the case.

In the above case study the issues involved are:

Mistrust between the local people and the company over the intention of goals of the company.

Influx of people from other region may disturb the socio economic condition and may also affect
the culture.

As it is underdeveloped region, the employment opportunities for the local will be related to unskilled
and resources will move to others who are more skilled and educated.

GS

(b) What can be suggested to satisfy the company's goal and to address the residents' concerns?

Providing better life opportunities in areas as good schools, better health options under CSR.

The employment opportunities can be provided with proper skill development mechanism.

The strategy for management of waste and other environmental issues should be transparent.
Participation of local people should be there in designing the strategy.

Company should invest in enhancing community livelihood by incorporating them into their supply
chain.

Transparency and proper accountability system should be maintained.

14. Saraswati was a successful IT professional in USA. Moved by the patriotic sense of doing
something for the country shereturned to India. Together with some other like-minded friends,
she formed an NGO to build a school for a poor rural community.
The objective of the school was to provide the best quality modern education at a nominal cost.
She soon discovered that she has to seek permission from a number of government agencies.
The rules and procedures were quite confusing and cumbersome. What frustrated her most was
the delays, callous attitude of officials and constant demand for bribes. Her experience and the
experience of many others like her deterred people from taking up social service projects.
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A measure of Government control over voluntary social work is necessary. But it should not be
exercised in a coercive or corrupt manner. What measures can you suggest to ensure that due
control is exercised but well meaning, honest NGO efforts are not thwarted?
Thinking Line:S
Cases of involvement of NGO in corruption and mis-utilisation of funds are increasing. But there are many
genuine initiatives also which require government support to initiate positive steps for the betterment of the
marginalized people.
The steps which can be taken are:
Single window clearance mechanism can be established to reduce the registration time.

b)

The centralized system can be designed for registration of NGOs and then they can be linked with
respective ministries to improve coordination and transparency in funding pattern.

c)

The funding mechanism from the donors should be made accountable and money beyond a certain
amount should be disclosed to the government.

d)

Third party Audit mechanism should be made mandatory so that genuine efforts can be differentiated
properly with malpractices.

e)

The mechanism for registration for opening schools, health facilities or other social initiatives should
be made more people friendly.

f)

Changes should be proposed in the management and marketing of the NGOs.

GS

SC

OR

a)

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GS Score Test Series Comparison with


UPSC GS Mains 2016
PAPER - IV
UPSC Ques. - 2 (a)
What do you understand by the terms 'governance', 'good governance' and 'ethical governance'?

GS SCORE - ETHICS MOCK TEST SERIES (Test No. 2; Question No. 6; Dated - 15 April 2016)

Q. Do you agree that because of absence of commitment and responsiveness, a wide gap has emerged
between "Government" and "Governance"? Discuss with respect to utilization of public funds in
welfare activities.
Thinking line:

The Administration is the cutting edge of the public administration system in the country. Be it the
issue of ration or electoral identity cards, procurement of foodgrains, implementation of employment
guarantee schemes, supply of drinking water, mutation of land records, functioning of primary
schools and healthcare centres or control of epidemics in the countryside, it is the instrumentalities
of the administration with which citizens have to interact.

The requisites moral qualities include not only the willingness to serve the public but also the willingness
to behave competently, efficiently, honestly, responsibly, objectively, fairly and accountably.

There are laid down rules and procedures for every aspect of the government's functioning and its
interaction with the common man but, due to overemphasis of it, the adequacies of fund utilization
get jeopardized as accountability in the public sector has traditionally been based on compliance with
rules and procedures. It didn't matter what government did as long as it observed the rules.

The government machinery should not mainly focuses of target completion but on actual impact of
it on the target beneficiary. The commitment and responsiveness to the marganalised persons are also
important.

UPSC Ques. - 2 (b)

GS

SC

OR

Discuss Mahatma Gandhi's concept of seven sins.

GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 1; Question No. 10; Dated - 26 August 2016)
Q. What is a social sin? Is there any standard definition of it? How can we abstain from social sins?
And if we fail to abstain from so called social sins, what would be the consequences?
Thinking line:

The social sin applies to every action against justice in interpersonal relationship, committed either by
the individual against the community or by the community against the individual. There is no effective
and standard definition of social sin till date which explicitly interprets the wider meaning of the
term, however, as per its nature it can be defined as "those actions which are the results of thousands
or even millions of different selfish choices by as many different people and thus is collective, an
aspect of our society which doesn't resemble the kingdom of God".

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A social sin usually involves other people. However in today's changing scenario of the world have
changed the dimensions of social sins which include:

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

Bioethical violations such as birth control


Morally dubious experiments such as stem cell research
Drug abuse
Polluting the environment
Contributing to widening divide between rich and poor
Excessive wealth
Creating poverty

For abstaining from the social sin, awareness about the sin and its consequences on oneself and
society is must. This will help an individual in choosing the right path in life.

The consequences of social sin can be felt at both the individual level as well as the societal level. For
example: corruption is one of the biggest social sins in the present era. Money that is meant to benefit
the people is diverted to the pockets of corrupt government officials and their conspirators. It can lead
to death and damage of property when corrupt government officials allow corporations to destroy
the environment that causes flooding, air pollution, and climate change.

Similarly use of biotechnology for cloning or stem cell research have ethical implications as it contradicts
the duty to prevent or alleviate suffering, and the duty to respect the value of human life.

Hence people should abstain from involving in social sins.

OR

UPSC Ques. - 4 (b)

How could social influence and persuasion contribute to the success of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan?
GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 3; Question No. 5; Dated - 4 March 2016)

Thinking line:

SC

Q. Persuasion is a potent weapon in hands of civil servants. Critically examine. Illustrate through
one example.
Persuasion can be defined as a conscious attempt by an individual to change attitude or behavior of
a group through transmission of some message.

The civil servants have to work, generally with teams and people belonging to different departments.
Persuasion has been perceived as potent weapon in the hands of civil servants through which they
can encourage their team mates to work with more efficiency.

There may be times when the team may lose its energy level, then the team leader by using his
persuasion skills like appeal to reason, appeal to emotion and communication abilities can persuade
his teammates to work towards their goals.

Moreover civil servants, by setting personal examples like coming to office on time, working honestly
with integrity can persuade others in the organization also.

There have been civil servants like Sreedharan, ICS Mangat Rai, Shankaran who have been good
examples in their field to persuade their co-workers using their skills and abilities.

GS

UPSC Ques. - 5
Law and ethics are considered to be the two tools for controlling human conduct so as to make
it conducive to civilized social existence.
(a) Discuss how they achieve this objective.
(b) Giving examples, show how the two differ in their approaches.
GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 1; Question No. 5; Dated - 26 August 2016)
Q. Is it necessary that 'what is ethical is also legal' and vice versa? Explain with examples.

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Thinking line:
Law can be defined as a consistent set of rules that are widely published, generally accepted, and
usually enforced.

These rules describe the ways in which people are required to act in their relationships with others
in a society. They are requirements to act in a given way, not just expectations or suggestions to act
in that way.

Since the government establishes law, the government can use police powers to enforce laws.

Ethics is the voluntary framework of guiding principles, which brings order and purpose into what
would otherwise be a void between laws. Ethics are internal obligations on an individual whereas
laws are external obligation.

It is ethical to not give capital punishment as it is against the Right to life but according to law it is
correct (mainly for heinous crime) for maintenance of law and order in society.

Similarly, the law often incorporates ethical standards to which most citizens subscribe. But laws can
deviate from what is ethical. For example the laws made during Britishers were unethical in theme
or the old apartheid laws of South Africa.

Hence what is ethical is also legal and vice versa are not always correct.

OR

UPSC Ques. - 6

SC

Our attitudes towards life, work, other people and society are generally shaped unconsciously by
the family and the social surroundings in which we grow up. Some of these unconsciously
acquired attitudes and values are often undesirable in the citizens of a modern democratic and
egalitarian society.
(a) Discuss such undesirable values prevalent in today's educated Indians.
(b) How can such undesirable attitudes be changed and socio-ethical values considered necessary
in public services be cultivated in the aspiring and serving civil servants?

GS

GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 4; Question No. 3; Dated - 11 March 2016)
Q. People generally teach their children how to read, write, speak but never teach how to develop
a positive thought process. Discuss the importance of teaching a healthy thinking process. Why
generally it has taken a back seat in the learning process?
Thinking line:

Parents are the most influential agents in the child's learning of morals. Mother is the first teacher and
Home is the first school". The minds of children develop in the major way through the process of non
- formal education at home. Parental attitudes and behavioral responses to right and wrong, good
and evil, acceptable and unacceptable, set the tone and direction of the child's moral development.

Hence in the whole process of teaching parents teaches how to read, write, speak but forget to teach
the positive thinking that acts a basic ground for development of individual as a morally and ethically
sound individual.

Positive thinking aims to help people be more aware of the power of their thoughts and moods and
how to manage them in order to lead happier and more successful lives. The central idea is that it
is not what happens to individuals, which leads them to be happy, healthy or successful, but how
they interpret what happens to them and the extent to which they believe that it is possible to
influence such events.

Whilst positive thinking has traditionally been viewed as a strategy for helping people to deal with
problems, but implementation of positive thinking programmes is needed in order to improve the
quality of learning and achievement in young people.

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It generally takes a back seat because children are pushed to the competition arena since childhood.
It lays greater emphasis on developing memorization and reproduction abilities rather than developing
oneself as a ethical person.

Parents must guide their children to become practical heroes but not platform heroes.

UPSC Ques. - 7
Anger is a harmful negative emotion. It is injurious to both personal life and work life.
(a) Discuss how it leads to negative emotions and undesirable behaviours.
(b) How can it be managed and controlled?
GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 5; Question No. 2; Dated - 3 April 2016)
Q. "Anger is just anger. It isn't good. It isn't bad. It just is! What you do with it is what matters." In
light of this statement and the fact that anger comes very naturally to many of us, give ways in
which it can be used constructively and how can it be managed?
Thinking line:
Anger is "an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury and rage. The
instinctive, natural way to express anger is to respond aggressively and it is a natural outflow of
emotions.

But the anger can be converted or redirected. This happens when person hold in anger, stop thinking
about it, and focus on something positive.

Hence for managing anger following steps are needed:

OR

UPSC Ques. - 9

GS

SC

(a) Angry people need to become aware of their demanding nature and translate their expectations into
desires.
(b) Angry people tend to jump to - and act on - conclusions, and some of those conclusions can be very
inaccurate. Hence, listen carefully to what the other person is saying and take time before answering.
(c) Listen to what is underlying the anger.
(d) Find healthier ways to express your anger.

A fresh engineering graduate gets a job in a prestigious chemical industry. She likes the work. The
salary is also good. However, after a few months she accidentally discovers that a highly toxic waste
is being secretly discharged into a river nearby. This is causing health problems to the villagers
downstream who depend on the river for their water needs. She is perturbed and mentions her
concern to her colleagues who have been with the company , for longer periods. They advise her to
keep quite as anyone who mentions the topic is summarily dismissed. She cannot risk losing her job
as she is the sole bread-winner for her family and has to support her ailing parents and siblings. At
first, she thinks that if her seniors are keeping quiet, why should she stick out her neck. But her
conscience pricks her to do something to save the river and the people who depend upon it. At
heart she feels that the advice of silence given by her friends is not correct though she cannot give
reasons for it. She thinks you are a wise person and seeks your advice.
(a) What arguments can you advance to show her that keeping quiet is not morally right?
(b) What course of action would you advise her to adopt and why?
GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 1; Question No. 14; Dated - 19 February 2016)
Q. A dispensary has been opened in a rural area. It is the sole hospital in the region and provides
health care facilities to people. But the dispensary is not following the bio-medical rules and

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disposes the waste in the backyard which is affecting the health of the people and also impacting
the animal husbandry. You are health inspector of the region and got the complaint related to it.
Answer the following:
(A) What are the options available to you?
Thinking line:

Dispensaries generate various kinds of wastes from wards, operation theatres and out-patient areas.
These wastes include bandages, cotton, soiled linen, body parts, sharps (needle, syringes etc), medicines
(discarded or expired), laboratory wastes etc. which carry infection and should be properly collected,
segregated, stored, transported, treated and disposed to prevent contamination and infection.

In the above case the dispensary is not following bio-medical rules while treating the rural people.
Hence strict actions cannot be taken against it. Hence the options available are:

OR

(a) Talk to the head of the dispensary and try to analyse the reasons for not following of rules. The
reasons can be - shortage of manpower, shortage of equipment, etc.
(b) Manpower can be allotted for the work by the government or training can be provided to the medical
staff for its proper disposal.
(c) Alongwith that a separate dumpyard can be built for disposal of bio-medical waste.
(d) Subsidy can be provided for setting up of incinerator for safe disposal of waste.
(e) Awareness campaign can be initiated in the rural area against the adverse health impact of biomedical waste.
(f) Give a warning to the head of dispensary and if mistake has been repeated strict action can be taken
against him (but this should be treated as last option).
(B) Do you think that monitoring is more important than formation of rules and regulations? How to
ensure the effective monitoring?
Thinking line:

Mere formation of rules and regulations do not lead to their implementation. Time to time monitoring
in different areas is must to assure that rules are been followed.

Monitoring creates an external obligation of the entity for following the rules. As in the above case,
government has made bio-medical waste handling rules but whether they are being followed or not
requires monitoring.

The people who have enlightened conscience do not need monitoring as they are aligned to ethical
rules without external boundation but in the present scenario individualism is increasing and concept
of common good to all is diminishing thus monitoring is must.

For effective monitoring, firstly the training of government officers is must so that they can identify
the lacunaes easily and can initiate steps to address the issue.

Secondly public participation is must as in the above case study, Health Monitoring Committee can
be formed consisting of rural people with government head to monitor the working of dispensary
(also that of nearby region)

GS

SC

UPSC Ques. - 10
Land needed for mining, dams and other large-scale projects is acquired mostly from Adivasis,
hill dwellers and rural communities. The displaced persons are paid monetary compensation as
per the legal provisions. However, the payment is often tardy. In any case, it cannot sustain the
displaced families for long. These people do not possess marketable skills to engage in some
other occupation. They end up as low paid migrant labourers. Moreover, their traditional ways
of community living are destroyed. Thus, the benefits of development go to industries, industrialists
and urban communities whereas the costs are passed on to these poor helpless people. This
unjust distribution of costs and benefits is unethical. Suppose you have been entrusted with the
task of drafting a better compensation-cum-rehabilitation policy for such displaced persons, how
you approach the problem and what would be the main elements of your suggested policy?
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GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 8; Question No. 19; Dated - 14 October 2016)
Q.1 As adviser to the Minister of tribal affairs you have, among others, an agenda of modernization
of the tribal people. When giving recommendations to the minister on various steps need to the
taken for modernization of the tribal people what difference of approach would be required in
this case from an agenda of modernization of general population? Enlist five priorities for
modernization of the tribal population that you would like to recommend to the Minister.
Thinking line:

Tribal development should be viewed not merely in terms of material needs but equally or even more
so in relation to non-material needs such as the right to live with freedom, human dignity and selfrespect. Hence, a multi-dimensional approach to 'tribal development' with the basic concepts of
ecology, environment, human resources and protection of human rights should be incorporated.

The approach should be such that:

(a) People should develop along the lines of their own genius and we should try to encourage in every
way their own traditional arts and culture.

(b) Tribal rights in land and forest should be respected.

OR

(c) We should try to train and build up a team of their own people to do the work of administration
and development Some technical personnel from outside will, no doubt, be needed especially in the
beginning. But we should avoid introducing too many outsiders into tribe's.
(d) We should not over administer these areas or overwhelm them with a multiplicity of schemes. We
should rather work through, and not on rivalry to, their own social and cultural institutions.
Thus to meet this approach following steps can be taken:

SC

GS

(a) Initiate a livelihood development programmes such as initiation of financial inclusion drive or formation
of self heals groups to improve their suitable skills.
(b) Provide a basic education ground for all people and create awareness about their rights provided
under different laws, programmes and policies.
(c) Help them in using their indigenous knowledge for improving crop yield to maintain food security
in the long run.
(d) Provide vocational education.

GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 6; Question No. 20; Dated - 25 March 2016)
Q.2 You are a Tribal officer of Jharkhand. Once you visited a tribal region. You noticed that poverty,
hunger, malnutrition and impoverishment have been the perennial problems for them. With your
team efforts, you initiated a development drive there by providing subsidised foods, primary
education and health facilities.
But you were shocked to see that they had rejected these subsidies and asked for livelihood
amenities to live a respected life, not on charity.
(A) What would be your reaction to the above situation?
Thinking line:

In the above situation the tribal people want a sustainable livelihood tool rather than charity in form
of subsidies which may help for short term goal but fail to initiate a growth driven society.
You may call a meeting with the leader of the tribal society to understand their viewpoints. This will
help in understanding the different dimensions of the issue.
(B) What steps would you initiate to improve their livelihoods?
Thinking line:
The steps can be taken are:

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(a) Initiate a livelihood development programmes such as initiation of financial inclusion drive or formation
of self heal groups to improve their suitable skills.
(b) Provide a basic education ground for all people and create awareness about their rights provided
under different laws, programmes and policies.
(c) You can help them in using their indigenous knowledge for improving crop yield to maintain food
security in the long run.
(d) You can help them in vocational education related to low level skills so that they can initiate cottage
industries.
(e) You can initiate a process for establishing a village mandi for selling of minor forest produce and can
initiate a process of placing their art and culture in different Melas and trade fairs.

All the above stated process may help in improving their livelihoods in long term.

UPSC Ques. - 11

OR

Suppose you are an officer in-charge of implementing a social service scheme to provide support
to old and destitute women. An old and illiterate woman comes to you to avail the benefits of
the scheme. However, she has no documents to show that she fulfils the eligibility-criteria. But
after meeting her and listening to her you feel that she certainly needs support. Your enquiries
also show that she is really destitute and living in a pitiable condition. You are in a dilemma as
to what to do. Putting her under the scheme without necessary documents would clearly be
violation of rules. But denying her the support would be cruel and inhuman.

(b) Give your reasons for it.

SC

(a) Can you think of a rational way to resolve this dilemma?

GS SCORE QUESTION: (ETHICS WORKBOOK (Test No. 3; Question No. 3)

GS

Q. You are head of an organization which has a large public interface. One day an old man approaches
you and complaints that one asstt. incharge of old age pension scheme is demanding Rs 100=00
from him for clearing his pension claims. He has further revealed that this is a common practice
in this office and those who do not pay the bribe money, are harassed.
You have become very upset with the state of affairs and want to solve the problem of the old
man along with bringing some qualitative changes in the work culture of the organization, for
better service delivery.
(A) What are the options available to you?

(B) Evaluate each of these options and choose the option which you would adopt giving reasons.
Thinking line:
Such wrong practices in any organization of demanding for bribes do not culminate over a day but over
a period of months and years. The various options available with the head to set things right are(a) He should try to arrive at the root cause of problem as in such cases there is a nexus within the
organization. Without going to the deeper cause, proper solution cannot be find out.
(b) He can create a vigilance cell to trap the case as to why the things are going wrong but this is a time
taking procedure.
(c) The head can also himself go for the inspection of officials that why such a wrong environment is
prevalent in the organization. This involves a personal investigation on his part.
(d) The pension money can directly by transferred to the accounts of the beneficiaries. But this requires
that they should have a bank account and putting the things, into action for first time is a cumbersome
process. But once it starts function, it will decrease corruption.

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(e) The head can consult the beneficiaries, ask them about the problems they are facing.
The suggested course of action for the head should be first to arrive at the root cause as to why such
wrong practices are culminating in the organization. To reduce the cases of corruption and bribe taking,
the suggested step is to transfer the pension directly to the bank accounts of the beneficiaries so that
leakages do not occur. The beneficiaries should be consulted time in between and their cooperation should
be ensured to correct the things.

UPSC Ques. - 12
You are a young, aspiring and sincere employee in a Government office working as an assistant
to the director of your department. Since you have joined recently, you need to learn and
progress. Luckily your superior is very kind and ready to train you for your job. He is a very
intelligent and well-informed person having knowledge of various departments. In short, you
respect your boss and are looking forward to learn a lot from him.
Since you have a good tuning with the boss, he started depending on you. One day due to ill
health he invited you at his place for finishing some urgent work.

OR

You reached his house and before you could ring the bell you heard shouting noises. You waited
for a while. After entering the house the boss greeted you and explained the work. But you were
constantly disturbed by the crying of a woman. At last, you inquired with the boss but his answer
did not satisfy you. Next day, you were compelled to inquire further in the office and found out
that his behaviour is very bad at home with his wife. He also beats up his wife.
His wife is not well educated and is a simple woman in comparison to her husband. You see that
though your boss is a nice person in the office, he is engaged in domestic violence at home.

SC

In such a situation, you are left with the following options. Analyse each option with its
consequences.
(a) Just ignore thinking about it because it is their personal matter.
(b) Report the case to the appropriate authority.
(c) Your own innovative approach towards the situation.

GS

GS SCORE - ETHICS MOCK TEST SERIES (Test No. 1; Question No. 16; Dated - 8 April 2016)
Q.1 A complaint is received in the late night in a local police station of a major city by a woman who
is professionally well placed regarding domestic violence by her husband who is a senior
government official living in a posh apartment. The woman was very scared and she said she was
alone and in a SOS condition and cannot talk more.
(A) The police officer in Charge is reminded of a similar event in which a young but senior police
officer threw his wife from the balcony of a high rise building in a rage of anger and later killed
himself by his service revolver. He is clueless how to act fast. What is the intelligent course of
action for the police officer immediately and in medium term to stop mis-happenings whatsoever?
(B) When both husband and wife are educated and professionally well settled in their careers, the
crisis is more of a moral and ethical nature arising due to lack of flexibility to adjust with each
other. Since such cases are on the rise due to economic empowerment and freedom, what could
be done at institutional level to help such estranged couples?
(C) What is the limitation of legal courses to reduce domestic violence and will it be better and more
effective to resort to counseling by a social and psychiatric clinics to resolve the cases of domestic
violence and why?
Thinking line:
(a) In SOS conditions the first thing that is to be noted is that taking more reaction time can lead to fatal
violence even death; this means that in his talk with the woman, he should first clearly ask about her
location and address. Thereafter the police officer should rush to the place of occurrence with

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sufficient number of supporting police staff and not alone (impulsive and emotional rush for a police
officer may be counterproductive and fatal). Mean while he must connect with other nearby police
posts to get prepared for additional enforcement if needed. A police officer does not always have
immediate solutions to a problem, so first he must try to take the victim woman at a safer place in
police custody to save her life and wait till he is clear about what would be next line of action. Some
police officers would prefer to take the violent man instead, but then it would require that woman
in shock and fear should not be let alone at her residence. One possible action in the medium term
is to present the perpetrator of domestic violence in court of justice where suitable remedies would
be decided according to the law on domestic violence.
(b) The problem of domestic violence rising in number is because the male dominated society is not
accustomed and fully prepared to deal with empowered and freer women who are educated and
economically independent. From the women side also, they probably do not know what and how
much to do with the new found empowerment and freedom. The bond between men and women
can never be weaker or stronger simply because of level of education and earning (career), but also
on realizing the art of life and living based on interdependence and complementarity in the relationship
and accordingly striking a balance, adjustment, accommodation etc. between the couples. Thus law
can only punish for domestic violence for deterrence and advice through family courts for reconciliation,
but eventually counseling and psychiatric help can go a long way. The education system should also
equip men and women how to live better with more power and freedom.

SC

OR

(c) About problems arising due to moral and ethical crisis, a police officer has limited scope to rectify the
aberrations because such things require longer duration to give good pieces of advice, inculcate and
practice, which a resident welfare association, family courts, counselors and psychiatrists can do
better. All what a police officer can do efficiently is that he can stop further damage to the life of the
victim and provide her security. If the perpetrator of the domestic violence is an alcoholic or a drug
addict, police should take his case as mental sickness and not solely as crime to decide the future
course of action and the degree of harshness of action. If police department in the area has provision
of de-addiction centre, such men should be facilitated to join and get treatment (as Kiran Bedi did
during her tenure in Delhi).

GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 5; Question No. 13; Dated - 16 October 2015)

Thinking line:

GS

Q.2 It is usually treated that education plays a very important role in life. We are incomplete without
a good education because education makes us right thinker and correct decision maker. Education
is the solution of any problem, it is only education which promotes good habits, values and
awareness towards anything like terrorism, corruption and much more. Then why the cases of
domestic violence or assault of domestic maid or child sexual abuse, etc. are heard in higher
society? What are the faults in the present education system which has made person professionally
sound but personally unsound and decreased their humanity?

The erosion of human values in our society today has become a phenomenon. There is a maddening
pursuit to accumulate wealth, power and status to the total exclusion of humanness in us. In the real
life situations people are swayed by narrow parochial considerations and there the situation is marked
by violence, greed, thefts, drug addiction and terrorism etc. Our institutions of learning are preparing
efficient individuals, but not good citizens or humans.
The present educational system with all its complexities and intricacies has proved to be deficient in
so far as it neglects or does not give the deserving importance to values in human life.
Each individual stakeholder in the education system - student, teacher, parent, management and
support staff do not realizes its inherent worth for the well-being of the learners.
The education system is based on curriculum decided by the higher authority without participation
of different stakeholders. Further the autonomy of institutions has been decreased. Due to which the
value based education has been neglected. Further due to increment in competition at each step the
values and ethics has taken a back seat and everyone is racing for accumulating fast diminishing
resources.
Parents also access the capabilities of their children in terms of marks and degree and not as an
ethical individual. The same is with society. Due to this the value system is decreasing in society even
though education level is increasing in India.

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Parents are the most influential agents in the child's learning of morals. Mother is the first teacher
and Home is the first school". Parental attitudes and behavioural responses to right and wrong, good
and evil, acceptable and unacceptable, set the tone and direction of the child's moral development.
Hence from his earliest years the child should be introduced to the right behaviour to make him a
humane person.

UPSC Ques. - 13

OR

ABC Ltd. is a large transnational company having diversified business activities with a huge
shareholder base. The company is continuously expanding and generating employment. The
company, in its expansion and diversification programme, decides to establish a new plant at
Vikaspuri, an area which is underdeveloped. The new plant is designed to use energy efficient
technology that will help the company to wave production cost by 20%. The company's decision
goes well with the Government policy of attracting investment to develop such underdeveloped
regions. The Government has also announced tax holiday for five years for the companies that
invest in underdeveloped areas. However, the new plant may bring chaos for the inhabitants of
Vikaspuri region, which is otherwise tranquil. The new plant may result in increased cost of living,
aliens migrating to the region disturbing the social and economic order. The company sensing the
possible protest tried to educate the people of Vikaspuri region and public in general that how
its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy would help overcome the likely difficulties of the
residents of Vikaspuri region. In spite of this the protests begin and some of the residents decided
to approach the judiciary as their plea before the Government did not yield any result.
(a) Identify the issues involved in the case.

(b) What can be suggested to satisfy the company's goal and to address the residents' concerns?

SC

GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 2; Question No. 11; Dated - 18 September 2015)

GS

Q.1 Corporate governance can be considered as an environment of trust, ethics, moral values and
confidence - as a synergic effort of all the constituents of society - that is the stakeholders,
including government; the general public, etc; professional/service providers - and the corporate
sector. One of the consequences of a concern with the actions of an organization, and the
consequences of those actions, has been an increasing concern with corporate governance. Corporate
governance is therefore a current buzzword, the world over. One of the implications of this
current concern however is that this is a new phenomenon - one which has not been of concern
previously, i.e., the issues of socially responsible behavior. In this light discuss:
(A) The idea of corporate governance.
(B) What is the purpose and limitations of corporate social responsibility?
(C) How corporates can be more socially responsible?
Thinking line:
(A) Corporate Governance refers to the way a corporation is governed. It is the technique by which
companies are directed and managed. Corporate Governance ensures transparency, which ensures
strong and balanced economic development.
Benefits of Corporate Governance:

Good corporate governance ensures corporate success and economic growth.

Good corporate governance also minimizes wastages, corruption, risks and mismanagement.

It ensures that organization is managed in a manner that fits the best interests of all.

In another words: Corporate governance refers to the set of systems, principles and processes by which
a company is governed. They provide the guidelines as to how the company can be directed or controlled
such that it can fulfill its goals and objectives in a manner that adds to the value of the company and
is also beneficial for all stakeholders in the long term. Stakeholders in this case would include everyone
ranging from the Board of Directors, management, and shareholders to customers, employees and society.
The management of the company hence assumes the role of a trustee for all the others.

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(B) Corporate Social Responsibility is a management concept whereby companies integrate social and
environmental concerns in their business operations and interactions with their stakeholders. CSR is
generally understood as being the way through which a company achieves a balance of economic,
environmental and social imperatives, while at the same time addressing the expectations of shareholders
and stakeholders. In this sense it is important to draw a distinction between CSR, which can be a
strategic business management concept, and charity, sponsorships or philanthropy. Even though the
latter can also make a valuable contribution to poverty reduction, will directly enhance the reputation
of a company and strengthen its brand, the concept of CSR clearly goes beyond that.
(C) Finding the potential for mutual value creation is not always straightforward. The key is finding
symmetry between the two sides and being open enough to understand issues both from a business
and a societal perspective.

GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 6; Question No. 7; Dated - 2 October 2015)
Q.2 There is a distillery unit which is manufacturing one of the best brands of liquor in a remote
tribal area. The unit has come into existence after the villagers provided their lands to the
management at a concessional rate. The unit is earning reasonably good revenue. What type of
social responsibilities and initiatives are expected from the management of the unit?
Thinking line:
Increasing number of companies are now realizing that they need to be good neighbours for the
community where they are located.

The management of the unit should initiate following actions to take some social responsibility.

OR

(a) The unit can conduct programmes like adult literacy, primary education, family planning, health care
for the poor tribal village communities located around the unit.
(b) It can also set up an Adivasi Centre for culture and sports to preserve the traditional culture of the
tribal people.

SC

(c) It can also establish educational institutions for girl child.

(d) The unit could participate in some training activities through which some income generation for
tribals could be ensured.
(e) The liquor should not be distributed within the tribal region especially among youngsters.

GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 7; Question No. 14; Dated - 30 October 2015)

GS

Q.3 Industries generally have little concern about the environmental consequences of industrial
processes. Industrialists influence the environmental policy-implementation process either directly
or through business lobbies and representatives of the business interests concerned. Hence pressure
by industrial associations during consideration of Acts result in a weakening of the penalties for
non-compliance. In the developing nation like India, the elites are allowed to misuse the resources
or change policy formulation and implementation process as per their need, as they contribute for
the growth of nation which in turn leads to poverty alleviation and employment growth. Discuss
the issues related to business ethics involved in the above case study.
Thinking line:

All businesses have impact on the environment: they emit pollution, they produce waste and use
resources. Many companies discharge waste into bodies of water, like ponds. Sometimes this is
relatively harmless to the ecosystem, but increasing the amount of waste could become too toxic for
some of the organisms. If the toxins kill certain plants in a pond, then many fish could die. This in
turn could frustrate fishermen who make a living by catching fish in the pond. All of the damage
done to the pond, fish, and fishermen are externalities or spillovercosts to third parties. Business
transactions arent always just transactions between two people during trade. Sometimes other people
and nonhuman animals are also harmed by business transactions.

Such activities are unethical and immoral.

Businesses have traditionally shown egregious indifference towards the environment. Environmental
protection was rarely seen as an issue. A company would harm the environment to whatever extent
was profitable, and they often harmed the environment despite the fact that it was unwarranted to
do so.

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But on the other hand it is almost impossible to do no harm to ecosystems in business because we
need the Earths resources to conduct business and sell products, and many companies have no
choice but to dispose of waste and pollute one way or another.

Hence a balance should be maintained between development and environmental conservation. But
the industries act as lobby and changes the rules and regulations according to their requirement s or
delay the implementation of rules to meet their ends.

We can protect the environment by implementing stricter standards on companies and limit the
amount of pollution allowed, and we can try to heal the environment and do what is necessary to
restore it back to a balanced state. Of course, the costs of protecting and helping the environment can
be expensive, and people dont want to pay those costs. At this point business ethics come to play
an important role.

The industries can contribute for environmental conservation by offering special credit products for
investment in energy efficiency, renewable energies and other environmentally-related activities.

UPSC Ques. - 14

Saraswati was a successful IT professional in USA. Moved by the patriotic sense of doing something
for the country shereturned to India. Together with some other like-minded friends, she formed
an NGO to build a school for a poor rural community.

OR

The objective of the school was to provide the best quality modern education at a nominal cost.
She soon discovered that she has to seek permission from a number of government agencies. The
rules and procedures were quite confusing and cumbersome. What frustrated her most was the
delays, callous attitude of officials and constant demand for bribes. Her experience and the
experience of many others like her deterred people from taking up social service projects.

SC

A measure of Government control over voluntary social work is necessary. But it should not be
exercised in a coercive or corrupt manner. What measures can you suggest to ensure that due
control is exercised but well meaning, honest NGO efforts are not thwarted?
GS SCORE - ETHICS TEST SERIES (Test No. 7; Question No. 13; Dated - 30 October 2015)

GS

Q. You are attached to an NGO related to education as a teacher. With the help of the NGO, you
want to start school for children living on street and of roadside vendors who cannot afford
education. You have started creating awareness about the programme to the people, but you were
shocked to see the response of people as they declined the proposal. They did not trusted you
because of their past experience in which NGO used their names just for getting foreign aid and
did not implemented any welfare activity at the ground level.
The numbers of NGOs are increasing day by day in India but the change that should have
brought is missing.
(A) What are the ethical issues involved in the working of NGOs?
Thinking line:

NGOs in the country assume a conspicuous role in multifarious developmental programmes and
activities. The achievements and success of NGOs in various fields and the excellent work done by
them in specific areas is no doubt a tremendous task that has helped to meet the changing needs of
the social system. However, inspite of its achievements in various fields, cases of various NGOs have
come up which have worked against the ethical values.

Some of the unscrupulous elements have made fortunes by floating NGOs for their personnel gains
and managing grants from the government as stated in the above case study. It is a common
experience that there have been serious charges of misuse and misappropriation of funds received as
grants-in-aid form the government, foreign donors and raised through their own resources by the
most of the NGOs.

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The reasons for the failure of a large number of NGOs to come up to the desired level of expectation
are numerous. The major argument against many NGOs is: they are the creation of funding agencies
and hence their entire existence, not merely dependency, is on donor money, almost always from
above. Being a favoured child of western donors, they are capable of exerting pressure on national
governments with enormous power in terms of money, technology and knowledge.

Further several retired government ofcial, politicians and people with vested interests have formed
NGOs or GONGOs (Government-Operated NGOs). This extraordinary mushrooming hardly enhances
the ideology of civil society activism as NGOs now are formed to compromise with donors likes and
dislikes and even to fudge data to suit the clients needs. It is unfortunate to learn that many of the
new generation of Project NGOs create hypothetical beneciaries for meeting targets within a stipulated
period.

The patron-client relationship emerging out of such a model of development raises numerous questions
about the accountability and legitimacy of NGO activity. A puppet NGO, in spite of its best records,
is bound to betray the very spirit of civil society activism and replace accountability by accountancy.

It appears that reliability and sustainability of NGO activities, the two distinguishing criteria for their
success, are hardly fullled in many instances.

Due to the above stated ethical issues involved in the functioning of NGOs people are reacting
sceptical to the NGOs.

As in the above case people has denied educational help as with the past experience they know that
they are just being numbers in databook of NGOs and the change at ground level will be minimum.
Further exploitation of people (children and women) by NGOs on name of charity is also widespread.

It seems that NGOs often indulge in a double standard. Thus, on the one hand, they argue for
transparency and democratic participation while criticizing the state/bureaucracy for their failure to
do so. But, while discharging their duties, they themselves fail to observe such norms.

The need for transparency in dealings, democratic accountability in transactions, and sensitivity to
the concerns and aspirations of the people they serve has forced some to argue for a code of conduct
for NGOs. But code of conduct work only on ethical people as they follow the rules and regulations
hence ethics at individual level counts more.

SC

OR

Thinking line:

GS

(B) Though the purpose of foreign aid is genuine, then also it breeds corruption. Do you agree?
Analyse.

The foreign aid aims at removing the impediments in developing countries and to provide basic
amenities to the people. This purpose looks genuine.

But mostly the purpose behind it is of influence i.e. using soft power to mould the developing country
towards their larger goal.

Further the accountability and transparency of the utilisation of funds are missing which breeds
corruption. The donor either gives tied funds (to be used in particular scheme) or untied.

The outcomes are usually flaunted in the reports to allow flow of foreign aid continuously. This
further reduces the accountability of the field departments of using the fund appropriately.

(C) How the trust deficit between citizen and NGOs can be decreased in the above case study?
Thinking line:
The suggestions are:
(a) A short term training programme for strengthening the managerial capabilities of NGOs will go a
long way in improving their performance and effectiveness significantly.
(b) The overdependence of NGOs on funding agencies and the syndrome of dependency should be
reduced by involving the government directly in funding activities.

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(c) Donor agencies should also take active initiation in selecting the funding projects and even selecting
of NGOs too. The working of NGOs relies on the ethical values of the Management hence it should
be selected properly.
(d) The NGOs should be given license and fund by government by seeing their past records and mission
and vision of organisation.
(e) The donor agencies should go for surveying the viable projects for NGOs and the needs of the people
meet the local needs rather than just completing targets.
(f)

Proper monitoring the activities of the NGOs and the enterprises run under the umbrella is the need
of the hour. Therefore, the NGOs should also accountable for the funds on the one hand and the
beneficiaries on the other.

GS

SC

OR

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