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A water bottle is a container that is used to hold water, liquids or other

beverages for consumption. The use of a water bottle allows an individual to


transport, and drink, a beverage from one place to another.
A water bottle is usually made of plastic, glass, sheepskin or metal. Water
bottles are available in different shapes, colors and sizes. In the past, water
bottles were sometimes made of wood, bark or leather. Water bottles can be
either disposable or reusable. Reusable water bottles can also be used for
liquids such as juice, iced tea, alcoholic beverages or soft drinks. This water
bottle form can help save the environment, through reducing waste.
Easily portable, water bottles make for convenient use, while typically
containing nutrition facts and fluid ounces.
Contents
[hide]

1Types of water bottles


o

1.1Single-use plastic water bottles

1.2Metal water bottles

1.3Glass water bottles

1.4Filtering water bottles

1.5Connected water bottles

1.6Hydration reservoirs

2Popularity

3Consequences
o

3.1Health

3.2Environment

4See also

5References

Types of water bottles[edit]


Single-use plastic water bottles[edit]
See also: Plastic bottle

Disposable water bottles


Water bottle sales have increased almost every decade in the United States for
more than a decade. In 2011, greater than $11 billion was spent on U.S. bottled
water products.[1] The International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) states that
Americans are increasingly relying on water bottles for convenience and
portability.

Multi-use HDPE water bottles


Multi-use water bottles can be made from high-density
polyethylene (HDPE), low-density
polyethylene (LDPE), copolyester or polypropylene. All offer the advantage of
being durable, lightweight, dishwasher-safe and BPA-free. The main difference
between each type of water bottle is the flexibility of the material. Copolyester
and polypropylene bottles offer the greatest rigidity. HDPE bottles retain some
flexibility, while LDPE bottles (most commonly associated with 'squeeze' type
bottles) are highly flexible and collapsible.
Metal water bottles[edit]

Metal water bottles


See also: Aluminium bottle
Metal water bottles are growing in popularity. Made primarily from stainless
steel or aluminum, they are durable and retain minimal odor or taste from
previous contents. Aluminum bottles contain a plastic resin or epoxy liner to
protect contents from taste and odor transfer. [2] Although most liners are now
BPA free, older and less expensive models can contain BPA.
It is not recommended to fill aluminum bottles with acidic liquids (e.g. orange
juice), as this could cause aluminum to leach into the contents of the bottle.
[3]
Stainless steel bottles do not contain a liner but have been known to transfer
a metallic taste and odor to contents. Bottles made with food grade stainless
steel (Grade 304, also known as 18/8) do not transfer taste or odor. Depending
on the type of source material and manufacturing process behind your
stainless steel bottle, trace amounts of minerals can leach into contents. [4]
Metal water bottles can be heavier than their plastic counterparts and readily
transfer temperature of contents to external surfaces, which makes them
unsuitable for use with unusally hot or cold liquids.
Glass water bottles[edit]

Glass water bottle with protective silicone sleeve

Because they are completely recyclable, BPA free and transfer minimal taste or
odor, glass water bottles are becoming a popular choice for many consumers
worried about their health.
Heavier than plastic, stainless steel or aluminum bottles, they are easier to
damage and break. Glass bottles have a high level of temperature transfer, so
they are not ideal for very hot or cold liquids. [5]
Filtering water bottles[edit]

Carbon filtering water bottle.


See also: Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and Carbon filtering
This type of bottle is often BPA-Free and more commonly uses carbon
(activated charcoal) filtration. UV light can also be used to purify water. UV
filtration bottles are popular and convenient for those who are traveling to
areas where water quality may be harmful, or where bottled water is not
readily available. UV is effective against all water-borne pathogens.[6]
UV bottles can be expensive and require power (i.e. batteries) to function.
Recently, Dr. Timothy Whitehead [7] invented a UV filtering water bottle that
utilizes a hand crank to generate the necessary power. Its not yet available for
purchase.[8]
Carbon filtration bottles will eliminate some organic chemicals and improve the
taste and odor of water. Carbon filtration will not eliminate pathogens, metals
or nitrates from water.[9] Carbon filters must be changed regularly to maintain
effectiveness.
Connected water bottles[edit]
Connected devices collect data related to a person's water intake. The data is
transmitted to a smartphone, which enables tracking of an individual's water
intake and alerts the user when they are not properly hydrated. These devices
are a result of recent technology advancements which fall and the broader
category of the Internet of Things. Devices that monitor and collect data
related to one's personal health are also part of the Quantified Self movement.

While several concepts have been introduced, none are currently available
commercially.
Hydration reservoirs[edit]
Main article: Hydration pack

Hydration reservoir
Hydration reservoirs, also known as hydration bladders, are large volume,
flexible bags typically carried in a backpack system. Users access water via a
'sipping tube.' This system allows the user to remain engaged in activity
without having to stop and unscrew a water bottle. . [10]
Popularity[edit]
Due to growing concern over the safety, environmental impact, and cost of
disposable plastic water bottles, more people are choosing to fill multi-use
water bottles. However, the popularity of water available in disposable plastic
bottles continues to rise. In 2007, Americans consumed 50 billion single-serve
bottles of water. Since 2001, the sale of single-serve bottled water has
fluctuated by 70 percent, and this trend is continuing. [11] In 2016, a trend
among American adolescents called "water bottle flipping" attracted media
attention.[12]
Consequences[edit]
Health[edit]
Chemicals used for making some types of bottles have been shown to be
detrimental to the health of humans. Inhalation of plastic is an enormous
hazard for the factory workers who handle the material. In many developing
countries plastic waste is burned rather than recycled or deposited in landfills.
Rural residents of developing countries who burn plastic as a disposal method

are not protected from the chemical inhalation hazards associated with this
practice. Inhalation of the pollutants produced from burning plastics have been
shown to result in poor health outcomes.[13]
Much of the plastic that can be traced to health risks is latent in
disease epidemiology and outcomes often appear months or years later.
William Shotyk has performed two studies concerning contamination and
leaching in PET containers in storage capacities. One study was undertaken to
research the notion of storage dose of water in acid-cleaned LDPE bottles.
Compared to that of PET bottles indicated after three months of storage at
room temperature, the water in the PET bottle yielded nearly 200 percent more
of the Sb chemical concentration.[14] This study provides insight on the storage
capacity of the water contained in PET bottles and elevates the need to
regularly use and replace water stored for emergencies in such bottle types. It
is important to read the expiration date of the bottles and dispose of water that
has been stored under conditions that increase potentially hazardous chemical
leeching.[15]
Bottle manufacturing relies on fossil fuels and natural resources. Some
manufacturing processes release toxic chemicals into the air and water supply
that can adversely affect nervous systems, blood, kidneys, immune systems,
and can cause cancer and birth defects.[16] Most disposable water bottles are
made from petroleum derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET). While PET is
considered less toxic than many other types of plastic, the Berkeley Ecology
Center found that manufacturing PET generates toxic emissions in the form
of nickel, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide and benzene at levels 100 times higher
than those created to make the same amount of glass. [17]
Research is ongoing as to whether plastic water bottles can leach hazardous
chemicals into the water, especially when heated. [13]
Environment[edit]

Label on disposable water bottle highlighting positive environmental attributes.


See also: Bottled water

All disposable water bottles and most multi-use water bottles are recyclable.
Water bottles made of glass, aluminium and steel are the most
readily recyclable. HDPE and LDPE bottles can be recycled as well. To
determine if a plastic water bottle can be recycled, locate the SPI code on the
bottle (usually on the bottom of the bottle inside what appears to be a
'recycling' triangle) and dispose of the bottle accordingly. You can also check
with the manufacturer. Recycling helps to lower the impact of certain products
on the environment.
Because the manufacturing and transportation of disposable water bottles
requires petroleum, a non-renewable resource, the single-serve bottled water
industry has come under pressure from concerned consumers. The Pacific
Institute calculates that it required about 17 million barrels of oil to make the
disposable plastic bottles for single-serve water that Americans consumed in
2006. To sustain the consumptive use of products relying on plastic
components and level of manufactured demand for plastic water bottles,[18] the
end result is shortages of fossil fuels. Furthermore, it means not only a
shortage of the raw materials to make plastics, but also a shortage of the
energy required to fuel their production. [19]
In recent years, the single-serve bottled water industry has responded to
consumer concern about the environmental impact of disposable water bottles
by significantly reducing the amount of plastic used in bottles. [20] The reduced
plastic content also results in a lower weight product that uses less energy to
transport. Other bottle manufacturing companies are experimenting with
alternative materials such as corn starch to make new bottles that are more
readily biodegradable.
The lowest impact water bottles are those made of glass or metal. They are not
made from petroleum and are easily recyclable. By choosing to continuously fill
any multi-use water bottle, the consumer keeps disposable bottles out of
the waste stream and minimizes environmental impact.
See also[edit]

Reuse of water bottles

Beverage can

Bottled water

Carboy

Plastic pollution

Sipper water bottle, a water dispenser for pets

References[edit]
1. Jump up^ "IBWA Industry Reports".
2. Jump up^ Cooper, James E. (10/01/2011). "Assessment of
bisphenol A released from reusable plastic, aluminum and
stainless steel water bottles". Chemosphere (Oxford) (0045-6535),
85 (4), p. 943
3. Jump up^ Verssimo, Marta I.S. (10/25/2006). "Leaching of
aluminum from cooking pans and food containers". Sensors and
actuators. B, Chemical (0925-4005), 118 (1-2), p. 192
4. Jump up^ Krachler, Michael (01/15/2009). "Trace and ultratrace
metals in bottled waters: survey of sources worldwide and
comparison with refillable metal bottles". The Science of the total
environment (0048-9697), 407 (3), p. 1089
5. Jump up^ Glass Water Bottles: BPA Free Water Bottles retrieved
on 03/30/2012 from : http://gogreentravelgreen.com/greenenvironmentally-friendly-products-travel-gear/glass-water-bottlesbpa-fre-water-bottles/
6. Jump up^ Hijnen, W.A.M. (01/01/2006). "Inactivation credit of UV
radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo)cysts in water: A
review". Water research (Oxford) (0043-1354), 40 (1), p. 3.
7. Jump up^ "Dr. Timothy Whitehead". Retrieved 2016-05-29.
8. Jump up^ Pure Water Bottle Filters 99.9% of Bacteria with UV
Light retrieved on 03/29/2012 from: http://inhabitat.com/purewater-bottle-filters-99-9-of-bacteria-with-uv-light/
9. Jump up^ "Tap water, bottled water, filtered water, which to
choose retrieved on 03/29/2012
from: http://www.foodsafety.wisc.edu/consumer/fact_sheets/water
bottles.pdf
10.Jump up^ George, Steve (06/30/1997). "Bottle or bladder?".
Backpacker (0277-867X), 25 (5), p. 58.
11.Jump up^ "Confronting Challenges: Bottled Water" (PDF).
Retrieved 2016-05-29.
12.Jump up^ Arnett, Dugan; Rao, Sonia (2016-09-30). "Bottle
flipping becomes the rage with middle
schoolers". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 2016-10-09.

13.^ Jump up to:a


Car".

"Viral Warning: Don't Drink Bottled Water Left in

14.Jump up^ Shotyk, William (02/2006). Contamination of Canadian


and European bottled waters with antimony from PET containers.
Journal of environmental monitoring (1464-0325), 8(2), p 288.
15.Jump up^ Halden, Rolf U. (03/01/2010). Plastics and Health Risks:
Annual Review of Public Health ( 0163-7525), 31(1), p.179. DOI:
10.1146/annurev.publhealth.012809.103714.
16.Jump up^ Halden, Rolf U. (03/01/2010). Plastics and Health Risks:
Annual Review of Public Health (0163-7525), 31(1), p.179. DOI:
10.1146/annurev.publhealth.012809.103714.
17.Jump up^ Howard, Brian. Message in a Bottle., E: The
Environmental Magazine, Sep/Oct 2003, Vol. 14 Issue 5, p26, 11p.
18.Jump up^ "The Water Project". Retrieved 2016-05-29.
19.Jump up^ Cormier, Zoe. Plastic Unfantastic. This Magazine, MarApr. 2008 18+. General OneFile. Accessed, Feb 24, 2012.
20.Jump up^ "Water Bottles Slim Down" December 14, 2007. The
Wall Street Journal. retrieved
from http://blogs.wsj.com/numbersguy/water-bottles-slim-down238/