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Modelling of Transformer for

Surges

Dr. Udaya Kumar


Professor
HVE Lab, Dept. of EE, Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore, INDIA 560 012

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Contents
Electrical stress on transformer
Surge propagation on lines
Closer look into the surge distribution in
transformer windings
Classical approach & Field based approaches
Distributed circuit based modelling approach
Salient aspects of parameter extraction
Summary

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Electrical stress due to power frequency voltages

Linear voltage
distribution
Stress pattern is fixed
Major insulation
- Between inner coil and
core, phase to phase,
Primary and Secondary

Minor insulation

- Inter turn Insulation

The J & P Transformer Handbook, Martin J. Heathcote,


12th Edition , Newnes Publication , 1998

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Transient electrical stresses

Switching impulse voltage


Lightning impulse voltage

Very fast transient overvoltages

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

VT characteristics of the insulation


Surges are of much higher magnitudes
(LI 1050, 1425, 2400 kV)
Typical VT characteristics
- Higher strength for
surges
- Breakdown is
instantaneous

Design Insulation Level for ANSI dielectric tests


Nelson Jk & Shaw C, The impulse design of Transformer OilCellulose Structures, IEEE Trans. On DEI, Vol. 13, No. 3, June 2006

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Salient aspects of the surge distribution

Voltage is a function of spatial position along


the winding, as well as, time
Non uniform voltage
distribution Series stress
can be very detrimental
to turn-turn or coil-coil
insulation failure
Amplification of the voltage
(global and local)

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Scope of the present discussion

Modelling of the transformer for the dielectric


stress under:
Switching surges
Lightning surges

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Lightning surge on transmission line


Lightning channel
Line

Ground

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Switching surge on transmission line


Source

0.01 s

Ground

0.1 s

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

0.01 s

Switching surge on transmission line - Efield

0.1 s

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Surge on transmission line


X

ZnO arrester is employed for protection


In further discussion no ZnO is considered
Voltage doubles at the transformer end
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Surge response of transformer


The surge response of the transformer winding
was correctly picturised in 1920 itself !!!

For a step input, the initial true


electromagnetic wave response settles down
within 0.1 0.2 s
Thereafter a distributed circuit-like response
prevails Pseudo or Slow wave response
In principle two possible solution approaches
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Classical approach Surge response of transformer


Governing equations for single-layer
uniformly wound air cores coil
Wagner- Rudenbergs Equation localized
inductance
2
4

V
V
2V
LC s 2 2 LC g 2 0
2
x
x t
t

Blume-Boyajians Equation Total


inductive coupling

4V
4V
2V
LC s 2 2 LC g 2 0
4
x
x t
t

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Classical approach Surge response of transformer

Winding non-uniformity, Presence of other


windings and shields complicate the
analytical approach
Investigation with model coils
Numerical simulation using ladder network
approach became the most feasible one
Accuracy of modelling critically depends on
spatial and temporal resolution employed
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Why not fully field based approach ?


Most of the numerical packages provide
complete solution of Maxwells equation
It would provide electrical stress as solution
appears to be an ideal choice !!!

Recall that we are at Pseudo-wave domain


more precisely we are with quasi-static fields
Within the bulk of the conductor (winding
c/s) no wave propagation can exist
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Fully field based approach for surge response ?

Outside (in the insulation) wave effects have


already disappeared
Any Brute-force approach to arrive at quasistatic fields from wave solution would be a
dumb exercise

- As such even for static fields, modelling of the


individual turns is not practical
- The existing discretisation does not permit global
modelling and late time instability can arise

Can we adopt a quasi-static approach ????

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Suitable field based approach for surge response ?

2 0

For Electric Field (Quasi-static):


For Magnetic Field:

A
2
A
J s
t

Inside Conductor:
(Conductors are relatively thin)
Outside Conductor

A J s
2

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Suitable field based approach for surge response ?

Coupled through conditions along the winding

A
J
0
E
t
t

I
A

0
J
l t
t

1 V 1 A
I

R l R t

Transient response solely due to boundary


conditions Not generally dealt in the literature
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Suitable approach for surge response ?

Due to the quasi-static nature of the field electric


and magnetic fields are in separable form
Distributed circuit model can be built
Circuit based approach would be easier
However, it does not provide any knowledge on
the field (& hence electrical stress)
A two-step procedure:
-

Solve for the currents and voltages using suitable


distributed network model
Use these voltages as input boundary condition in
the field solution at every time instants

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Circuit based modelling

Only ladder network approach is possible


with general circuit simulators
Accuracy v/s computational burden

Each T or PI network assumes step-like changes


in currents and voltages
Higher spatial resolution requires large number
of steps low time steps
Note that while the turn-turn modelling of the
winding is legal, modelling does not and cannot
cross the quasi-static boundary !!!

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Circuit based modelling arriving at parameters

Role of resistance (series and shunt) is very


minimal
Only coupled L & C are to be fixed
Transformer has so many types of L & Cs
Quite often the salient features of power
frequency model valid for specified sinusoidal
voltage levels are considered to be universal
Some insight can be obtained from classical
standing wave solution
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Some insight from standing wave theory

Current and voltages vary both in space and


time
Schematic current pattern for a standing
wave component
Current flows
in opposite directions !
No or little axial flux &
significant radial flux
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Evaluation of network elements


Spatial resolution decided by significant
standing waves (or rate of rise)
Individual discs (of HV) can form PI or T
elements
When modelling of LV is required, higher
number of sections than HV is essential
Coupling across adjacent phases may not
be essential
To make a colourful presentation FEMM
simulation are carried out

FEMM - free 2d FEM software by David Meeker. http://www.femm.info/wiki/HomePage


Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Evaluation of capacitances

Most common practice is to consider individual


elements for Cg and adjacent elements for Cs in the
evaluation
Note that capacitance of the system is not same as
that of the constituent elements taken in isolation
Field solver codes would be very handy
With good insight burden can be reduced
Some exception are possible for the series
capacitances (due to the geometry)
For both Cg and Cs genesis is field due to charges and
it is orthogonal to conductors
All the results hereafter are only for illustrative purposes
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Role of neighbouring conductors in C evaluation

By definition other conductors


are to be grounded
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Role of neighbouring conductors in C evaluation

Multiple-load-cases option could be very


handy basic element matrix does not
change and only the applied voltage changes
Neighbours cannot be ignored
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Evaluation of inductances

Is more complicated than evaluation of Cs


At surge frequencies, core does not carry flux
LV connected to distribution line is equivalent
to shorted winding
Even otherwise, its mere presence can
restrict the flux
The L of HV winding would be lower than its
air cored inductance
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Evaluation of inductances Role of core

L at 50 Hz = 26.6 25.6j H

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Flux expelled
from the core

L at 50 kHz = 0.32 0.00059j H

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Evaluation of inductances Role of core

Even the leakage flux is pushed out core is more


like a magnetic insulation
Grounded conductor for capacitance calculations
L at 50 Hz = 0.31 -0.012j H

L at 50 kHz = 0.179 0.0005j H

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Evaluation of inductances Role of LV


Flux expelled
from LV region

50 Hz

50 kHz

Numerical
packages
would be
very useful
Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Summary

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Stress under switching & lightning surges is an


important input to the design
Surge distribution is governed by quasi-static fields,
which permits distributed circuit modelling approach
Circuit results then can be used for field and dielectric
stress calculation
Evaluation of elements of the ladder network needs
careful modelling and insight Numerical packages
would be very useful
Distinction needs to made between numerical
resolution and modelling resolution
Adequate knowledge and tools exist for accurate
evaluation of the stress under LI and SI

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science

Modeling of Transformer for Surges

Acknowledgement:
Special thanks to research scholars
Santosh J ****; Sethupathy K ***; Ashiq M **

Thank you

Questions ?

Prof. Udaya Kumar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science