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# Experiment No.

02
TIME RESPONSE OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
1. Objective(s):
This activity aims to
1. demonstrate the use of computer aided tools to determine the poles and zeros, and the response
of the system to various inputs of dynamic systems;
2. equip the students with the knowledge and skills in obtaining the pole-zero plot, time response plot
and information, and determining the relationship of the time response parameters of the system in
relation to its pole location; and
3. provide the students with the knowledge of designing component values to meet time response
objectives and simulating the design to verify its correctness.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
At the end of this activity, the students shall be able to:
1. determine and, on the complex s-plane, plot the poles and zeros of a dynamic system;
2. plot the time response of, and interpret the time response characteristics of dynamic systems
represented as transfer functions; and
3. design components of dynamic systems to achieve time response parameter objectives.
3. Discussion
After obtaining a model of the system, the system is analyzed for its transient and steady-state responses.
It was learned in the discussion that the response of the system is highly dependent on the location of the
system poles. Thus, the location of the poles gives a vivid picture of the form of the response, as well as
how fast the response is.
For first-order system, or system with only one pole and no zero, the response has only one form and is
given as
c(t) = A + Beat
where A and B are the residues of the partial fraction expansion of the rational Laplace transform of the
response of the system. In the discussion, the parameters time constant, rise time and settling time are
defined, which are all dependent on the pole location a.
For second-order system, the response depends on the location of the poles also. In the discussion, a
second-order system with no zeros can have an overdamped, underdamped, undamped, or critically
damped response depending on the location of the poles. Two related specifications: the damping ratio and
the natural frequency are defined in order to relate these to the type of the response of the system.
Higher-ordered systems containing dominant complex poles as well as with zeros can be approximated as
second-order system when certain conditions are met. These approximations can be validated using
computer aided tools. This activity shows the use of MATLAB and LabVIEW in obtaining the time response
parameters of dynamic systems.

4. Resources:
To perform this activity, a computer workstation with MATLAB R2012a or higher and LabVIEW 8.6 or
higher installed is required. For MATLAB, the control systems toolbox is required and for LabVIEW, the
control design and simulation module.
5. Procedure:
Activity 2.1 Poles and Zeros
1. MATLAB. Use the command pzmap()to determine the poles and zeros, as well as plot the polezero map of a system whose transfer function is defined in the object sys. Use the following format:
>> [p z] = pzmap(sys)
and MATLAB will return the location of the poles in vector p and the zeros in vector z, as well as a
figure will show the pole-zero map.
2. LabVIEW. Create a VI called act02-01.vi. Build the FP and BD as shown below.

3.

For the Pole-Zero Map, set the upper and lower limits of the imaginary axs to +10 and -10
respectively, and the real axis from +10 to -20. Then disable the autoscaling of the plot.
Manually compute for the poles and zeros of the transfer function given in the table below, then plot
them on the complex s-plane. Complete the table below.

Transfer Function

## Poles and Zeros

Pole-Zero Plot

s 2 + 2s + 2
G(s) = 4
s + 6s 3 + 4s2 + 7s + 2

4.

Use MATLAB and LabVIEW to determine the poles and zeros and to plot them on the complex splane. Record the results below.
Transfer Function
Poles and Zeros
Pole-Zero Plot

In MATLAB:
G(s) =

s 2 + 2s + 2
s 4 + 6s 3 + 4s2 + 7s + 2

In LabVIEW:
G(s) =

s 2 + 2s + 2
s 4 + 6s 3 + 4s2 + 7s + 2

Q1.4(a)Complete the table below, using MATLAB and LabVIEW. Verify the results using hand
calculations on separate sheets of paper.
Q1.4(b) Using the poles and zeros obtained in the previous questions, write the general form of the
step responses of the system whose transfer functions are given below.
Q1.4(c) How does the location of the poles and zeros relate to the general form of the step response
of the system?
Activity 2.2 Time Response of Dynamic Systems
1. MATLAB. To obtain the step response parameters of systems represented by transfer function sys
use the command step() and stepinfo()which plots the step response of the system, and
provides the step response parameters of the system such as the settling time, rise time, peak time
and percent overshoot. Enter the commands in the following formats
>> step(sys)
>> stepinfo(sys)

The command damp()gives information on the poles of the transfer function, as well as the
associated damping ratio and natural frequencies. Enter the command in the following format
>> damp(sys)
The command ltiview() can also be used to plot the time response of linear systems. On the
command window, type in
>> help ltiview
for more information on this command. In this case, use the following format
>> ltiview({step,pzmap},sys)

2.

to display the step response, as well as the pole-zero map of the transfer function sys.
LabVIEW. Replicate act02-01.vi and name the other copy as act02-02a.vi. Add components as
shown below.

Q2.1(a) Use the MATLAB commands and the LabVIEW VI to complete the table below. On a
separate sheet, roughly sketch the time response of each of the system.
Q2.1(b) Comment on the results for the system (a) and (b). Check the values obtained using the VI
with the results of the formula. Are the values for the damping ratio and the natural frequencies
valid? Comment also on the validity of the values for the peak time and percent overshoot.
Q2.1(c) Comment on the results for the systems (c) through (f). Determine the form of the response
with respect to the value of the damping ratio.
Q2.1(d) Systems (g) through (i) have additional real poles, aside from two complex poles. Comment
on the results. Which exhibits a near second-order response? What is the relationship between the
dominant complex poles and the real third pole for a third-order system to exhibit an approximate
second-order response?
Q2.1(e) Systems (j) and (k) have zeros. Which of the system exhibit non-minimum phase behavior?
Discuss the non-minimum phase behavior based on the time response plot.
Q2.1(f) Systems (l) through (o) are systems with additional poles and with zeros. Which of these can
be approximated into a second-order response using pole-zero cancellation? What general rule can
be established which will allow such approximation?
Q.2.1(g) Plot the responses of systems (a) through (o) on separate sheets of paper. Screenshots for
such plots may be provided.
3. Complex systems can also be modeled and simulated in MATLAB and LabVIEW. As an example the
s+1

system whose block diagram is shown below has the transfer functions G(s) = s(s+2) and H(s) =
s+3

s+4

4. MATLAB. To obtain the closed-loop equivalent the above transfer function, use the command
feedback(), as in the following format
>> T = feedback(G,H)
where T is the object representing the closed-loop transfer function, G is the forward transfer function
and H the feedback transfer function. Read more on the commands feedback(), as well as on
the commands parallel() and series() by using the help command of MATLAB.
Q4.1(a) Using MATLAB, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response
characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.
5. LabVIEW. Modify act02-02a.vi and rename this as act02-02b.vi. Add a CD Construct Transfer
Function.vi block to define H(s) and connect G(s) with H(s) using the CD Feedback.vi. Use the
Q5.1(a) Using LabVIEW, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response
characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.
Course:
Experiment No.:
Group No.:
Section:
Group Members:
Date Performed:
Date Submitted:
Instructor:
6. Data and Results:
Q1.4(a)Complete the table below, using MATLAB and LabVIEW. Verify the results using hand
calculations on separate sheets of paper.
Transfer Function
Poles and Zeros
Pole-Zero Plot

G(s) =

2
s+2

G(s) =

5
(s + 3)(s + 6)

G(s) =

G(s) =

G(s) =

s+5
(s + 10)2

s 3 + 7s 2 + 24s + 24
s 4 + 10s 3 + 35s2 + 50s + 24

s4

38s3

s2 + 2s + 10
+ 515s2 + 2950s + 6000

Q1.4(b) Using the poles and zeros obtained in the previous questions, write the general form of the
step responses of the system whose transfer functions are given below.
Transfer Function
General Form of the Step Response

G(s) =

s 2 + 2s + 2
s 4 + 6s 3 + 4s 2 + 7s + 2

G(s) =

G(s) =

5
(s + 3)(s + 6)

G(s) =

G(s) =

G(s) =

2
s+2

s+5
(s + 10)2

s 3 + 7s2 + 24s + 24
s 4 + 10s 3 + 35s 2 + 50s + 24

s2 + 2s + 10
s4 + 38s3 + 515s2 + 2950s + 6000

Q1.4(c) How does the location of the poles and zeros relate to the general form of the step response
of the system?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Q2.1(a) Use the MATLAB commands and the LabVIEW VI to complete the table below. On a
separate sheet, roughly sketch the time response of each of the system.
Damping Ratio
Time Response Parameters
Transfer Function
/ Natural

Frequency
a)
G(s) =

5
s+5

b)
G(s) =

20
s + 20

c)
G(s) =

s2

20
+ 6s + 144

d)
G(s) =

s2

9
+ 9s + 9

e)
G(s) =

s2

100
+ 100

f)
G(s) =

225
(s + 15)2

g)
G(s) =

24.542
s 2 + 4s + 24.542

h)
G(s) =

245.42
(s + 10)(s2 + 4s + 24.542)

i)
G(s) =

73.626
(s + 3)(s2 + 4s + 24.542)

j)
G(s) =

s2

s+2
+ 3s + 36

s2

s2
+ 3s + 36

k)
G(s) =

l)
G(s) =

s+3
(s + 2)(s2 + 3s + 10)

m)
G(s) =

s + 2.5
(s + 2)(s2 + 4s + 20)

n)
G(s) =

s + 2.1
(s + 2)(s2 + s + 5)

o)
G(s) =

s + 2.01
(s + 2)(s2 + 5s + 20)

p)
G(s) =

s4

38s 3

s 2 + 2s + 10
+ 515s 2 + 2950s + 6000

Q2.1(b) Comment on the results for the system (a) and (b). Check the values obtained using the VI
with the results of the formula. Are the values for the damping ratio and the natural frequencies
valid? Comment also on the validity of the values for the peak time and percent overshoot.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Q2.1(c) Comment on the results for the systems (c) through (f). Determine the form of the response
with respect to the value of the damping ratio.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Q2.1(d) Systems (g) through (i) have additional real poles, aside from two complex poles. Comment
on the results. Which exhibits a near second-order response? What is the relationship between the
dominant complex poles and the real third pole for a third-order system to exhibit an approximate
second-order response?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Q2.1(e) Systems (j) and (k) have zeros. Which of the system exhibit non-minimum phase behavior?
Discuss the non-minimum phase behavior based on the time response plot.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Q2.1(f) Systems (l) through (o) are systems with additional poles and with zeros. Which of these can
be approximated into a second-order response using pole-zero cancellation? What general rule can
be established which will allow such approximation?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Q.2.1(g) Plot the responses of systems (a) through (o) on separate sheets of paper. Screenshots for
such plots may be provided.

Q4.1(a) Using MATLAB, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response
characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.
Closed-loop Transfer Function
Poles and Zeros
Pole-Zero Plot

## Time Response Plot

Q5.1(a) Using LabVIEW, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response
characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.
Closed-loop Transfer Function
Poles and Zeros
Pole-Zero Plot

## Time Response Plot

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment:
1. In typical conventional aircraft, longitudinal flight model linearization results in transfer functions with two
pairs of complex conjugate poles. Consequently, the natural response for these airplanes has two
modes in their natural response. The short period mode is relatively well-damped and has a highfrequency oscillation. The plugoid mode is lightly damped and its oscillation frequency is relatively low.
For example, in a specific aircraft the transfer function from wing elevator deflection to nose angle (angle
of attack) is (McRuer, 1973)
(s)
26.12(s + 0.0098)(s + 1.371)
= 2
(s + 8.99 103 s + 3.97 103)(s2 + 4.21s + 18.23)
e (s)
a. Determine the poles and zeros of this system and plot them on the complex s-plane.
b. Sketch the step response of the wing elevator deflection to a step nose angle input. Determine the
time response parameters.
c. On the plot of the response, label which is the short period mode and which is the phugoid mode.
Which of the poles cause the short period and the phugoid responses, respectively?

25

2. Assume that the motor whose transfer function is G(s) = s(s+1) is used in a position control system.
a. Obtain the systems pole-zero plot, the type of the response of the system to the step input, the plot
of the step response, and obtain the systems damping ratio and natural frequency, and if
applicable, the settling time, percent overshoot, rise time and peak time.
b. It is wanted that the time response of the position control system be improved. In order to do just
that, an amplifier and a tachometer are inserted into the loop, as shown in the figure below.
Investigate the effects of the addition of the amplifier and the tachometer on the response of the
system.

c. Find the values of K1 and K 2 to yield a 16% overshoot and a settling time of 0.2 seconds.
Determine the rest of the time response parameters.
Assessment rubric for the activitys intended learning outcomes
INTENDED
LEARNING
OUTCOMES

Determine and,
on the complex
The student was able to
s-plane, plot
The student was not
The student was able to
determine and plot the
able to determine and
determine and plot the
the poles and
poles and zeros of the
plot the poles and zeros
poles and zeros of the
zeros of a
system but there are
dynamic
of the system.
system.
some errors.
system.
(MP1a, MP2a)
Plot the time
response of,
and interpret
the time
response
characteristics
of dynamic
systems
represented as
transfer
functions.
(MP1b, MP1c,
MP2a)

## The student was not

able to plot and
interpret the time
response
characteristics of the
systems.

## The student was able to

The student was able to
plot the time response
plot and interpret the
characteristics of
time response
systems but was not
characteristics of
able to interpret the
systems.
characteristics.

Points

Design
components of
dynamic
systems to
achieve time
response
parameter
objectives.
(MP2b, MP2c)

## The student was not

able to design the
components of systems
to achieve objectives.

## The student was able to The student was able to

design some of the
design component
component values but
values of systems and
does not achieve the
achieves design
design objectives.
objectives.

Total Score
Mean Score = (Total Score /3)
Percentage Score = (Total Score / 9) x 100%

## Assessment rubric for the conduct of laboratory experiments

Performance Indicators
Conduct experiments in
accordance with good and
safe laboratory practice.

## Operate equipment and

instruments with ease

## Analyze data, validate

experimental values against
theoretical values to
determine possible
experimental errors, and
provide valid conclusions.

Members do not follow
and safe laboratory
good and safe laboratory
practice most of the time
practice in the conduct
in the conduct of
of experiments.
experiments.
Members are unable to
operate the equipment
and instruments.

incomplete data.

## Members are able to

operate equipment and
instrument with
supervision.

and safe laboratory
practice at all times in
the conduct of
experiments.
Members are able to
operate the equipment
and instruments with
ease and with minimum
supervision.

## The group has complete

data, validates
The group has complete
experimental values
data but has no analysis
against theoretical
and valid conclusion.
values, and provides
valid conclusion.
Total Score
Mean Score = (Total Score /3)
Percentage Score = (Total Score / 9) x 100%

Points