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. (1) ,(1) ,(1)
1) Gauss-Bonnet (2). ,
,.

1
1.1 :

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, (Issac Newton, 16421727) (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz,


16461716) , . , ,
, , 17 , , . ,
, , .,
, . , .
, . , 1684 .
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, .
1.2
, ?,
, , , . , ,
, , , ? , ,
y = f (x)

. , , .

. , , , ,
. , . .
, , . , ,
, , , . , ,
. , . ,
, , . , , ,
,. . ,
, ,

s = a,

s =

x,

f (s)ds,

f (x)

). , , ,

a x

~(sum).

s = a

, x,s =

x ,

, , A(x), , , ,

A(x) =

x
a

f (x)

f (s)ds

y = f (x)

, , ,

x,

. ?
s = x

s = x + x

f (x).

A(x)

,
dA(x)
= f (x).

(1)

dx

A(x)

, ,

f (x).

. , ,

f (x)dx =

f (x)dx a .

(2)

f (x)dx

(indefinite integral),,

b
a

f (x)dx

, , ,
. ,,

f (x),

(definite integral).
f (x),

f (x)

, .

.
2

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2.1
, 8, ,
8, 80,
, ,

,
, , ,
(Euler), (Monge), 19 , ,
, 19, ,
(Riemann), ,

(Einstein),
, ,

(x, y)

, ,,
, , , , ,
,
,
, ,
, , , ,x2

+ 1 = 0

, , , ,
, , ,
, , , , 19
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,

2.2
,
b

f (x)dx = (

f (x)dx) a

(2)

:
d
(

f (x)dx) = f (x)

(3)

dx

, , , , ,
, ,, ,
(3)(3)
, , , ,
, ,

f (x),

, , ,
2.3
, ,
, ,
, , , , ,
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,
? ,

n + 1 0,

n+1

(n + 1)x

n+1

= (n + 1)x

n+1

dx

n 1,

n+1

n+1

(n 1)

(4)

n + 1

n = 1

, , , ,
n = 1

, ! ,

n = 1,

dx

1 x, , ,
x

dx = ln x.

1/x ,

ln(ax)

x = 1

ln 1 = 0 ,
ln a,

(5)

a > 0

ln(ax)

c:

1
a =

ax

(5) ,

1/x ,

1
ln(ax) =

dx

x = 0,

ln x

ln x

ln(ax) = ln x + c.

(6)

ln

ln x

1/x

ln

ln 1

1 1 ,

ax

ln x + ln a:

ln ax = ln a + ln x.

(7)

, , ,

ln

, (7)

,
x = e

y = ln x

, ,

y = ln x

ln x

x = e .

(8)

ln x

, , ,
:
e

x+y

= e

(9)

:
x+y

= e

ln u+ln v

= e

ln uv

u = e

= uv,

,v = e

d(exp y)

dx
dy =

exp y,

dy

dx
=

= x = exp y.
dy

. ,

ln

, , , ,
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ln x x = 0

, ,

, (),

, , , ,
, , , (Taylor)
:

f (a)

f (b) = f (a) +

(a)

(b a) +

(b a)

1!

(n1)

(a)

+ +

2!

(b a)

n1

+ Rn(10)
,

(n 1)!

Rn =

(n)

(b t)

n1

(t)

dt.

(11)

(n 1)!

(Lagrange)
,
,
n = 1

(b a)

, , (11)

-.

, , , , ,

= 1+ x+

+ +

2!

+ ,

(12)

n!

, , , ,
, !
,

sin x

cos x

:
1

sin x = x

3!

1
cos x = 1

1
+

1
+

2!

ix,

ix

x
5!

(13)

(14)

4!

= 1 e

ix

= cos x + i sin x.

(15)

(12) - (14) , ,

x = ,

= 1

(16)

e e (Euler)18, ,
, ,
, ,
, , , ,
, , ,
, , , , ,
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, , ,
19, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
,
(16), e, i, :

= 1

, Taylor ,
arctan x arctan x

, arctan x , ,

1
2

1+x

= 1
4

1
+

1
+

(17)

1, 3, 5, 7, 9 ,

! ,

! (Atle Selberg), , (
Reflections Around the Ramanujan Centenary Ramanujan
, , 80,
[Selberg 2007]
3
4,5,6
: | : | : () ()

2014-09-16


2200

shanketiku

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-- 2.5

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