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Engineering Construction Must Be

Carried By A Foundation
- Karl Terzaghi, 1943
The problems of soil mechanics can be divided
into two principal groups - stability problems
and elasticity problems
In other sense: STRESS & STRAIN
Stress
Ultimate stress

settlement

Strain

Bearing Capacity of Soil


Terzaghi was among the earliest to
investigate soil behavior under loading.
He proposed a soil mechanism at failure
under loading

Supporting soil is expected to carry the


foundation safely.
*influence of footing stresses
extend to 4B
D
*soil should be of
suitable BEARING CAPACITY.
CAPACITY.
Otherwise,
seek deep foundation
to reach strong layer

p
qo =p/BL
BL

5B 0.02qo

Shallow foundation D/B 1-3.


Deep foundation; D/B 4.

Terzaghi investigated the failure mechanism


to estimate
the limiting shearing resistance,
Or
the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil to foundation
load.

qult

The foundation was


a strip one
to assume plane stress and strain.

Terzaghi B.C Hypothesis

=45o+/2

Three zones do exist:

passive

active
Transition

H=B/2tan

dz = {(D

Pp=

H 2
2

Terzaghi Bearing Equation for


Strip Footing
qu = c N c + 1 D N q + B 2 N

Failure Zone (depth 2B)


2B)
Generalized soil strength : c, Soil unit weight : 2 (total or
effective as applicable)
(drainage as applicable)

3=Df+z

+ z )k p + 2c k p dz

Pp

R
B/2.qult

k p + D f k p + 2cH k p

2k p

k p k p B k p2

+ k p + D f
+
kp q
c
4 cos
cos
cos

= ult

qult= cN c + D f N q +BN

B/2.H/2

Pv
R=Ppcos.cos
Pv =Rsin

c.B/2cos

Pv =Rsin

Nc, Nq, N are Terzaghi B.C Coefficients, f()


C,

1 D

z
1

1- Active zone, just below the foundation.


2- Transition zone, between the active and
passive zones.
3- Passive zone, near the ground surface, just
beside the foundation.

Overburden

=45o-/2

are the soil shear strength parameters

Terzaghi Bearing Equation


qult =
qult = c Nc Cohesion Term
qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq

Above F.L.

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + B 2 N
Below F.L.

Bearing Capacity Factors


qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + B 2 N

Nc, Nq, and N for Shallow Foundation

0 5

Nc

5 6.5 8.5 11 15

Nq

10

15 20

1 1.5 2.5 4

N -

.5

22.5 25

27.5 30 32.5 35 37.5

17.5 20.5 25

30 37

46 58

6.5 8

10.5 14

18 25

33 46

4.5

10 15

23 34

Nc

40
in
in Degrees
Degrees

Nq

30
20
10
0
70

60

50

40

Nc and Nq

qult = cNcc +1DfNqq + 2BN

(kN/m2)

= soil internal angle of friction,


Nc, Nq, N = bearing capacity factors,

c, q, =shape factor,
= 1, for strip footing,
c, q, = 1+0.3B/L,
= 1-0.3B/L,

for rectangular footing,

B = breadth of foundation, and


L = length of foundation.

30

20

10

10

20

5.0 1.0

40

60

80

Net and Allowable Bearing Capacity


qult = cNcc +1`DfNqq + 2`BN

(kN/m2)

qult is estimated at F.L.


This qult includes the possible existed overburden pressure.
Excluding this existing overburden pressure, the net qult has to
be obtained. i.e.,:
qult,gross = qult, net +1` Df,
or
qult, net = qult,gross, - 1`Df
qall, net = qult,net/F.S

F.S against shearing failure of soil

Other Factors Affecting qult


Effect of the G.W.T

Case of Loading
F.S
1) Ordinary dead and live loads 2.5
2) 1) + wind and dynamic loads 2
3) 2) + earthquake and any catastrophic
problem
1.8

Effect of the G.W.T


c,
c, soil
1

PF.L

Df

2
Bearing capacity is function on the effective stresses.
The effective unit weight is considered .
If the G.W.T is located behind the slipping circle
[approximately, after depth B from the F.L],
it does not affect .

Groundwater Table Effect;


Case I
1. Modify D
2. Calculate as follows:

= w

Groundwater Table Effect;


Case II

Groundwater Table Effect;


Case III

1. No change in zD

1. No change in zD

2. Calculate as follows:

2. No change in

Dw D

B

= w 1

Effect of Inclined Loads

ic= iq = (1.0 - / 90)2


i= (1.0 - / )2

Effect of Depth of Foundation Level


The shearing strength of soil
usually increases with depth
[where every thing is the same].

dc= 1+ 0.4 tan-1(Df /B),


dq = 1.0 - 2tan (1-sin)2 tan-1(Df/B),
d= 1.0
Correction Factors, ic, iq, and i are
empirically determined from experiments

For Df/B 1, tan-1(Df/B) is replaced by


(Df/B) only

Bearing Capacity for Clay Soil

General Equation for


Ultimate Bearing Capacity s
qult = cNccicdc + 1DfNqqiqdq + 2BNid (kN/m2)

qult = cNcc +1DfNqq + 2BN

For clay soil, = 0.0, and Nc =5.0,


Nq =1, and N =0.0,
For square footing, c = 1.3, then
qult = 6.5c +1`DfNqq
qult, net = 6.6c +1`Df (Nq q 1)
Since Nq =1,
qult, net 6.5c,
Unconfined compression strength for normally
consolidated clay, qu = 2c.
for F.S =2.5, qall,net

Example
A footing 1.8 m x 2.5 m is located at a
depth of 1.5 m below the ground
surface, in an over-consolidated clay
layer. The groundwater level is 2 m
below the ground surface. The
unconfined compressive strength of
that clay is 120 kPa, bulk = 18 kN/m3,
and sat = 20 kN/m3. Determine the net
allowable bearing capacity.

(kN/m2)

= 1.3 qu qu

Solution
qult = c Nc c + 1 D Nq q + B 2 N
For Clay: Nc = 5.0, Nq = 1.0, N = 0.0

qu = 120 kPa,
For Clay: qult, net

= c Nc

qall ,net =2 c = qu = 120 kPa

Ultimate Bearing Capacity for Eccentric


Loading

Foundation on Layered Soil

effective dimension of the footing

L B
is reduced to
L`
L`B`,
where:
L`=LL`=L-2eL,
B`=BB`=B-2eB

L
eL

eB

B`

L`

Foundation on Layered Soil


P

P = q1 A 1 = q 1 B 1 L 1

B1
q1
q2
B2

P = q2 A 2 = q 2 B 2 L 2
2B

q1 is less than the


allowable
bearing capacity
for layer 1
q2 is less than the allowable
bearing capacity
for layer 2, and
so on

soft clay

The footing load is assumed


to be distributed within
layer (1).
the slop of distributing :
1horizontal : 2vertical until
layer 2.
bearing capacity of layer 2 is
to be checked for imaginary
footing with dimension
(B+h1)(L+h1).

Df

BL

Layer 1

h1

(B+h1)(L+h1)
Layer 2

Allowable Soil Settlement under


Shallow Foundation
Foundation
Type

Clay

Sand

Spread
Mat (more rigid)

100mm
150mm

70mm
100mm

Allowable differential settlement


1:150 for skeleton and bearing-wall buildings
For more details:

see E.C. of SMDEF, Sec 3/2/6/6(B).

Pattern of Soil Settlement With Time

Immediate Settlement
*can be estimated by elastic theory
*concept similar to a compression of a bar under
axial load.
*Immediate settlement is important for sandy soil

Time
Immediate

= Bqo

Consolidation (primary)
Secondary compression (creep)
Settlement

Consolidation Settlement

s =

C H
P + P
log
1+ e
P
c

Cc = compression index,
= 0.009(L.L 10) for NC clay
Hc = thickness of the consolidated layer,
eo = initial void ratio of the consolidated layer,
po = average effective overburden pressure on the midline
of the consolidated layer,

p =

qo
(1 + z/B)(1+ z/L)

1-
I
Es

= immediate settlement,
qo = footing pressure at the F.L,
I = an index depends on the rigidity, and shape of the footing [see E.C.
Sec. 3/4/5/2],
Es = Modulus of elasticity, Table 2.2.
, Poisson ratio is 0.5 for soft clay, and is taken =0.3 for sand or silt.

Consolidation Settlement
s = mv.p.Hc
mv = coefficient of volume change,

Example 2.2

Solution

s =

A column load of 0.5MN


soil formation is 4m sand deposit, followed by
5m soft clay.
F.L. is at 1.5m.
G.W.T is at 5.0m from G.S.
Sand: b = 18.6 kN/m3.
Clay: sub = 8.8 kN/m3, L.L = 60%, WC = 30%,
Gs = 2.65.
Proportion a footing such that the consolidation
settlement is not over 40mm.
40mm

Solution

s =

C H
P + P
log
1+ e
P
c

settlement depends on Po.


Po depends on the footing size
Relationship is nonlinear,
Then, several trials are required.
B is assumed values such as 1.5, 3.0, and
4.0m.
s is determined for each B.
The results of s versus B is plotted to
find the required footing size.

P + P
C H
log
1+ e
P
c

settlement depends on Po.


Po depends on the footing size
Relationship is nonlinear,
Then, several trials are required.
B is assumed values such as 1.5, 3.0, and
4.0m.
s is determined for each B.
The results of s versus B is plotted to
find the required footing size.

Solution

PCc
C Hconsolidated
P +clay,
For normally

=
s
l
og
= 0.009(L.L 10) = 0.45
1+ e
P
For saturated soil,
c

eo = WC Gs = 0.3 2.65
= 0.795
50

zs,= 4 + 2.5 1.5 = 5m


mm
Foe
40square footing,
qo = Column load / B2,
30

q o2.0 2.4 3.0


p =
(1 + z/B)(1
B, m + z/L)
1.0

Df = 1.5m

B2
sand

2.5m
5m soft clay

po = 4 18.6 + 2.5 8.8


= 96.4 kN/m2

Effect of Settlement on neighbor


footing
neighbor old footing

new footing

settlement curve

Types of Shallow Foundation


Isolated footing

Combined Foundation

Wall-Bearing Footing

Strip footing

Raft Foundation

Foundation Stability
Foundation should be safe against :
i) overturning {eccentric column},
ii) bouncing {GWT much above FL},
iii) sliding {horizontal load},
iv) shearing failure of soil {qo > qall},
v) excessive or differential settlement

Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation


Isolated footing is simple.
Load pressure is less than soil bearing
capacity.
Usually it is a square one.
If there is bending moment,
a rectangular footing is more
appropriate.

Structural Design of Spread Footing

Sec. 3.2
Reinforced Concrete Design for
Foundation
Based on Ultimate Strength
Design, USD

I)

qall, net or qall,gross for the chosen F.L

II) Footing dimensions


or BL = PF.L/qall, gross

B2

PF.L is the applied load at F.L


1.15 Pcl.
Pcl is the column load.
OR
BL = Pc.L/qall, net

Pcl
BL

RC PF.L tc

qall at F.L

B & L should be rounded


to the closest 5 or 10cm

Structural Design of Spread Footing


Pcl

III) To decrease the cost of


R.C,
plain concrete base can be
used.
tc is taken 30 cm for
Pcl400kN,
and 40cm otherwise.

t R.C
tc PC

Structural Design of Spread Footing


pressure qco, from the R.C
footing is distributed with 45o
in the P.C footing
B*L*, for R.C footing
is reduced by projection
a=(0.8-1)tc
a
B* = B -2a, and
L*= L-2a

Pcl
B*L*

t qco R.C BL
tc PF.L PC

The P.C. base is subjected to the soil reaction,


qo, =PF.L/B L

Design of P.C. Base


The critical section is
at the face of the R.C foundation
{tensile stresses due to bending}
MP.C = (qo)u1a2/2
[for one meter width]
fct = MP.C/z
z= 1tc2/6
Concrete
(mm)

To design for a RC foundation,


Pcl
B*L*

t qco R.C BL
tc PF.L PC

type, level, dimension, and


reinforcement of the foundation
should be assigned.

(qo)u

0.6 f cu

thickness 200fct = qo3a


400 2/ tc2 600
a/tc =
1.3
1.6

f ct
3 qo

Reinforcement is for safety against


flexure and shear.

1.7

Reinforced Concrete Design

Design of R.C. Base


Pcl

Ultimate load in USD,


Pu = 1.4D.L +1.6L.L
Pu = 1.5P {if P is only known}
contact pressure at the reinforced concrete base

qco = Pcl,u/B*L*

t qco R.C BL
tc PF.L PC

Assume a proper depth


of the footing, t,
t 30cm. Steel cover 5cm.

B*L*

Wide beam shear governs the design,


critical section is at distance d/2;
qcu = 0.16

f cu

qwide beam

Check the wide beam shear.


The shearing force is
qcoB*s and
the sheared area is B* d.

N/mm2

Structural Design of Spread Footing


Pcl, u is the ultimate column load
qco = Pcl,u/B*L*

PPl cl

qco

Compute rfcmt for bending


qco
Mu is at the critical section
B*L*
Mu = qcol2/2
s

d/2 s B*

b`l`

min

Critical
moment

Ru - R

Example
fy =240, design =0.1%
1.1/ fy = 0.46%
1.3 design = 0.13%
min is the least between 0.13% and 0.46%
min = 0.13%
However, min 0.25%
Then take =0.25%

Ru = Mu /bd2
coefficient R = Mu / bd2 {fcu/c} = Ru /{fcu/c}
fcu is the characteristic strength of concrete,
c Strength reduction factor for concrete = 1.5.

Check the development length

Rmax and max for different values of fy


To avoid brittle failure, R, and , should
not exceed Rmax , and max, respectively.

Steel type 240

280

360

400

450

Rmax

0.206

0.194

0.187

0.180

7.00

5.00

4.31

3.65

0.214

max/10-4fcu 8.56

f


ld =
1.2

maximum distance between rnfmt bars is 200mm


That is the least No. of bars is 5/m

360

25
43
50
48
54

30
39
46
44
49

35
36
42
41
45

40
34
40
38
43

45
32
37
36
40

57

54

48

44

41

38

36

34

The
is
from 45
the Code
Eq.
400 equation
63
60 simplified
54
49
43 ECCS
40
40 4.46.
should be taken from the critical section of moments.

Detailed the design

Coefficient Multiplier of for Tension Bars with Straight ends


Fcu (N/mm2)
18
20
51
48
59
56
57
54
63
60

cu

cu

The coefficient multiplier of

fy
N/mm2
240
280
360
400

2
Coefficient
Stresses
areofin
MPa,
or with
N/mm
Multiplier
for
Tension Bars
Straight .ends
f
F (N/mm )
N/mm
is 18the diameter
rfrmt
20
25
30 of the
35
40
45 bar.
50
240
51
48
43
39
36
34
32
31
280
ld 300mm
(360/520)
59
56for steel
50 grades
46
42
40 and
37 (400/600)
36
y

Otherwise, design for compression steel

50
31
36
34
40

. Reinforcement in the long direction is distributed


uniformly.
Reinforcement in the short direction is Distributed
L*

B*

[L*-B*] B*
Distribute the rest of Ast

[L*-B*]
distribute Asm = Ast[2B*/[L*+B*]]

The column load is punching the


footing with the area, b`l`, [b`l`].

The ultimate strength of concrete


section against punching shear, qcup is:

Check for punching shear


punching force = Pcl,u qco b`l`
Pcl, u is the ultimate column load
qco = Pcl,u/B*L*
punching stress qp = {Pcl,u qco b`l`}/bod
bo is perimeter of the punching area

qcup = 0.316{0.5+ b/l} f cu N/mm2


c

f cu
qcup do not exceed 0.316 c
punching stress qp< qcup
qp = {Pcl,u qco b`l`} /bod
b`l`

b`l`
b`l`

1:1 d/2
b`l`

bo= 2[b`+l`]

The maximum design bearing stress


of the column on the footing is:
A
b,all = 0.67 f Aclf
Af is the footing area symmetrical with
the column Acl.
Af

Acl should not exceed 2.


cu

Af is the
footing area

Af=Acl

Compute Column Bearing


b = Pcl,u/Acl
if b > b,all, Use dowels, As,dowel

As,dowel = [Pu- b,all Acl]/fy

use a minimum of 0,005 Acl, of dowel and


at least four bars regardless of the
bearing stress.
The size of the dowels should be at least
as the {size of bars -4mm}.

Structural Design of Spread Footing


Dimension
P.C. design
Pu
Contact pressure
check for : wide beam shear
Punching
Bearing
Rnfmt
ld
detail

Solution, Ex. 3.1


Step 1: Choose Footing Area

Pcl = 800+480 = 1280 kN


qall, net = 275 ave d
Assume soil = 17kN/m3, and footing thickness, t, is 0.5m.
Then, average unit weight of soil and concrete, ave is
[17
[171.5+2.5
1.5+2.50.5]/2 = 19 kN/m3
Pcl
qall, net = 275 19 2 = 237 kN/m3
RC PF.L tc
2
BL
B L = 1280/237 = 5.4 mOR
2 1280=1472 kN
at F.L =1.15
=1.15
P
=1.15
=1.15
cl Choose
2.35Pcl
2.35m
2
Area
of
footing
=1408/q
A = 5.52m O.K.
all,gross
= 1472/275 = 5.35m2
Choose 2.35 2.35m2
A = 5.52m2 O.K.

Example 3.1

A short column 400


400400mm transmits an axial
loading of 1280kN {800L.L and 480D.L} to a thick
soil stratum of sandy gravel.
The permissible safe pressure on the foundation
soil has been determined as 275 kN/m2.
the foundation level is 2.00m below the G.S.
Design a suitable reinforced concrete footing {fcu
=25N/mm2, fy =360N/mm2}.

Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using


Equations of Wide Beam, Ex. 3.1
Pu= 1.4D.L +1.6L.L = 1.4 480 +1.6 800 =
1952kN
Contact pressure with soil, qo =1952/5.52 =
0.35N/mm2
Q = q B s
assuming t = 500mm,
Cover = 75mm, then
d = 425mm,

Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using


Equations of Wide Beam, Ex. 3.1
Pcl

column 400
400400mm

q wide beam =Q/Bd


= [0.353 2350 762.5] / [2350 425]
= 0.634N/mm2

d=425mm

qo= 0.353N/mm2

wide beam shear

1175mm
2350mm

d/2

Step 3

s =1175 200 - 425/2


= 762.5mm,

Q = qo Bs

Maximum concrete shear strength


qcu = 0.16[fcu/c]=0.652N/mm2
qcu > q wide beam
O.K

= 0.3532350762.5

Check for Punching, Ex.3.1


Pcl
column 400
400400mm

d=425mm

The critical sec. for


punching is square with
dimension
400 + 425 = 825mm
Qpun =1952 - 353 0.8252
= 1685kN

qo= 0.353N/mm2
bunching
shear

Step 3

Check for Punching, Ex.3.1

qpun =Q/perimeter of the sec.


sec.d
=1685 1000 / {4 825 425}

=1.17 N/mm2
Permissible punching shear in
concrete, qcup
f
= 0.315 [0.5+b/l] c
0.5 + b/l = 1.5 take 1
825mm2
qcup = 1.29N/mm2
> qpun O.K

400400mm2

cu

d/2

1:1 d/2
d=425mm

Step 4:

Check for Bearing, Ex.3.1

b,all = 0.67 [fcu/c]{Af/Acl}


{Af/Acl} = 2.352 2
0.4
= 5.875 .
.
Take =2
b,all = 0.67 25 2 / 1.5 = 22.333 N/mm2
Bearing stress of the column,
b = 1952 1000 / 4002

= 12.3N/mm
12.3N/mm2 < b,all O.K

Development length of the dowel, Ex.3.1

ld=
1.2

cu

360

= 16 1.15
25
1.2
1.5

= 1020mm
Table 3.3 can give the multiplier directly for
fcu = 25 MPa, fy = 360MPa, as:
ld = 48
48 = 48 16 = 768mm
Notice The footing depth and breadth allow for the
required development length of the dowels

Step 4:

Check for Bearing, Ex.3.1

use a minimum of 0,005 Acl, of dowel and


at least four bars.
Ast,dowel= 0.005 1600 = 8cm2
Choose 416mm,
area = 8.04 cm2
16mm,
{The size of the dowels should be at
least as the size of bars -4mm.}

Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement,


Ex.3.1
Pcl

l=1175-200=975mm
Critical
moment

Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement, Ex.3.1


Moment of the contact pressure about the
critical sec.=
Mu = qol2/2
Mu = 353
3530.9752/2= 167.9 kN.m/m`
Adopting the approach of Chart 22-1
2
2
Ru = Mu/bd =167.9/[1
167.9/[10.425 ] = 929kN/m2 =
2
0.93N/mm
For fcu =25N/mm
25N/mm2 and fy =360 N/mm2 and
for the given Ru, =0.3%
0.3%

Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement,


Ex.3.1

Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement


Ex. 3.1
Check for R or maxfrom Table 3.1
Rmax for fy =360 N/mm2 is 0.194
R = Mu /{fcu/c}bd2 = Ru/{fcu/c}
= 0.93 / {25 / 1.5} = 0.056 < 0.194 O.K
[ i.e., no need for compression steel]

the least of [1.1f


[1.1fy] or [1.3 design].
min 0.15% for high tensile steel.
That is min is least of 0.305% or 1.3 0.3% = 0.39%
minimum rfmt ratio is 0.305%
min

Step 6: Detailed x.Sec, Ex.3.1

Ast = 0.305% 100 42.5 = 12.96cm2


Choose 6 18mm/m` .
Area = 15.27cm
15.27cm2 in the two direction
The development length
ld = 48
48 = 48 18 = 864mm

dowels
416mm

Column
stirrups

50cm
F.L (-2.00)
2.352.35m2
618mm/m`

Example 3.2
Solve Example 3.1
if a P.C footing is
required under the R.C.
one.
(fcu)P.C = 18 N/mm2

Pcl
B*L*

R.C qco t
PC PF.L tc

BL

Solution, Ex. 3.2


Step 1: Choose Footing Area
From Example 3.1,
P.C. footing can have the dimension of 2.35 2.35 m2
Recall:
qo =PF.L/[BL]
Check the tensile stress
in P.C. footing
P
=
P
+
weights
of
soil
and
F.L
cl
[Design for the projection a of
thefootings
R.C footing]

= 1280 + 5.52 2 av
= 1280 + 5.52 2 19 = 1490 kN
qo =1408/5.52

= 270kN/m2 < 275 kN/m2 [qall, gross]

Solution, Ex. 3.2

Solution, Ex. 3.2

The ultimate
at F.L
= 1.4 D.L
Steploading
1: Choose
Footing
Area+ 1.6 L.L
D.L = 400 + 5.52 2 190.6= 690
f cu kN
fct = MP.C /z
(Pu)F.L = 1.4 690 + 1.6
800= 2246kN
z =1 t2 / 2
(qo)u = 2246 / 5.52 = 406. 9 kN/mm2 = 0.4
2 a2 / 2
MP.C =N/mm
(qo)u1

Step 1: Choose Footing Area

fct = (qo)u 3 a2/ tc2


Assume ..tc =40cm

then = 1.6 and fct

0.6 18
1.6

0 .6 f

cu

= 1.59 N/mm2

ct
1.59
a/tc
3 qo =
30.4 = 1.151
2 ..
The
R.C.
be taken
1.45m
.
a =footing
46 cm.canTake
a =21.45
45cm

area = 2.1025m

O.K

MP.C = qo 1 a2 / 2
fct = MP.C / z

0.4N/mm2

Z=1 t2 /2
fct = qsoil 3 a2 / tc2 0.4N/mm2 ,
qsoil=266.2kN/m2 = 0.27N/mm2
a/tc 0.133/qsoil = 0.7 take a=25cm.
The R.C. footing can be taken 1.8 1.8m2 ..
area=3.24m2

Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using


Equations of Wide Beam, Ex.3.2
From Ex. 3.1, Pu = 1952kN
Contact pressure between P.C. and R.C, qco
= 1952 / 2.10 = 928kN/m2 = 0.93N/mm2
Q=qBs
assuming t = 500mm,
Cover =75mm, then
d=425mm,
s = [145 40 - 42.5] = 30cm,

Step 3

Check for Punching, Ex.3.2

The critical sec. for punching is square with


dimension 400 + 450 = 850mm
Qpun =1952 930 0.8502 = 1280kN
1280kN
qpun =Q/perimeter of the sec.
sec.d
=1280 1000 / {4 850 450} = 0.835N/mm
0.835N/mm2
As in Example 3.1, Permissible punching
shear in concrete, qcup = 1.285N/mm
1.285N/mm2 > qpun
O.K

Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using


Equations of Wide Beam, Ex.3.2
Assume footing thickness, t, is 0.5m.
With P.C. base, cover can be taken 50 mm,
then d = 45mm.
q wide bem =Q / B d
= [0.93 1450 300] / [1450 450] = 0.62N/mm2
Maximum concrete shear strength qcu = 0.16
= 0.652 N/mm2
qwide beam < qcu O.K

f cu

Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement


Ex. 3.2
Moment of the contact pressure about the
critical sec.=
Mu = qco l2/2
L = 1.45 / 2 - 0.4/2 = 0.525m
Mu = 930 0.5252 / 2 = 128.2kN.m/m`
128.2kN.m/m`
Adopting the approach of Chart 22-1
2
2
Ru = Mu/bd =128.2 / [1 0.45 ] = 633kN/m2
= 0.63N/mm2
For fcu = 25N/mm
25N/mm2 and fy = 360 N/mm2 and
for the given Ru, = 0.15%

Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement, Ex.3.2


Check for R or max
R = Mu /{fcu/c}bd2
= 0.63 / {25 / 1.5} = 0.04< 0.194 O.K
[ i.e., no need for compression steel]

design = 0.15%
Then, 1.3 design = 0.195%
min is the least of {1.1/360} = 0.305% or 0.195%
Ast = 0.195% 100 45 = 8.77 cm2
Choose 5 16mm/m` .
Area= 10.05 cm2 in the two direction
ld = 768 mm

Compare the costs

Step 6: Detailed x.Sec, Ex.3.2

dowels
416mm

Column
stirrups

50cm
F.L (-2.00)

40cm
516mm/m
`

1.451.45
2.352.35m2

Eccentrically Loaded Spread Footing


Offsetting the column from the centroid to
decrease the Very large variation in pressure due
to bending

50cm
50cm

2.35 2.35m2

Cost
=2.35 2.35 0.4 170+
1.45 1.45 0.5 800
= 1215. 0LE

2.35 2.35m2

Cost
=2.35 2.35 0.5 800
= 2209.0LE
45% saving

Note:
Only applicable if the moment is fixed in direction.
The wind loading is reversible

Eccentrically Loaded Spread Footing


The column is off-center by distance e.
Soil reaction to these cases of loading is:
qsoil =
qall

P
6 e
1

B L
L

effective dimension of the footing

{See Sec. 2.2.1.2 }


e

Eccentrically Loaded Spread Footing


Soil does not sustain tensile stresses.
the footing would separate from the soil.
the separated part would not be effective in
bearing on the soil.
P

qmax B L`/2 = P,
L`=3(L/2-e)

2P
qmax=
3B( L / 2 e )

Ultimate Bearing Capacity for Eccentric


Loading

PP

L B
is reduced to
L`
L`B`,
where:
L`=LL`=L-2eL,
B`=BB`=B-2eB

L
eL

B`

L`

Horizontal Force at the Foundation


Remember:
Inclination factor in the bearing capacity
equation.
the footing is designed for the stability
against sliding.
The horizontal force is resisted by the soil
cohesion [if any], and friction.
H P tan + c Af

L`
L`/3=L/2-e
R=P
R=P

eB

qmax

P
LB

Eccentrically Loaded Spread Footing


Example 3.3
A 5050 column is carrying the following loading:
D.L. = 400kN, L.L. =500kN, MD.L = 230kN.m, ML.L
=250kN.m, HD.L = 40kN, and HL.L=50kN.
The column rnfmt is 825mm.
Design a footing such that the soil pressure will be

approximately uniform.
qall, gross = 150kPa. at F.L. of (-2.00 m).
fcu= 25 MPa, fy=400MPa.

Solution Example 3.3


Step 1: Choose Footing Area
Total service load = 400 + 500 = 900kN
qall, net = 150 ave d
Assume ave = 17kN/m3, t= 0.5m.
ave = [17 1.5 + 2.5 0.5] / 2 = 19 kN/m3
qall, net = 150 19 2 = 112 kN/m3
B L = 900 / 112 = 8.04 m2
Choose 2.85 2.85m2
A = 8.125m2 O.K.

Square footing is chosen since uniform


pressure is requested.

Step 1: Choose Footing Area, Ex. 3.3


moment = [230 + 250] = 480kN.m.
also H increases the moment at the F.L by H t.
1.425
M = 480kN.m
480 + 90 0.5 = 525kN.m
then:1.425
e = M / P900kN
0.975 0.45
F.L
2.85
90kN
PF.L = column
load and weights of soil and
0.5
footings
0.5
e=0.45m
= 900 + 8.125
[0.525 +1.517] = 900 +
308.75 = 1208.75 kN
e = 525/1209 = 0.434 m 0.45 m

Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using


Equations of Wide Beam
1.425

480kN.m
900kN

1.425

0.975 0.45

90kN

e=0.45m

2.85m

.425/2

0.5
0.5

s= 2.6-[0.7+0.5/2 +0.425/2]=1.4375m

Critical
sec. for
wide beam

Step 3, Ex. 3.3 Check for Punching


Step 4: Check for Bearing
The critical sec. for punching
is square with dimension
500 + 425 =925mm

Step 5, Ex. 3.3 Choose the Steel Reinforcement

1-1
0.975

0.45
.212

.7250.5

2.85

Critical sec.
for punching

Moment should be
calculated at sec
secs 22-2 & 33-3.

Af

Example 3.4
A column loading estimated at the F.L is
PD+L=1.8MN, MD+L=1MN.m, and qall,gross = 0.25MPa
Proportion a footing for the column to be centric
Solution
Step 1: Choose Footing Area
Proportion of P.C footing (B, L, tc)

M
1
e=
=
= 0.555m
p 1. 8

The critical sec. for Mu is 11-1

3-3

0.5

b,all = 0.67 [fcu/c]{Af/Acl}


Af = 1.95 1.95m2

2-2

Proportion of P.C footing (B, L, tc),


Ex. 3.4
L > 6 e
Assume L = 6 e + 0.8
L = 6 0.555 + 0.8 = 4.13 m
Take L = 4.2m

qall= 0.25 =

P
6e
1

BL
L

Proportion of P.C footing (B, L, tc), Ex. 3.4

Example 3.5

6 0.555
2
(1 +
)
4B
4 .2

Make a complete design for


the R.C footing in Example 3.4,
if the column is 40 60.
{fcu = 25N/mm2, fy = 360N/mm2}.

0.25 =

B = 3.575m
Take
L = 4m, B = 3.6m, and tc= 40cm
Proportion of R. C footing (B*, and L*)
Assume
a = tc = 40cm

L* = L 2 a = 4.2 0.4 = 3.4m, and

B*= B 2 a = 3.6 2 0.4 = 2.8m

Solution
Step 1: Choose Footing Area
From Example 3.4, L*= 3.4m, and B*= 2.8m

Footing Depth from Wide Beam Shear, Ex. 3.5


Pcl = PF.L - weight of the P.C, R.C footings, and soil
Assume t = 500mm,
Pcl = 1.8 1000 4.2 3.6 {0.424 + 0.5 25 + 1.1
17}
Pu=1.5 1.183 = 1.775MN
= 1183 kN
Contact pressure with the P.C footing,
qo=

P
6e
1

BL
L

e = Mu / pu 0.555
q1o= 0.373MPa, and
q2o 0.0MPa

s=1600-300-425/2=1087.5mm

1600mm

Assume cover = 50mm, then d = 45mm


q1o= 0.59MPa,
q3o= 0.37 - (0.373 - 0.0)

1175
3400

d/2

= 0.243Mpa
Q = qav B s
=[0.243 + 0.373] 2.8 1.175 / 2
q3o
q1o
qwide beam = Q / B d
s
=
1700
300
45/2
=
1175mm
2
= 0.8N/mm

600400mm2

q2o

Footing Depth, Ex. 3.5

q1o

Safety?

1700mm

3400mm

Footing Depth from Wide Beam


Shear, Ex. 3.5
Maximum concrete shear strength qcu =
0.16[fcu/c] = 0.652N/mm2
qwide beam >
qcu
increase d to 550mm
s = 1125.0mm, and
1125
q3o= 0.373 - (0.373 - 0.0)
3400
= 0.25Mpa
q wide beam = 0.637 N/mm2 < qcu O.K

Step 4

Check for Bearing Ex. 3.5

Step 3

Check for Punching Ex. 3.5

The critical sec. for punching is


rectangle with dimension
[400 + 550] [600 + 550]
=950 1150mm

1:1 d/2 d
b`l`

q4o
qav under the critical sec.
= [0.373] = 0.186MPa = 186kPa
Qpun = 1775 - 186 0.950 1.150
= 1593kN

Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement


1MN.m

2.83.4m2

1.8MN

0.40.6m
1.4m

1.2m

Af = [0.4 + 2 1.2] [0.6 + 2 1.2] = 2.8 3.0

q3o

MI-I

MII-II

Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement

Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement

I- in the long-direction

1400

II- in the short-direction

ql = 0.37 - (0.37 -0.0)


3400
=0.218Mpa

qav = [0.37 + 0.0] = 0.186MPa

0.218 (1.4) 2
Mu =
+
2
2
(0.37 - 0.218)

(1.4)
3

0.40.6m

1.2m

1.4m

Mu =

0.186 (1.2) 2
2

= 0.134MN.m/m`

= 0.315 MN.m
0.37MPa

ql =0.22MPa

Structural Design of Wall-Bearing Footing


The masonry walls
are not monolithically erected
with the footings.
That is why the critical section for
continuous wall is inside the wall
at distance b/4. ,
Wall bearing footing is only designed
for wide beam shearing and rfmt.
punching and bearing is safe

b
b/4

Example 3.6
It is required to design a load bearing wall .
L.L= 45kN/m`,
D.L= 20kN/m`,
wall thickness = 25cm,
qall,gross = 100kN/m2,
F.L at 1.5m below G.S,
fy = 360N/mm2, and fcu =25 N/mm2.

Example 3.6

Example 3.6

Solution
Step 1: Choose Footing Area
Pcl at F.L = 1.15 Pcl =1.15 [45 + 20]
= 74.75 kN/m`
Area of footing = 74.75/qall = 71.5/100
= 0.75m2/m`
Choose B =1.0m

Step 3: Choose the Steel


Reinforcement, Ex. 3.6

Critical sec. for


moment
b/4
43.5cm

Moment of the contact pressure


1m
about the critical sec.=
Mu = qco l2/ 2
The critical section for continuous wall is inside
the wall at distance b/4.
l= 1.0 / 2 - 0.25 / 4 = 0.435m
Mu = 100 0.4352/ 2 = 9.57 kN.m/m`

Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using Equations of


Wide Beam
Pu= 100kN/m`
qo =100/1 =100kN/m2 = 0.1N/mm2
Q=qBs
The wide beam shear is
taken in the transverse direction
for one meter width.
assuming t = 300mm, cover = 75mm, then d = 225mm.
s = [100 25 - 22.5]= 26.25cm,

Mu = 1000.4352/2= 9.57 kN.m/m`


Ru = Mu/bd2 = 9.57 / [1 0.2252] = 188.7kN/m2
= 0.189N/mm2
For fcu = 25N/mm2 and fy = 360 N/mm2
and for the given Ru,
is less than the minimum (0.05%).

,min the least of [1.1/fy] or [1.3 req].


min 0.15% for HTS.
That is min is least of 0.3% or 1.3 0.05%
= 0.065%
Then, use ,min = 0.15%

Ast = 0.15%10022.5 =3.375 cm2/m`


Choose 5 12mm/m` .
Area= 5.65 cm2/m` in the transverse direction.
Development length of the rfmt ld =12 48
= 576mm > 300mm [for grade 360/520] O.K.
The footing allows for the distance from the column face to
the boundary of the footing and the depth
excluding the cover as development length.
That is [43.5-7.5 + 30 -7.5] =
58.5cm > 57.6cm O.K.
43.5cm
30cm

In the longitudinal direction minimum rfmt


should be furnished to offset shrinkage and
temperature effects.
Ast,long = 0.15%100 22.5 = 3.375 cm2
Choose 5 12mm

43.5cm

30cm

1m
1m

Step 4: Detailed x.Sec.,Ex.3.6

Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation


When columns occur in a line at close interval,
continuous strip footing is developed in the line
of columns

The lengthy side is usually compensated


with the other direction considerably short.
30cm

5 12mm long. rfmt


F.L (-2.00)

512mm/m`

1m

The longitudinal direction of the footing is


structurally acting as an inverted continues beam.

Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation

Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation

the footing reaction is linearly distributed


under the footing
The wide beam shear can be checked in the
longitudinal and transverse direction.
longitudinal direction is expected more
critical

for the longitudinal direction of the footing:


M=qnx2/km
x is the panel span, or the distance between the
column axes.
qn is the uniform loading per unit length.
km is the coefficient of bending moment, in
continuous beams
x
-12
24

A line of four columns 300300mm2 is spaced at 4m.


They are equally loaded with D.L= 200kN, and L.L=
300kN.
It is required to design for a continuous strip
foundation appropriate to a safe soil bearing pressure
of 125kN/m2.
fy = 400N/mm2, and fcu = 30 N/mm2.
A

F
C
4m

10

-16
12

12

Solution, Ex. 3.7:


Step 1 choosing the footing dimension

Example 3.7

-16

Total load in service condition = 4 (300 + 200)


= 2000kN
The base width required, considering 1m end
overhanging.
L = 3 4 + 2 1+ 2 0.15 = 14.3 m
B= 2000 / (14.3 125) = 1.12m
take B =1.25m

Step 2 :Ex. 3.7, Check the required


depth for Wide Beam Shear

Step 2: Ex. 3.7, Check the required


depth for Wide Beam Shear,

Pu = 1.6 200 + 1.4 300 = 760kN


Contact pressure with soil,
qo =4 760 / [14.3 1.25] = 170kN/m2
= 0.17N/mm2
Q = 170 1.25 1.6375 = 348kN
qwide beam = 348 / (B d) = 348 / (1.25 0.425)
= 655kN/m2 = 0.651N/mm2

Step 2: Ex. 3.7, Check the required


depth for Wide Beam Shear,
Critical sec. for wide beam shear
b/2 d/2 s
50cm
1m

2m
4m
the column is considered to affect
between the centerlines of the span.
s = 2.0 - 0.30 / 2 - 0.425 / 2 =1.6375m

Critical sec. for wide beam shear


s

Step 4: Ex. 3.7 , Check for Bearing


b,all = 0.67 [fcu/c]{Af/Acl}
The least footing area is for the first column with
dimension [1m overhanging + 2m half the inner
span]
span]B
That is 3 1.25
This area is not similar with the column
Then take Af = 1.25 1.25
2
Af

= 1.25
= 4.16 .
. Take =2
2
Acl

0. 3

Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement Ex. 3.7


for the longitudinal direction of the footing:
M = qnx2 / km
qn is the uniform loading per unit length.
qn = qo B = 170 1.25 = 212.5kN/m`
x
-12
24

-16
10

12

F
B

B and E are cantilevers. Then M = wl2 / 2


MB = ME = 212.5 12 / 2 =106.3kN.m
MBC = MDE =212.5 42 / 12 = 283.5 kN.m
MCD = 212.5 42 / 16 = 212.7kN.m
MC = MD = 212.5 42 / 10 = 340kN.m

-16

12

Step 5: Ex. 3.4, Choose the Steel Reinforcement

4m

F
B

For maximum moment at support C, and D:


= 0.46%
design = 0.46%
Then, 1.3 design = 0.59%
min is the least of {1.1 / 400} = 0.28% or 0.59%
= 0.45% is O.K

Min. rnfmt = 0.28% 125 42.5 = 14.34 cm2

4m
12

16
10

Step 5: Ex. 3.4, Choose the Steel Reinforcement

D
12
10

Step 5: Ex. 3.4, Choose the Steel Reinforcement


For maximum moment condition at support C, and D:
= 0.46%

Min. rnfmt = 0.28% 125 42.5 =14.34 cm2


Ast = 0.46% 125 42.5 = 24.43 cm2
This reinforcement can represent
a proportion of the corresponding moment.
other rnfmt for other sections can be easily obtained.
(Ast)C = 24.43 = 0.07181M
{2}
(Ast)B = (Ast)E = 0.07181MB
= 0.07181 106.3 = 7.51cm2 < Min. rnfmt
(Ast)BC = (Ast)DE = 20.037 cm2
(Ast)CD =15.28 cm2

Step 5: Ex. 3.4, Choose the Steel Reinforcement


Check the minimum rnfmt at B and E
(Ru)B = Mu / bd2
= 106.3 / [1.25 0.4252]
= 470.8 kN/m2 = 0.47 N/mm2
= 0.14%
min is the least of
0.275% or 1.3 0.14 = 0.182%
at B and E, min = 0.182%
Min. rnfmt = 0.182% 125 42.5 = 9.66 cm2

wn = 740 / {1.25 0.725} = 839 kN/m2


At sec. x-x, Mu,transverse = wn btransverse l2 / 2
= 839 0.725 0.4752/2 = 68.6 kN.m
Ru = Mu/bd2 = 523.7 kN/m2 = 0.523 N/mm2
= 0.16%
min = 0.208%
Ast = 0.208% 72.5 42.5 = 6.4 cm2
Choose 416mm / 72.5cm . Area = 8.04 cm2

Step 6: Ex. 3.4, Steel Reinforcement for the


transverse direction
occurs at the column location with breadth
btransverse = [b + d] = 0.3 + 0.425 = 0.725m.
Soil pressure is assumed concentrated
under this breadth
with intensity = Pu / {B btransverse}.
This direction is called hidden beam.
wn =760 / {1.25 0.725}
= 839 kN/m2

Minimum stirrups of 5
58mm/m` to hold rnfmt,
and protect concrete from effects of shrinkage and
temperature.

622mm
12

622mm

1250mm

75mm cover

622mm

58mm/m`

500mm
x

622mm
16
10
722mm

618mm

416mm Trans. rnfmt

1250mm

Step 7: Detailed x.Sec., Ex. 3.4

the development
length, ld = 49 = 882mm.
475mm 300 x 475
500mm

btransverse

618mm

416mm/72.5cm

722mm

Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation


For weaker soils, the size of each footing
increases and approach adjacent base.
Two or more columns form a combined footing.

Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation


near the property line

not possible to place columns


at the center of a spread footing

C.G of loads coincides with


the geometrical C.G of
footing

Columns located off center


result in nonuniform soil pressure

Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation


To avoid this nonuniformity, the footing is enlarged to
include one or more of the adjacent columns in the
same line.
BASIC
ASSUMPTION
rectangular combined
footing is rigid member
soil pressure is linear
C.G of loads coincides with
the geometrical C.G of
footing

Example 3.8 rectangular combined


Proportion a P.C, and R.C rectangular combined
footing for the following data:
qall, net = 0.15MPa, and F.L is at 2.5m from G.S.
For column 1 [60 60cm] PL = 0.5 MN, PD = 0.3MN,
For column 2 [60 80 cm] PL =0.8 MN, PD = 0.3MN,
and S = 5m.
Solution

Step 1: Choose P.C Footing Area


Total load, Pt = 0.5 + 0.3 + 0.8 + 0.3 =1.9MN
Act at the C.L

Example 3.8
rectangular combined

0.8MN

Example 3.8
rectangular combined

1.1MN

S= 5m

y=2.91m

Mp1 = 0; y = 1.1 5 / 1.9 = 2.89m {1}


Least L = 2 [y + bcl1] = 2 [2.89 + 0.6] = 6.39m
neighbor
Take L = 6.40m
boundary
A = Pt / qall, net = 1.9 / 0.15 = 12.66 m2
B = 12.66 / 6.40 = 1.98m
Take B = 2.0m

Dimension of the footing


based on the allowable
bearing:

locationyof
resultant of
Usually
ythe
u
location
the resultant
the ultimate
loads
This
violates the
uniform distribution
of theofcontact
pressureof
theultimate
serviceload
loads
Then, find the dimension based on
and
adjustable qall
However, the difference is v. small and can be neglected.

P2u

P1

Ru

yu

Ru

check the location of the


resultant of the ultimate loads.

y = 2.89m

P1u

P2u= 1.7MN

L* = L = 6.40m
B* = 2.0 2 0.4 = 1.2m

Ultimate design for the


depth and rnfcmt:

P1u=1.22MN

P2

The resultant of the services loads does not coincide with


the resultant of the ultimate loads.
Then, design the footing geometry using qo that is based
on the ultimate loads rather than qall.

Geometry of Combined Footing


P1u
P2u
Ru=P1u+P2u
M1u >> M2u
MP1 = 0
y = [M1u + M2u+ P2u S] / Ru
Ru
L = 2{y + C`}
C`: permissible distance bet. neighbor and column 1
Y y
A= B L = Ru / qo
S L
C`
Y = {y + C`}
If Y < L / 3,
-ve soil pressure may develop at the far end}.
This is not accepted in soils.
soils

Strap footing may be adopted


y

Y
L

Geometry of Combined Footing


P1u>> P2u
M1u
M2u

Ldesign=2Y
Y
Lgeometry

Ru
y
C`

Structural Design of Combined Footing


Critical sections for shear
shear.
P1

P2

S
Lgeometry
If L / 3 < Y < Lgeometry / 2,

Trapezoidal footing
may be adopted

Structural Design of Combined Footing


the short {transverse} direction hidden beam,
soil pressures under each column are:
w1 = P1u/B, and w2 =P2u/B. ..[F/L]
Mc1, Mc2 are the bending moments at the critical
sections under columns 1, and 2, respectively
P1
Mc1

B
B

W1=P1u/B

Mmax

Flexural steel from


the critical moments

Example 3.9
Design a rectangular combined footing for :
For column 1 {interior } [60 60cm]
PL =0.9 MN, PD = 0.8MN,
MD= 0.15MN.m, ML= 0.25MN.m, C`= 0.30m,
For column 2 {exterior} [60 80 cm]
PL =1.1 MN, PD = 0.9MN,
MD= 0.2MN.m, ML= 0.3MN.m, S =5m.
qall = 0.15MPa, fcu = 20MPa, fy =360 MPa
Solution
Step 1: Choose Footing Area
P1u =1.4 D.L + 1.6 L.L = 2.56MN, P2u = 3.02MN,
M1u = 0.61MN.m, M2u =0.76 MN.m
Ru= P1u + P2u = 5.58MN

Ex.3.9 , Step 1: Choose Footing Area

y
S
L

qo for Ru is comparative to qall for Rservice.


Rservice = {0.9 + 0.8 +1.1 + 0.9 } 1.1 = 4.07MN
qo = 5.58 0.15 / 4.07 = 0.205 MPa
A = 5.58 / 0.205 = 29.85m2
B = 29.85 / 6.5 = 4.12m .. take 4.2m
qo = 5.58 / [4.2 6.5] = 0.204 MPa

Ex. 3.9, Shearing and Bending Moment Diagrams


2.56MN

3.02MN
1.2m

5m
0.61MN.m

0.86MN/m`

0.76MN.m

6.5m

d = c1

Mu
fcub

bearing

Ru= P1u+P2u = 5.58MN


MP1 = 0
y = [M1u + M2u+ P2u S] / Ru =
2.95m
L = 2{y + C`} = 6.5m
A = B L = Ru / qo

Ru
C

Ex. 3.9, Check for Wide Beam Shear, Punching, and

2.98m

footing is treated as beam with:


qn= 0.2064 4.2 = 0.86MN/m`

2.56MN

0.61MN.m
5m

3.02MN

0.86MN/m`

Ex. 3.9, Check for Punching, and bearing


C = 0.3m S = 5m

B = 4.2m

Critical sec.
6080cm2
for
punching L = 6.5m

1.64 MN

2.43MN.m

0.688MN

S.F.D

2.05MN

the ratio {Af/Acl} is 1


0.61MN.m

1.2m

6.5m

Take c1 = 5

d = 0.85 m

0.76MN.m

0.275MN.m
B.M.D

Ex. 3.9, Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement


Ru = Mu / bd2 = 2.43 / [4.2 0.852] =
0.8MN/m2 = 2.16N/mm2
For fy = 360N/mm2, and fcu = 20 N/mm2 and for
the given Ru,
= 0.3%
Check for R
R = Mu /{fcu / c}bd2 = 0.8 / {20 / 1.5} = 0.06 <
0.194
No Need for Compression Steel

Ex. 3.9, Step 6: Choose the Steel Reinforcement for the


transverse direction
Under column 1, the breadth of the hidden beam is 0.60 +
0.85 / 2 = 1.025m.
wn1 = 2.56 / 4.2= 0.706MN/m`
M1c = wn1 l2/2 . l=[4.2l=[4.2-.6] / 2 = 1.8m
M1c = 1.15MN.m
= 0.52%
st, transverse,1 = 0.52% 0.825 1.025 = 44 cm2/ 1.025m
choose 9 25 for . Area = 44.18 cm2 O.K
ld = 54 25 = 1350 mm.

Ex. 3.9, Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement


min =1.1/360 = 0.305% or 1.3 0.3 = 0.39 %
Min. rnfmt = 0.305% 420 85 = 67.3 cm2
2
2
(Ast)max,max,-ve = 0.305% 420 85 =108.9cm = 25.93 cm /m`
=108.9 / 2. 43 = 44.8M . {1}

Choose 722mm/m`
22mm/m`. Area = 26.61 cm2 for all the
sections.
ld = 54 22 = 1188mm.
1188mm.

Ex. 3.9, Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement


Under column 2, the breadth of the hidden
beam is 0.80 + 0.85 = 1.65m.
Continue the solution to find wn2, M2c, and
(Ast)transverse,2.
(Ast)transverse,2 : 46.28 cm2/1.65m = 28.05 cm2/m.
10 25 mm/1.65m Area = 49.09 cm2

Ex. 3.9, Step 6: Steel Reinforcement

Ex. 3.9, Step 7: Detailed x.Sec

To protect concrete from effects of shrinkage and


temperature, upper direction should be reinforced with

713/m

513/m`

minimum of 20% of the tension steel.


5 13 mm/m` {Area of 6.64 cm 2/m`} is appropriate, all
925/1.03m 722/m`

Geometry of Combined Footing


P1u>> P2u
M1u
M2u

Y
Lgeometry

Ru
y
C`

Ldesign=2Y

722/m`
722/m`
513/m`

513/m`

Shrinkage bars of 13 mm each 30 cm of the


footing depth.
In the longitudinal direction, minimum rnfmt. to
offset shrinkage and temperature effects.

713/m`

13 mm/m` {Area of 9.29 cm 2/m`}

925/1.025m`

There, the required area is 44 / 5 = 8.8 cm 2/m`. Use 7

1025/1.1m`

1025/1.65m

513/m`

over the footing, except at hidden beam of column 1.

4.2m

6.5m

Geometry of Trapezoidal Combined Footing


P1u
M1u

Ru=P1u+P2u
MP1 = 0
y = [M1u +M2u+P2uS]/Ru
Y= {y+C`}
P1u>>P2u
Y<<S

P2u
M2u

P1u>>P2u

Ru
qo

Y
L

So adapt trapezoidal footing.

Lgeometry
C.G of loads coincides with
the geometrical C.G of
If L / 3 < Y < Lgeometry / 2,
footing

Trapezoidal footing
may be adopted

A = L [B1+ B2] = Ru /qo

Usually L is limited.

2B + B
Y= L 2 1
3 B2 + B1

B1

C.G

B2

Structural Design of Trapezoidal Combined Footing


Y=

L 2 B2 + B1
3 B2 + B1

If Y = L / 3, B2 = 0.0 triangular
Y
L
shape.
Not a practical solution
B1
C.G
Y should be less than L/3
Increase L if possible.
Usually L is limited.
THEN: Strap footing may be adopted

Strap footing is two spread footing


combined with a strap beam.
The strap beam should be rigid enough
to resist rotation of the exterior footing.
B2

Geometry of the strap beam


uniform soil pressure is assumed under the footings.
The two footings should have same soil pressure to
avoid differential settlement.
Soil reactions, R1, and R2 , are centric in their footing.
R2 coincide with P2,
BUT R1 is not coincide with P1
P1u

P2u

Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation

P1u

P2u

Geometry of the strap beam


e may be assumed to find L, R1 and R2.

Strap transmits eccentricity moment [P1u e] to the


For each column, Ri = Bi Li qall,net, [same qall,net].
interior
footing
Take
moment
@ P2 footing is chosen square.
Usually
the interior
R1= P1 S / S` = P1 [S`+ e] / S`
R1 = P1 + P1 e / S`
P2u
P1u
S
R2 = P1+P2 R1
L1 /2 = C`+ e
C`

e
R1

e
R1

R2

L1 /2

S`

R2

Proportion of the R.C footing


Pe

B*e L*e
C`

Pi

e*
R*e

Strap beam

L*e/2

B*i L*i
i

Ri

S*`

B* L* is reduced by projection a { (0.8-1) tc}.

The exterior column: B*e = Be 2 a, and L*e = Le a.


e* = L*e / 2 - C`
R*e = Pe S/ S*`
P.C and R.C footings are not symmetrical.
R*i = Pe + Pi R*e
S`* = S - e*
e*, of the R.C footing have to be determined.

Bearing Capacity for Clay Soil


qult = cNcc +1DfNqq + 2BN

(kN/m2)

For clay soil, = 0.0, and Nc =5.0,


Nq =1, and N =0.0,
For square footing, c = 1.3, then
qult = 6.5c +1`DfNqq
qult, net = 6.6c +1`Df (Nq q 1)
Since Nq =1,
qult, net 6.5c,
Unconfined compression strength for normally
consolidated clay, qu = 2c.
for F.S =2.5, qall,net

= 1.3 qu qu

Design the strap beam Footing


The footings are to be designed for safety of
shear and bending in a similar manner as for
spread footing.
Bending moment and shear diagrams for the
strap beam are obtained to design for its
depth and reinforcement.

Raft [Mat] Foundation


Raft foundation is costly in design and
construction more than spread footing.
The stressed area under the raft is also much
larger.
This will increase settlements unless there is
stress compensation from excavated soil.
stress compensation is that the excavated
soil compensate for the superimposed loads.
[design with: qall,net >

superimposed load
D f
area of foundation

Structural Design of Raft Foundation


A simple conventional and approximate approach
Find resultant of the columns loads, R, and
its eccentricities, ex and ey,
Y

Stress Dist. under Raft Foundation


Find stress distribution under the raft
q = R/A + Mxy/Ix +Myx/Iy
where Mx = Rey and My = Rex
then, q = R[1/A + ey / zx + ex / zy] qall
Where zx = LB2/ 6, zy= BL2/ 6
Y

q1

q2

ey

ex

ey

ex
L

q3

L1

q4

Design of Strips

Divide the Raft


Divide the raft
into vertical and
horizontal strips
such that
the columns are
on centerline of
the strip,

L3

L2

L4

B1
B2
B3

B4
L

Design each strip as a


continuous beam.
draw shear and
bending moment
diagram
Q = kg fn l, and
M=fnl2/km,
fn = P/area .!!!???
Which Ps
Recall previous slide!!

B1
B2
B3
B4

P13

P14

P15

P16

l
fn
0.6 0.5
Kg
Km

12

16
-10

12

Loads and Reactions on the Strip

Loads and Reactions on the Strip

P13

B4

The sum of fn over the strip


should equal to the sum of
the column loads.
due to developed shear
between the adjacent strips,
{strip area} fn Cls loads
along the strip.

P14

P15

P
P13 14

column load modification factor is


fn

Wide beam from shear diagram at distance d/2 from the


column face.
punching shear is evaluated similar to spread footing.
From the moment diagrams of all strips in the direction of
interest (that is x, or y),
obtain the maximum positive and negative moments per unit
width
(i.e., M` =M/B4)
design for the steel reinforcement

B.M.D

qav

q3

P13+P14 +P15 +P16]


fn = qav,modified = average load /LB4, B

Design of Shear and Rnfcmt

S.F.D

average load = [qavLB4 +

q3

fn

qav =
[q3+q4]

P16

f = average load/[P13+P14 +P15


q4

q4

P15

P16

fP15

fP13 fP14

+P16]

fP16

fn

Example 3.12
a plan of a mat foundation.
All columns are 50 60cm2.
qall,net is 50kPa.
Check the soil pressure
under the mat.
The given loads are ultimate,
the load factor is 1.5
{i.e., Pu =1.5Pservice}.

0.25m

0.3m

8m

y`

8m

400kN
500kN

7m

400kN
1500 kN

1500 kN
1200 kN

7m

1200 kN

1500 kN
1200 kN

7m

500 kN
300 kN

400 kN
0.3m

0.25m

16.5m

21.6m

fn = P/area

Solution Stress Dist. under Raft


y`

8m

0.25m

400kN

500kN

1200 kN
1200 kN
1200 kN

ey
ex

26.5kPa

300 kN

16.5m

Loads and Reactions on the Strip


8m

4.25m
E

0.3m

y`

8m

8m

0.25m

4.25m
B

strip AEGD
qav = [qA+ qD] = {33.28 + 30. 34}
= 31.81kPa

400kN
500kN
1500 kN

400kN
1500 kN

Ave. load = [qav strip area + Pin strip]

1200 kN

1500 kN
7m

1200 kN

21.6m

7m

0.3m

1200 kN

500 kN

q = R/A + Mxy/Ix +Myx/Iy

33.3kPa
0.25m

Soil pressure under the foundation,


qo, for the ultimate design,
= load factor qall,net = 1.5 50 =
75kPa

500 kN

7m

Solution
Step 1: S.F.D and B.M.D
for the Strips
Divide the mat into three
strips; AEGD, EFHG, and
FBCH

29.4kPa

30.4kPa

Example 3.13
In example 3.12,
design the reinforcement in
the y-direction.
fcu=20MPa, fy =360MPa.

ex= -0.3m
33.3kPa
My =10600 [-0.3]=0.3]=-3200kN.m
A
ey = 0.1m
R
Mx =10600 [0.1]= 1100kN.m
stress distribution under the raft

1500 kN

21.6m

Example
3.12
q = R/A + Mxy/I
x +Myx/Iy
where Mx = Rey and My =
0.25m
8m
Rex
A= 16.5 12.5 = 354.75m2 0.3m
400kN
Ix= BL3/12 =16.5 21.63 /
7m
12 = 13,665 m4
1500 kN
3
Iy= LB /12 = 21.6 16.53 /
7m
12 = 8050 m4
1500 kN
R=
3[400]+3[1500]+3[1200]+3 7m
00 +2[500]
400 kN
= 10600kN
0.3m

300 kN

400 kN

H
16.5m

= [31.814.2521.6+ 2400+21500]
30.4kPa
=3353.32kN
fn = qav,modified = average load /strip area =
3353.3/ [4.2521.6] =36.7kPa

400kNE
1500 kN
1500 kN
400 kN G
D

4.25m

21.6m

Soil Pressure, S.F.D and B.M.D for Strip AEGD


Example 3.13

Loads and Reactions on the Strip


A

353kN

strip AEGD

400kNE

1323kN

353kN

1323kN

739kN

cl ld modification factor is

1323kN

f = average load/ Pin strip


=3353.32/3800=0.8824

353kN
fn =36.7kPa

1500 kN

21.6m

275kN

400 kN G

506.6kN

B.M.D

4.25m

Check on Footing Depth for Wide Beam


Shear and Punching Example 3.13

0.3m

y`

8m

0.25m

400kN
500kN

7m
1500 kN

400kN
1500 kN

1200 kN

7m

1200 kN

1200 kN

500 kN
300 kN

400 kN
0.3m

16.5m

21.6m

7m
1500 kN

739kN

311kN.m

1360kN.m

8m

506.6kN

S.F.D

f = 0.8824

0.25m

353kN

156kN/m`

1500 kN

fn = qav,modified =36.7kPa

For the given layout of


columns739kN
on the mat and
the obtained S.F.D,
the edge column of
1500kN gives critical
punching stresses than
those given by wide beam
shearing.

1323kN

675kN.m

275kN