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Carried By A Foundation

- Karl Terzaghi, 1943

The problems of soil mechanics can be divided

into two principal groups - stability problems

and elasticity problems

In other sense: STRESS & STRAIN

Stress

Ultimate stress

settlement

Strain

Terzaghi was among the earliest to

investigate soil behavior under loading.

He proposed a soil mechanism at failure

under loading

foundation safely.

*influence of footing stresses

extend to 4B

D

*soil should be of

suitable BEARING CAPACITY.

CAPACITY.

Otherwise,

seek deep foundation

to reach strong layer

p

qo =p/BL

BL

5B 0.02qo

Deep foundation; D/B 4.

to estimate

the limiting shearing resistance,

Or

the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil to foundation

load.

qult

a strip one

to assume plane stress and strain.

=45o+/2

passive

active

Transition

H=B/2tan

dz = {(D

Pp=

H 2

2

Strip Footing

qu = c N c + 1 D N q + B 2 N

2B)

Generalized soil strength : c, Soil unit weight : 2 (total or

effective as applicable)

(drainage as applicable)

3=Df+z

+ z )k p + 2c k p dz

Pp

R

B/2.qult

k p + D f k p + 2cH k p

2k p

k p k p B k p2

+ k p + D f

+

kp q

c

4 cos

cos

cos

= ult

qult= cN c + D f N q +BN

B/2.H/2

Pv

R=Ppcos.cos

Pv =Rsin

c.B/2cos

Pv =Rsin

C,

1 D

z

1

2- Transition zone, between the active and

passive zones.

3- Passive zone, near the ground surface, just

beside the foundation.

Overburden

=45o-/2

qult =

qult = c Nc Cohesion Term

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq

Above F.L.

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + B 2 N

Below F.L.

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + B 2 N

0 5

Nc

5 6.5 8.5 11 15

Nq

10

15 20

1 1.5 2.5 4

N -

.5

22.5 25

17.5 20.5 25

30 37

46 58

6.5 8

10.5 14

18 25

33 46

4.5

10 15

23 34

Nc

40

in

in Degrees

Degrees

Nq

30

20

10

0

70

60

50

40

Nc and Nq

(kN/m2)

Nc, Nq, N = bearing capacity factors,

c, q, =shape factor,

= 1, for strip footing,

c, q, = 1+0.3B/L,

= 1-0.3B/L,

L = length of foundation.

30

20

10

10

20

5.0 1.0

40

60

80

qult = cNcc +1`DfNqq + 2`BN

(kN/m2)

This qult includes the possible existed overburden pressure.

Excluding this existing overburden pressure, the net qult has to

be obtained. i.e.,:

qult,gross = qult, net +1` Df,

or

qult, net = qult,gross, - 1`Df

qall, net = qult,net/F.S

Effect of the G.W.T

Case of Loading

F.S

1) Ordinary dead and live loads 2.5

2) 1) + wind and dynamic loads 2

3) 2) + earthquake and any catastrophic

problem

1.8

c,

c, soil

1

PF.L

Df

2

Bearing capacity is function on the effective stresses.

The effective unit weight is considered .

If the G.W.T is located behind the slipping circle

[approximately, after depth B from the F.L],

it does not affect .

Case I

1. Modify D

2. Calculate as follows:

= w

Case II

Case III

1. No change in zD

1. No change in zD

2. Calculate as follows:

2. No change in

Dw D

B

= w 1

i= (1.0 - / )2

The shearing strength of soil

usually increases with depth

[where every thing is the same].

dq = 1.0 - 2tan (1-sin)2 tan-1(Df/B),

d= 1.0

Correction Factors, ic, iq, and i are

empirically determined from experiments

(Df/B) only

Ultimate Bearing Capacity s

qult = cNccicdc + 1DfNqqiqdq + 2BNid (kN/m2)

Nq =1, and N =0.0,

For square footing, c = 1.3, then

qult = 6.5c +1`DfNqq

qult, net = 6.6c +1`Df (Nq q 1)

Since Nq =1,

qult, net 6.5c,

Unconfined compression strength for normally

consolidated clay, qu = 2c.

for F.S =2.5, qall,net

Example

A footing 1.8 m x 2.5 m is located at a

depth of 1.5 m below the ground

surface, in an over-consolidated clay

layer. The groundwater level is 2 m

below the ground surface. The

unconfined compressive strength of

that clay is 120 kPa, bulk = 18 kN/m3,

and sat = 20 kN/m3. Determine the net

allowable bearing capacity.

(kN/m2)

= 1.3 qu qu

Solution

qult = c Nc c + 1 D Nq q + B 2 N

For Clay: Nc = 5.0, Nq = 1.0, N = 0.0

qu = 120 kPa,

For Clay: qult, net

= c Nc

Loading

L B

is reduced to

L`

L`B`,

where:

L`=LL`=L-2eL,

B`=BB`=B-2eB

L

eL

eB

B`

L`

P

P = q1 A 1 = q 1 B 1 L 1

B1

q1

q2

B2

P = q2 A 2 = q 2 B 2 L 2

2B

allowable

bearing capacity

for layer 1

q2 is less than the allowable

bearing capacity

for layer 2, and

so on

soft clay

to be distributed within

layer (1).

the slop of distributing :

1horizontal : 2vertical until

layer 2.

bearing capacity of layer 2 is

to be checked for imaginary

footing with dimension

(B+h1)(L+h1).

Df

BL

Layer 1

h1

(B+h1)(L+h1)

Layer 2

Shallow Foundation

Foundation

Type

Clay

Sand

Spread

Mat (more rigid)

100mm

150mm

70mm

100mm

1:150 for skeleton and bearing-wall buildings

For more details:

Immediate Settlement

*can be estimated by elastic theory

*concept similar to a compression of a bar under

axial load.

*Immediate settlement is important for sandy soil

Time

Immediate

= Bqo

Consolidation (primary)

Secondary compression (creep)

Settlement

Consolidation Settlement

s =

C H

P + P

log

1+ e

P

c

Cc = compression index,

= 0.009(L.L 10) for NC clay

Hc = thickness of the consolidated layer,

eo = initial void ratio of the consolidated layer,

po = average effective overburden pressure on the midline

of the consolidated layer,

p =

qo

(1 + z/B)(1+ z/L)

1-

I

Es

= immediate settlement,

qo = footing pressure at the F.L,

I = an index depends on the rigidity, and shape of the footing [see E.C.

Sec. 3/4/5/2],

Es = Modulus of elasticity, Table 2.2.

, Poisson ratio is 0.5 for soft clay, and is taken =0.3 for sand or silt.

Consolidation Settlement

s = mv.p.Hc

mv = coefficient of volume change,

Example 2.2

Solution

s =

soil formation is 4m sand deposit, followed by

5m soft clay.

F.L. is at 1.5m.

G.W.T is at 5.0m from G.S.

Sand: b = 18.6 kN/m3.

Clay: sub = 8.8 kN/m3, L.L = 60%, WC = 30%,

Gs = 2.65.

Proportion a footing such that the consolidation

settlement is not over 40mm.

40mm

Solution

s =

C H

P + P

log

1+ e

P

c

Po depends on the footing size

Relationship is nonlinear,

Then, several trials are required.

B is assumed values such as 1.5, 3.0, and

4.0m.

s is determined for each B.

The results of s versus B is plotted to

find the required footing size.

P + P

C H

log

1+ e

P

c

Po depends on the footing size

Relationship is nonlinear,

Then, several trials are required.

B is assumed values such as 1.5, 3.0, and

4.0m.

s is determined for each B.

The results of s versus B is plotted to

find the required footing size.

Solution

PCc

C Hconsolidated

P +clay,

For normally

=

s

l

og

= 0.009(L.L 10) = 0.45

1+ e

P

For saturated soil,

c

eo = WC Gs = 0.3 2.65

= 0.795

50

mm

Foe

40square footing,

qo = Column load / B2,

30

p =

(1 + z/B)(1

B, m + z/L)

1.0

Df = 1.5m

B2

sand

2.5m

5m soft clay

= 96.4 kN/m2

footing

neighbor old footing

new footing

settlement curve

Isolated footing

Combined Foundation

Wall-Bearing Footing

Strip footing

Raft Foundation

Foundation Stability

Foundation should be safe against :

i) overturning {eccentric column},

ii) bouncing {GWT much above FL},

iii) sliding {horizontal load},

iv) shearing failure of soil {qo > qall},

v) excessive or differential settlement

Isolated footing is simple.

Load pressure is less than soil bearing

capacity.

Usually it is a square one.

If there is bending moment,

a rectangular footing is more

appropriate.

Sec. 3.2

Reinforced Concrete Design for

Foundation

Based on Ultimate Strength

Design, USD

I)

or BL = PF.L/qall, gross

B2

1.15 Pcl.

Pcl is the column load.

OR

BL = Pc.L/qall, net

Pcl

BL

RC PF.L tc

qall at F.L

to the closest 5 or 10cm

Pcl

R.C,

plain concrete base can be

used.

tc is taken 30 cm for

Pcl400kN,

and 40cm otherwise.

t R.C

tc PC

pressure qco, from the R.C

footing is distributed with 45o

in the P.C footing

B*L*, for R.C footing

is reduced by projection

a=(0.8-1)tc

a

B* = B -2a, and

L*= L-2a

Pcl

B*L*

t qco R.C BL

tc PF.L PC

qo, =PF.L/B L

The critical section is

at the face of the R.C foundation

{tensile stresses due to bending}

MP.C = (qo)u1a2/2

[for one meter width]

fct = MP.C/z

z= 1tc2/6

Concrete

(mm)

Pcl

B*L*

t qco R.C BL

tc PF.L PC

reinforcement of the foundation

should be assigned.

(qo)u

0.6 f cu

400 2/ tc2 600

a/tc =

1.3

1.6

f ct

3 qo

flexure and shear.

1.7

Pcl

Pu = 1.4D.L +1.6L.L

Pu = 1.5P {if P is only known}

contact pressure at the reinforced concrete base

qco = Pcl,u/B*L*

t qco R.C BL

tc PF.L PC

of the footing, t,

t 30cm. Steel cover 5cm.

B*L*

critical section is at distance d/2;

qcu = 0.16

f cu

qwide beam

The shearing force is

qcoB*s and

the sheared area is B* d.

N/mm2

Pcl, u is the ultimate column load

qco = Pcl,u/B*L*

PPl cl

qco

qco

Mu is at the critical section

B*L*

Mu = qcol2/2

s

d/2 s B*

b`l`

min

Critical

moment

Ru - R

Example

fy =240, design =0.1%

1.1/ fy = 0.46%

1.3 design = 0.13%

min is the least between 0.13% and 0.46%

min = 0.13%

However, min 0.25%

Then take =0.25%

Ru = Mu /bd2

coefficient R = Mu / bd2 {fcu/c} = Ru /{fcu/c}

fcu is the characteristic strength of concrete,

c Strength reduction factor for concrete = 1.5.

To avoid brittle failure, R, and , should

not exceed Rmax , and max, respectively.

280

360

400

450

Rmax

0.206

0.194

0.187

0.180

7.00

5.00

4.31

3.65

0.214

max/10-4fcu 8.56

f

ld =

1.2

That is the least No. of bars is 5/m

360

25

43

50

48

54

30

39

46

44

49

35

36

42

41

45

40

34

40

38

43

45

32

37

36

40

57

54

48

44

41

38

36

34

The

is

from 45

the Code

Eq.

400 equation

63

60 simplified

54

49

43 ECCS

40

40 4.46.

should be taken from the critical section of moments.

Fcu (N/mm2)

18

20

51

48

59

56

57

54

63

60

cu

cu

fy

N/mm2

240

280

360

400

2

Coefficient

Stresses

areofin

MPa,

or with

N/mm

Multiplier

for

Tension Bars

Straight .ends

f

F (N/mm )

N/mm

is 18the diameter

rfrmt

20

25

30 of the

35

40

45 bar.

50

240

51

48

43

39

36

34

32

31

280

ld 300mm

(360/520)

59

56for steel

50 grades

46

42

40 and

37 (400/600)

36

y

50

31

36

34

40

uniformly.

Reinforcement in the short direction is Distributed

L*

B*

[L*-B*] B*

Distribute the rest of Ast

[L*-B*]

distribute Asm = Ast[2B*/[L*+B*]]

footing with the area, b`l`, [b`l`].

section against punching shear, qcup is:

punching force = Pcl,u qco b`l`

Pcl, u is the ultimate column load

qco = Pcl,u/B*L*

punching stress qp = {Pcl,u qco b`l`}/bod

bo is perimeter of the punching area

c

f cu

qcup do not exceed 0.316 c

punching stress qp< qcup

qp = {Pcl,u qco b`l`} /bod

b`l`

b`l`

b`l`

1:1 d/2

b`l`

bo= 2[b`+l`]

of the column on the footing is:

A

b,all = 0.67 f Aclf

Af is the footing area symmetrical with

the column Acl.

Af

cu

Af is the

footing area

Af=Acl

b = Pcl,u/Acl

if b > b,all, Use dowels, As,dowel

at least four bars regardless of the

bearing stress.

The size of the dowels should be at least

as the {size of bars -4mm}.

Dimension

P.C. design

Pu

Contact pressure

check for : wide beam shear

Punching

Bearing

Rnfmt

ld

detail

Step 1: Choose Footing Area

qall, net = 275 ave d

Assume soil = 17kN/m3, and footing thickness, t, is 0.5m.

Then, average unit weight of soil and concrete, ave is

[17

[171.5+2.5

1.5+2.50.5]/2 = 19 kN/m3

Pcl

qall, net = 275 19 2 = 237 kN/m3

RC PF.L tc

2

BL

B L = 1280/237 = 5.4 mOR

2 1280=1472 kN

at F.L =1.15

=1.15

P

=1.15

=1.15

cl Choose

2.35Pcl

2.35m

2

Area

of

footing

=1408/q

A = 5.52m O.K.

all,gross

= 1472/275 = 5.35m2

Choose 2.35 2.35m2

A = 5.52m2 O.K.

Example 3.1

400400mm transmits an axial

loading of 1280kN {800L.L and 480D.L} to a thick

soil stratum of sandy gravel.

The permissible safe pressure on the foundation

soil has been determined as 275 kN/m2.

the foundation level is 2.00m below the G.S.

Design a suitable reinforced concrete footing {fcu

=25N/mm2, fy =360N/mm2}.

Equations of Wide Beam, Ex. 3.1

Pu= 1.4D.L +1.6L.L = 1.4 480 +1.6 800 =

1952kN

Contact pressure with soil, qo =1952/5.52 =

0.35N/mm2

Q = q B s

assuming t = 500mm,

Cover = 75mm, then

d = 425mm,

Equations of Wide Beam, Ex. 3.1

Pcl

column 400

400400mm

= [0.353 2350 762.5] / [2350 425]

= 0.634N/mm2

d=425mm

qo= 0.353N/mm2

1175mm

2350mm

d/2

Step 3

= 762.5mm,

Q = qo Bs

qcu = 0.16[fcu/c]=0.652N/mm2

qcu > q wide beam

O.K

= 0.3532350762.5

Pcl

column 400

400400mm

d=425mm

punching is square with

dimension

400 + 425 = 825mm

Qpun =1952 - 353 0.8252

= 1685kN

qo= 0.353N/mm2

bunching

shear

Step 3

sec.d

=1685 1000 / {4 825 425}

=1.17 N/mm2

Permissible punching shear in

concrete, qcup

f

= 0.315 [0.5+b/l] c

0.5 + b/l = 1.5 take 1

825mm2

qcup = 1.29N/mm2

> qpun O.K

400400mm2

cu

d/2

1:1 d/2

d=425mm

Step 4:

{Af/Acl} = 2.352 2

0.4

= 5.875 .

.

Take =2

b,all = 0.67 25 2 / 1.5 = 22.333 N/mm2

Bearing stress of the column,

b = 1952 1000 / 4002

= 12.3N/mm

12.3N/mm2 < b,all O.K

ld=

1.2

cu

360

= 16 1.15

25

1.2

1.5

= 1020mm

Table 3.3 can give the multiplier directly for

fcu = 25 MPa, fy = 360MPa, as:

ld = 48

48 = 48 16 = 768mm

Notice The footing depth and breadth allow for the

required development length of the dowels

Step 4:

at least four bars.

Ast,dowel= 0.005 1600 = 8cm2

Choose 416mm,

area = 8.04 cm2

16mm,

{The size of the dowels should be at

least as the size of bars -4mm.}

Ex.3.1

Pcl

l=1175-200=975mm

Critical

moment

Moment of the contact pressure about the

critical sec.=

Mu = qol2/2

Mu = 353

3530.9752/2= 167.9 kN.m/m`

Adopting the approach of Chart 22-1

2

2

Ru = Mu/bd =167.9/[1

167.9/[10.425 ] = 929kN/m2 =

2

0.93N/mm

For fcu =25N/mm

25N/mm2 and fy =360 N/mm2 and

for the given Ru, =0.3%

0.3%

Ex.3.1

Ex. 3.1

Check for R or maxfrom Table 3.1

Rmax for fy =360 N/mm2 is 0.194

R = Mu /{fcu/c}bd2 = Ru/{fcu/c}

= 0.93 / {25 / 1.5} = 0.056 < 0.194 O.K

[ i.e., no need for compression steel]

[1.1fy] or [1.3 design].

min 0.15% for high tensile steel.

That is min is least of 0.305% or 1.3 0.3% = 0.39%

minimum rfmt ratio is 0.305%

min

Choose 6 18mm/m` .

Area = 15.27cm

15.27cm2 in the two direction

The development length

ld = 48

48 = 48 18 = 864mm

dowels

416mm

Column

stirrups

50cm

F.L (-2.00)

2.352.35m2

618mm/m`

Example 3.2

Solve Example 3.1

if a P.C footing is

required under the R.C.

one.

(fcu)P.C = 18 N/mm2

Pcl

B*L*

R.C qco t

PC PF.L tc

BL

Step 1: Choose Footing Area

From Example 3.1,

P.C. footing can have the dimension of 2.35 2.35 m2

Recall:

qo =PF.L/[BL]

Check the tensile stress

in P.C. footing

P

=

P

+

weights

of

soil

and

F.L

cl

[Design for the projection a of

thefootings

R.C footing]

= 1280 + 5.52 2 av

= 1280 + 5.52 2 19 = 1490 kN

qo =1408/5.52

The ultimate

at F.L

= 1.4 D.L

Steploading

1: Choose

Footing

Area+ 1.6 L.L

D.L = 400 + 5.52 2 190.6= 690

f cu kN

fct = MP.C /z

(Pu)F.L = 1.4 690 + 1.6

800= 2246kN

z =1 t2 / 2

(qo)u = 2246 / 5.52 = 406. 9 kN/mm2 = 0.4

2 a2 / 2

MP.C =N/mm

(qo)u1

Assume ..tc =40cm

0.6 18

1.6

0 .6 f

cu

= 1.59 N/mm2

ct

1.59

a/tc

3 qo =

30.4 = 1.151

2 ..

The

R.C.

be taken

1.45m

.

a =footing

46 cm.canTake

a =21.45

45cm

area = 2.1025m

O.K

MP.C = qo 1 a2 / 2

fct = MP.C / z

0.4N/mm2

Z=1 t2 /2

fct = qsoil 3 a2 / tc2 0.4N/mm2 ,

qsoil=266.2kN/m2 = 0.27N/mm2

a/tc 0.133/qsoil = 0.7 take a=25cm.

The R.C. footing can be taken 1.8 1.8m2 ..

area=3.24m2

Equations of Wide Beam, Ex.3.2

From Ex. 3.1, Pu = 1952kN

Contact pressure between P.C. and R.C, qco

= 1952 / 2.10 = 928kN/m2 = 0.93N/mm2

Q=qBs

assuming t = 500mm,

Cover =75mm, then

d=425mm,

s = [145 40 - 42.5] = 30cm,

Step 3

dimension 400 + 450 = 850mm

Qpun =1952 930 0.8502 = 1280kN

1280kN

qpun =Q/perimeter of the sec.

sec.d

=1280 1000 / {4 850 450} = 0.835N/mm

0.835N/mm2

As in Example 3.1, Permissible punching

shear in concrete, qcup = 1.285N/mm

1.285N/mm2 > qpun

O.K

Equations of Wide Beam, Ex.3.2

Assume footing thickness, t, is 0.5m.

With P.C. base, cover can be taken 50 mm,

then d = 45mm.

q wide bem =Q / B d

= [0.93 1450 300] / [1450 450] = 0.62N/mm2

Maximum concrete shear strength qcu = 0.16

= 0.652 N/mm2

qwide beam < qcu O.K

f cu

Ex. 3.2

Moment of the contact pressure about the

critical sec.=

Mu = qco l2/2

L = 1.45 / 2 - 0.4/2 = 0.525m

Mu = 930 0.5252 / 2 = 128.2kN.m/m`

128.2kN.m/m`

Adopting the approach of Chart 22-1

2

2

Ru = Mu/bd =128.2 / [1 0.45 ] = 633kN/m2

= 0.63N/mm2

For fcu = 25N/mm

25N/mm2 and fy = 360 N/mm2 and

for the given Ru, = 0.15%

Check for R or max

R = Mu /{fcu/c}bd2

= 0.63 / {25 / 1.5} = 0.04< 0.194 O.K

[ i.e., no need for compression steel]

design = 0.15%

Then, 1.3 design = 0.195%

min is the least of {1.1/360} = 0.305% or 0.195%

Ast = 0.195% 100 45 = 8.77 cm2

Choose 5 16mm/m` .

Area= 10.05 cm2 in the two direction

ld = 768 mm

dowels

416mm

Column

stirrups

50cm

F.L (-2.00)

40cm

516mm/m

`

1.451.45

2.352.35m2

Offsetting the column from the centroid to

decrease the Very large variation in pressure due

to bending

50cm

50cm

2.35 2.35m2

Cost

=2.35 2.35 0.4 170+

1.45 1.45 0.5 800

= 1215. 0LE

2.35 2.35m2

Cost

=2.35 2.35 0.5 800

= 2209.0LE

45% saving

Note:

Only applicable if the moment is fixed in direction.

The wind loading is reversible

The column is off-center by distance e.

Soil reaction to these cases of loading is:

qsoil =

qall

P

6 e

1

B L

L

e

Soil does not sustain tensile stresses.

the footing would separate from the soil.

the separated part would not be effective in

bearing on the soil.

P

qmax B L`/2 = P,

L`=3(L/2-e)

2P

qmax=

3B( L / 2 e )

Loading

PP

L B

is reduced to

L`

L`B`,

where:

L`=LL`=L-2eL,

B`=BB`=B-2eB

L

eL

B`

L`

Remember:

Inclination factor in the bearing capacity

equation.

the footing is designed for the stability

against sliding.

The horizontal force is resisted by the soil

cohesion [if any], and friction.

H P tan + c Af

L`

L`/3=L/2-e

R=P

R=P

eB

qmax

P

LB

Example 3.3

A 5050 column is carrying the following loading:

D.L. = 400kN, L.L. =500kN, MD.L = 230kN.m, ML.L

=250kN.m, HD.L = 40kN, and HL.L=50kN.

The column rnfmt is 825mm.

Design a footing such that the soil pressure will be

approximately uniform.

qall, gross = 150kPa. at F.L. of (-2.00 m).

fcu= 25 MPa, fy=400MPa.

Step 1: Choose Footing Area

Total service load = 400 + 500 = 900kN

qall, net = 150 ave d

Assume ave = 17kN/m3, t= 0.5m.

ave = [17 1.5 + 2.5 0.5] / 2 = 19 kN/m3

qall, net = 150 19 2 = 112 kN/m3

B L = 900 / 112 = 8.04 m2

Choose 2.85 2.85m2

A = 8.125m2 O.K.

pressure is requested.

moment = [230 + 250] = 480kN.m.

also H increases the moment at the F.L by H t.

1.425

M = 480kN.m

480 + 90 0.5 = 525kN.m

then:1.425

e = M / P900kN

0.975 0.45

F.L

2.85

90kN

PF.L = column

load and weights of soil and

0.5

footings

0.5

e=0.45m

= 900 + 8.125

[0.525 +1.517] = 900 +

308.75 = 1208.75 kN

e = 525/1209 = 0.434 m 0.45 m

Equations of Wide Beam

1.425

480kN.m

900kN

1.425

0.975 0.45

90kN

e=0.45m

2.85m

.425/2

0.5

0.5

s= 2.6-[0.7+0.5/2 +0.425/2]=1.4375m

Critical

sec. for

wide beam

Step 4: Check for Bearing

The critical sec. for punching

is square with dimension

500 + 425 =925mm

1-1

0.975

0.45

.212

.7250.5

2.85

Critical sec.

for punching

Moment should be

calculated at sec

secs 22-2 & 33-3.

Af

Example 3.4

A column loading estimated at the F.L is

PD+L=1.8MN, MD+L=1MN.m, and qall,gross = 0.25MPa

Proportion a footing for the column to be centric

Solution

Step 1: Choose Footing Area

Proportion of P.C footing (B, L, tc)

M

1

e=

=

= 0.555m

p 1. 8

3-3

0.5

Af = 1.95 1.95m2

2-2

Ex. 3.4

L > 6 e

Assume L = 6 e + 0.8

L = 6 0.555 + 0.8 = 4.13 m

Take L = 4.2m

qall= 0.25 =

P

6e

1

BL

L

Example 3.5

6 0.555

2

(1 +

)

4B

4 .2

the R.C footing in Example 3.4,

if the column is 40 60.

{fcu = 25N/mm2, fy = 360N/mm2}.

0.25 =

B = 3.575m

Take

L = 4m, B = 3.6m, and tc= 40cm

Proportion of R. C footing (B*, and L*)

Assume

a = tc = 40cm

Solution

Step 1: Choose Footing Area

From Example 3.4, L*= 3.4m, and B*= 2.8m

Pcl = PF.L - weight of the P.C, R.C footings, and soil

Assume t = 500mm,

Pcl = 1.8 1000 4.2 3.6 {0.424 + 0.5 25 + 1.1

17}

Pu=1.5 1.183 = 1.775MN

= 1183 kN

Contact pressure with the P.C footing,

qo=

P

6e

1

BL

L

e = Mu / pu 0.555

q1o= 0.373MPa, and

q2o 0.0MPa

s=1600-300-425/2=1087.5mm

1600mm

q1o= 0.59MPa,

q3o= 0.37 - (0.373 - 0.0)

1175

3400

d/2

= 0.243Mpa

Q = qav B s

=[0.243 + 0.373] 2.8 1.175 / 2

q3o

q1o

qwide beam = Q / B d

s

=

1700

300

45/2

=

1175mm

2

= 0.8N/mm

600400mm2

q2o

q1o

Safety?

1700mm

3400mm

Shear, Ex. 3.5

Maximum concrete shear strength qcu =

0.16[fcu/c] = 0.652N/mm2

qwide beam >

qcu

increase d to 550mm

s = 1125.0mm, and

1125

q3o= 0.373 - (0.373 - 0.0)

3400

= 0.25Mpa

q wide beam = 0.637 N/mm2 < qcu O.K

Step 4

Step 3

rectangle with dimension

[400 + 550] [600 + 550]

=950 1150mm

1:1 d/2 d

b`l`

q4o

qav under the critical sec.

= [0.373] = 0.186MPa = 186kPa

Qpun = 1775 - 186 0.950 1.150

= 1593kN

1MN.m

2.83.4m2

1.8MN

0.40.6m

1.4m

1.2m

q3o

MI-I

MII-II

I- in the long-direction

1400

3400

=0.218Mpa

0.218 (1.4) 2

Mu =

+

2

2

(0.37 - 0.218)

(1.4)

3

0.40.6m

1.2m

1.4m

Mu =

0.186 (1.2) 2

2

= 0.134MN.m/m`

= 0.315 MN.m

0.37MPa

ql =0.22MPa

The masonry walls

are not monolithically erected

with the footings.

That is why the critical section for

continuous wall is inside the wall

at distance b/4. ,

Wall bearing footing is only designed

for wide beam shearing and rfmt.

punching and bearing is safe

b

b/4

Example 3.6

It is required to design a load bearing wall .

L.L= 45kN/m`,

D.L= 20kN/m`,

wall thickness = 25cm,

qall,gross = 100kN/m2,

F.L at 1.5m below G.S,

fy = 360N/mm2, and fcu =25 N/mm2.

Example 3.6

Example 3.6

Solution

Step 1: Choose Footing Area

Pcl at F.L = 1.15 Pcl =1.15 [45 + 20]

= 74.75 kN/m`

Area of footing = 74.75/qall = 71.5/100

= 0.75m2/m`

Choose B =1.0m

Reinforcement, Ex. 3.6

moment

b/4

43.5cm

1m

about the critical sec.=

Mu = qco l2/ 2

The critical section for continuous wall is inside

the wall at distance b/4.

l= 1.0 / 2 - 0.25 / 4 = 0.435m

Mu = 100 0.4352/ 2 = 9.57 kN.m/m`

Wide Beam

Pu= 100kN/m`

qo =100/1 =100kN/m2 = 0.1N/mm2

Q=qBs

The wide beam shear is

taken in the transverse direction

for one meter width.

assuming t = 300mm, cover = 75mm, then d = 225mm.

s = [100 25 - 22.5]= 26.25cm,

Ru = Mu/bd2 = 9.57 / [1 0.2252] = 188.7kN/m2

= 0.189N/mm2

For fcu = 25N/mm2 and fy = 360 N/mm2

and for the given Ru,

is less than the minimum (0.05%).

min 0.15% for HTS.

That is min is least of 0.3% or 1.3 0.05%

= 0.065%

Then, use ,min = 0.15%

Choose 5 12mm/m` .

Area= 5.65 cm2/m` in the transverse direction.

Development length of the rfmt ld =12 48

= 576mm > 300mm [for grade 360/520] O.K.

The footing allows for the distance from the column face to

the boundary of the footing and the depth

excluding the cover as development length.

That is [43.5-7.5 + 30 -7.5] =

58.5cm > 57.6cm O.K.

43.5cm

30cm

should be furnished to offset shrinkage and

temperature effects.

Ast,long = 0.15%100 22.5 = 3.375 cm2

Choose 5 12mm

43.5cm

30cm

1m

1m

When columns occur in a line at close interval,

continuous strip footing is developed in the line

of columns

with the other direction considerably short.

30cm

F.L (-2.00)

512mm/m`

1m

structurally acting as an inverted continues beam.

under the footing

The wide beam shear can be checked in the

longitudinal and transverse direction.

longitudinal direction is expected more

critical

M=qnx2/km

x is the panel span, or the distance between the

column axes.

qn is the uniform loading per unit length.

km is the coefficient of bending moment, in

continuous beams

x

-12

24

They are equally loaded with D.L= 200kN, and L.L=

300kN.

It is required to design for a continuous strip

foundation appropriate to a safe soil bearing pressure

of 125kN/m2.

fy = 400N/mm2, and fcu = 30 N/mm2.

A

F

C

4m

10

-16

12

12

Step 1 choosing the footing dimension

Example 3.7

-16

= 2000kN

The base width required, considering 1m end

overhanging.

L = 3 4 + 2 1+ 2 0.15 = 14.3 m

B= 2000 / (14.3 125) = 1.12m

take B =1.25m

depth for Wide Beam Shear

depth for Wide Beam Shear,

Contact pressure with soil,

qo =4 760 / [14.3 1.25] = 170kN/m2

= 0.17N/mm2

Q = 170 1.25 1.6375 = 348kN

qwide beam = 348 / (B d) = 348 / (1.25 0.425)

= 655kN/m2 = 0.651N/mm2

depth for Wide Beam Shear,

Critical sec. for wide beam shear

b/2 d/2 s

50cm

1m

2m

4m

the column is considered to affect

between the centerlines of the span.

s = 2.0 - 0.30 / 2 - 0.425 / 2 =1.6375m

s

b,all = 0.67 [fcu/c]{Af/Acl}

The least footing area is for the first column with

dimension [1m overhanging + 2m half the inner

span]

span]B

That is 3 1.25

This area is not similar with the column

Then take Af = 1.25 1.25

2

Af

= 1.25

= 4.16 .

. Take =2

2

Acl

0. 3

for the longitudinal direction of the footing:

M = qnx2 / km

qn is the uniform loading per unit length.

qn = qo B = 170 1.25 = 212.5kN/m`

x

-12

24

-16

10

12

F

B

MB = ME = 212.5 12 / 2 =106.3kN.m

MBC = MDE =212.5 42 / 12 = 283.5 kN.m

MCD = 212.5 42 / 16 = 212.7kN.m

MC = MD = 212.5 42 / 10 = 340kN.m

-16

12

4m

F

B

= 0.46%

design = 0.46%

Then, 1.3 design = 0.59%

min is the least of {1.1 / 400} = 0.28% or 0.59%

= 0.45% is O.K

4m

12

16

10

D

12

10

For maximum moment condition at support C, and D:

= 0.46%

Ast = 0.46% 125 42.5 = 24.43 cm2

This reinforcement can represent

a proportion of the corresponding moment.

other rnfmt for other sections can be easily obtained.

(Ast)C = 24.43 = 0.07181M

{2}

(Ast)B = (Ast)E = 0.07181MB

= 0.07181 106.3 = 7.51cm2 < Min. rnfmt

(Ast)BC = (Ast)DE = 20.037 cm2

(Ast)CD =15.28 cm2

Check the minimum rnfmt at B and E

(Ru)B = Mu / bd2

= 106.3 / [1.25 0.4252]

= 470.8 kN/m2 = 0.47 N/mm2

= 0.14%

min is the least of

0.275% or 1.3 0.14 = 0.182%

at B and E, min = 0.182%

Min. rnfmt = 0.182% 125 42.5 = 9.66 cm2

At sec. x-x, Mu,transverse = wn btransverse l2 / 2

= 839 0.725 0.4752/2 = 68.6 kN.m

Ru = Mu/bd2 = 523.7 kN/m2 = 0.523 N/mm2

= 0.16%

min = 0.208%

Ast = 0.208% 72.5 42.5 = 6.4 cm2

Choose 416mm / 72.5cm . Area = 8.04 cm2

transverse direction

occurs at the column location with breadth

btransverse = [b + d] = 0.3 + 0.425 = 0.725m.

Soil pressure is assumed concentrated

under this breadth

with intensity = Pu / {B btransverse}.

This direction is called hidden beam.

wn =760 / {1.25 0.725}

= 839 kN/m2

Minimum stirrups of 5

58mm/m` to hold rnfmt,

and protect concrete from effects of shrinkage and

temperature.

622mm

12

622mm

1250mm

75mm cover

622mm

58mm/m`

500mm

x

622mm

16

10

722mm

618mm

1250mm

the development

length, ld = 49 = 882mm.

475mm 300 x 475

500mm

btransverse

618mm

416mm/72.5cm

722mm

For weaker soils, the size of each footing

increases and approach adjacent base.

Two or more columns form a combined footing.

near the property line

at the center of a spread footing

the geometrical C.G of

footing

result in nonuniform soil pressure

To avoid this nonuniformity, the footing is enlarged to

include one or more of the adjacent columns in the

same line.

BASIC

ASSUMPTION

rectangular combined

footing is rigid member

soil pressure is linear

C.G of loads coincides with

the geometrical C.G of

footing

Proportion a P.C, and R.C rectangular combined

footing for the following data:

qall, net = 0.15MPa, and F.L is at 2.5m from G.S.

For column 1 [60 60cm] PL = 0.5 MN, PD = 0.3MN,

For column 2 [60 80 cm] PL =0.8 MN, PD = 0.3MN,

and S = 5m.

Solution

Total load, Pt = 0.5 + 0.3 + 0.8 + 0.3 =1.9MN

Act at the C.L

Example 3.8

rectangular combined

0.8MN

Example 3.8

rectangular combined

1.1MN

S= 5m

y=2.91m

Least L = 2 [y + bcl1] = 2 [2.89 + 0.6] = 6.39m

neighbor

Take L = 6.40m

boundary

A = Pt / qall, net = 1.9 / 0.15 = 12.66 m2

B = 12.66 / 6.40 = 1.98m

Take B = 2.0m

based on the allowable

bearing:

locationyof

resultant of

Usually

ythe

u

location

the resultant

the ultimate

loads

This

violates the

uniform distribution

of theofcontact

pressureof

theultimate

serviceload

loads

Then, find the dimension based on

and

adjustable qall

However, the difference is v. small and can be neglected.

P2u

P1

Ru

yu

Ru

resultant of the ultimate loads.

y = 2.89m

P1u

P2u= 1.7MN

L* = L = 6.40m

B* = 2.0 2 0.4 = 1.2m

depth and rnfcmt:

P1u=1.22MN

P2

the resultant of the ultimate loads.

Then, design the footing geometry using qo that is based

on the ultimate loads rather than qall.

P1u

P2u

Ru=P1u+P2u

M1u >> M2u

MP1 = 0

y = [M1u + M2u+ P2u S] / Ru

Ru

L = 2{y + C`}

C`: permissible distance bet. neighbor and column 1

Y y

A= B L = Ru / qo

S L

C`

Y = {y + C`}

If Y < L / 3,

-ve soil pressure may develop at the far end}.

This is not accepted in soils.

soils

y

Y

L

P1u>> P2u

M1u

M2u

Ldesign=2Y

Y

Lgeometry

Ru

y

C`

Critical sections for shear

shear.

P1

P2

S

Lgeometry

If L / 3 < Y < Lgeometry / 2,

Trapezoidal footing

may be adopted

the short {transverse} direction hidden beam,

soil pressures under each column are:

w1 = P1u/B, and w2 =P2u/B. ..[F/L]

Mc1, Mc2 are the bending moments at the critical

sections under columns 1, and 2, respectively

P1

Mc1

B

B

W1=P1u/B

Mmax

the critical moments

Example 3.9

Design a rectangular combined footing for :

For column 1 {interior } [60 60cm]

PL =0.9 MN, PD = 0.8MN,

MD= 0.15MN.m, ML= 0.25MN.m, C`= 0.30m,

For column 2 {exterior} [60 80 cm]

PL =1.1 MN, PD = 0.9MN,

MD= 0.2MN.m, ML= 0.3MN.m, S =5m.

qall = 0.15MPa, fcu = 20MPa, fy =360 MPa

Solution

Step 1: Choose Footing Area

P1u =1.4 D.L + 1.6 L.L = 2.56MN, P2u = 3.02MN,

M1u = 0.61MN.m, M2u =0.76 MN.m

Ru= P1u + P2u = 5.58MN

y

S

L

Rservice = {0.9 + 0.8 +1.1 + 0.9 } 1.1 = 4.07MN

qo = 5.58 0.15 / 4.07 = 0.205 MPa

A = 5.58 / 0.205 = 29.85m2

B = 29.85 / 6.5 = 4.12m .. take 4.2m

qo = 5.58 / [4.2 6.5] = 0.204 MPa

2.56MN

3.02MN

1.2m

5m

0.61MN.m

0.86MN/m`

0.76MN.m

6.5m

d = c1

Mu

fcub

bearing

MP1 = 0

y = [M1u + M2u+ P2u S] / Ru =

2.95m

L = 2{y + C`} = 6.5m

A = B L = Ru / qo

Ru

C

2.98m

qn= 0.2064 4.2 = 0.86MN/m`

2.56MN

0.61MN.m

5m

3.02MN

0.86MN/m`

C = 0.3m S = 5m

B = 4.2m

Critical sec.

6080cm2

for

punching L = 6.5m

1.64 MN

2.43MN.m

0.688MN

S.F.D

2.05MN

0.61MN.m

1.2m

6.5m

Take c1 = 5

d = 0.85 m

0.76MN.m

0.275MN.m

B.M.D

Ru = Mu / bd2 = 2.43 / [4.2 0.852] =

0.8MN/m2 = 2.16N/mm2

For fy = 360N/mm2, and fcu = 20 N/mm2 and for

the given Ru,

= 0.3%

Check for R

R = Mu /{fcu / c}bd2 = 0.8 / {20 / 1.5} = 0.06 <

0.194

No Need for Compression Steel

transverse direction

Under column 1, the breadth of the hidden beam is 0.60 +

0.85 / 2 = 1.025m.

wn1 = 2.56 / 4.2= 0.706MN/m`

M1c = wn1 l2/2 . l=[4.2l=[4.2-.6] / 2 = 1.8m

M1c = 1.15MN.m

= 0.52%

st, transverse,1 = 0.52% 0.825 1.025 = 44 cm2/ 1.025m

choose 9 25 for . Area = 44.18 cm2 O.K

ld = 54 25 = 1350 mm.

min =1.1/360 = 0.305% or 1.3 0.3 = 0.39 %

Min. rnfmt = 0.305% 420 85 = 67.3 cm2

2

2

(Ast)max,max,-ve = 0.305% 420 85 =108.9cm = 25.93 cm /m`

=108.9 / 2. 43 = 44.8M . {1}

Choose 722mm/m`

22mm/m`. Area = 26.61 cm2 for all the

sections.

ld = 54 22 = 1188mm.

1188mm.

Under column 2, the breadth of the hidden

beam is 0.80 + 0.85 = 1.65m.

Continue the solution to find wn2, M2c, and

(Ast)transverse,2.

(Ast)transverse,2 : 46.28 cm2/1.65m = 28.05 cm2/m.

10 25 mm/1.65m Area = 49.09 cm2

temperature, upper direction should be reinforced with

713/m

513/m`

5 13 mm/m` {Area of 6.64 cm 2/m`} is appropriate, all

925/1.03m 722/m`

P1u>> P2u

M1u

M2u

Y

Lgeometry

Ru

y

C`

Ldesign=2Y

722/m`

722/m`

513/m`

513/m`

footing depth.

In the longitudinal direction, minimum rnfmt. to

offset shrinkage and temperature effects.

713/m`

925/1.025m`

1025/1.1m`

1025/1.65m

513/m`

4.2m

6.5m

P1u

M1u

Ru=P1u+P2u

MP1 = 0

y = [M1u +M2u+P2uS]/Ru

Y= {y+C`}

P1u>>P2u

Y<<S

P2u

M2u

P1u>>P2u

Ru

qo

Y

L

Lgeometry

C.G of loads coincides with

the geometrical C.G of

If L / 3 < Y < Lgeometry / 2,

footing

Trapezoidal footing

may be adopted

Usually L is limited.

2B + B

Y= L 2 1

3 B2 + B1

B1

C.G

B2

Y=

L 2 B2 + B1

3 B2 + B1

If Y = L / 3, B2 = 0.0 triangular

Y

L

shape.

Not a practical solution

B1

C.G

Y should be less than L/3

Increase L if possible.

Usually L is limited.

THEN: Strap footing may be adopted

combined with a strap beam.

The strap beam should be rigid enough

to resist rotation of the exterior footing.

B2

uniform soil pressure is assumed under the footings.

The two footings should have same soil pressure to

avoid differential settlement.

Soil reactions, R1, and R2 , are centric in their footing.

R2 coincide with P2,

BUT R1 is not coincide with P1

P1u

P2u

P1u

P2u

e may be assumed to find L, R1 and R2.

For each column, Ri = Bi Li qall,net, [same qall,net].

interior

footing

Take

moment

@ P2 footing is chosen square.

Usually

the interior

R1= P1 S / S` = P1 [S`+ e] / S`

R1 = P1 + P1 e / S`

P2u

P1u

S

R2 = P1+P2 R1

L1 /2 = C`+ e

C`

e

R1

e

R1

R2

L1 /2

S`

R2

Pe

B*e L*e

C`

Pi

e*

R*e

Strap beam

L*e/2

B*i L*i

i

Ri

S*`

e* = L*e / 2 - C`

R*e = Pe S/ S*`

P.C and R.C footings are not symmetrical.

R*i = Pe + Pi R*e

S`* = S - e*

e*, of the R.C footing have to be determined.

qult = cNcc +1DfNqq + 2BN

(kN/m2)

Nq =1, and N =0.0,

For square footing, c = 1.3, then

qult = 6.5c +1`DfNqq

qult, net = 6.6c +1`Df (Nq q 1)

Since Nq =1,

qult, net 6.5c,

Unconfined compression strength for normally

consolidated clay, qu = 2c.

for F.S =2.5, qall,net

= 1.3 qu qu

The footings are to be designed for safety of

shear and bending in a similar manner as for

spread footing.

Bending moment and shear diagrams for the

strap beam are obtained to design for its

depth and reinforcement.

Raft foundation is costly in design and

construction more than spread footing.

The stressed area under the raft is also much

larger.

This will increase settlements unless there is

stress compensation from excavated soil.

stress compensation is that the excavated

soil compensate for the superimposed loads.

[design with: qall,net >

superimposed load

D f

area of foundation

A simple conventional and approximate approach

Find resultant of the columns loads, R, and

its eccentricities, ex and ey,

Y

Find stress distribution under the raft

q = R/A + Mxy/Ix +Myx/Iy

where Mx = Rey and My = Rex

then, q = R[1/A + ey / zx + ex / zy] qall

Where zx = LB2/ 6, zy= BL2/ 6

Y

q1

q2

ey

ex

ey

ex

L

q3

L1

q4

Design of Strips

Divide the raft

into vertical and

horizontal strips

such that

the columns are

on centerline of

the strip,

L3

L2

L4

B1

B2

B3

B4

L

continuous beam.

draw shear and

bending moment

diagram

Q = kg fn l, and

M=fnl2/km,

fn = P/area .!!!???

Which Ps

Recall previous slide!!

B1

B2

B3

B4

P13

P14

P15

P16

l

fn

0.6 0.5

Kg

Km

12

16

-10

12

P13

B4

should equal to the sum of

the column loads.

due to developed shear

between the adjacent strips,

{strip area} fn Cls loads

along the strip.

P14

P15

P

P13 14

fn

column face.

punching shear is evaluated similar to spread footing.

From the moment diagrams of all strips in the direction of

interest (that is x, or y),

obtain the maximum positive and negative moments per unit

width

(i.e., M` =M/B4)

design for the steel reinforcement

B.M.D

qav

q3

fn = qav,modified = average load /LB4, B

S.F.D

q3

fn

qav =

[q3+q4]

P16

q4

q4

P15

P16

fP15

fP13 fP14

+P16]

fP16

fn

Example 3.12

a plan of a mat foundation.

All columns are 50 60cm2.

qall,net is 50kPa.

Check the soil pressure

under the mat.

The given loads are ultimate,

the load factor is 1.5

{i.e., Pu =1.5Pservice}.

0.25m

0.3m

8m

y`

8m

400kN

500kN

7m

400kN

1500 kN

1500 kN

1200 kN

7m

1200 kN

1500 kN

1200 kN

7m

500 kN

300 kN

400 kN

0.3m

0.25m

16.5m

21.6m

fn = P/area

y`

8m

0.25m

400kN

500kN

1200 kN

1200 kN

1200 kN

ey

ex

26.5kPa

300 kN

16.5m

8m

4.25m

E

0.3m

y`

8m

8m

0.25m

4.25m

B

strip AEGD

qav = [qA+ qD] = {33.28 + 30. 34}

= 31.81kPa

400kN

500kN

1500 kN

400kN

1500 kN

1200 kN

1500 kN

7m

1200 kN

21.6m

7m

0.3m

1200 kN

500 kN

33.3kPa

0.25m

qo, for the ultimate design,

= load factor qall,net = 1.5 50 =

75kPa

500 kN

7m

Solution

Step 1: S.F.D and B.M.D

for the Strips

Divide the mat into three

strips; AEGD, EFHG, and

FBCH

29.4kPa

30.4kPa

Example 3.13

In example 3.12,

design the reinforcement in

the y-direction.

fcu=20MPa, fy =360MPa.

ex= -0.3m

33.3kPa

My =10600 [-0.3]=0.3]=-3200kN.m

A

ey = 0.1m

R

Mx =10600 [0.1]= 1100kN.m

stress distribution under the raft

1500 kN

21.6m

Example

3.12

q = R/A + Mxy/I

x +Myx/Iy

where Mx = Rey and My =

0.25m

8m

Rex

A= 16.5 12.5 = 354.75m2 0.3m

400kN

Ix= BL3/12 =16.5 21.63 /

7m

12 = 13,665 m4

1500 kN

3

Iy= LB /12 = 21.6 16.53 /

7m

12 = 8050 m4

1500 kN

R=

3[400]+3[1500]+3[1200]+3 7m

00 +2[500]

400 kN

= 10600kN

0.3m

300 kN

400 kN

H

16.5m

= [31.814.2521.6+ 2400+21500]

30.4kPa

=3353.32kN

fn = qav,modified = average load /strip area =

3353.3/ [4.2521.6] =36.7kPa

400kNE

1500 kN

1500 kN

400 kN G

D

4.25m

21.6m

Example 3.13

A

353kN

strip AEGD

400kNE

1323kN

353kN

1323kN

739kN

cl ld modification factor is

1323kN

=3353.32/3800=0.8824

353kN

fn =36.7kPa

1500 kN

21.6m

275kN

400 kN G

506.6kN

B.M.D

4.25m

Shear and Punching Example 3.13

0.3m

y`

8m

0.25m

400kN

500kN

7m

1500 kN

400kN

1500 kN

1200 kN

7m

1200 kN

1200 kN

500 kN

300 kN

400 kN

0.3m

16.5m

21.6m

7m

1500 kN

739kN

311kN.m

1360kN.m

8m

506.6kN

S.F.D

f = 0.8824

0.25m

353kN

156kN/m`

1500 kN

fn = qav,modified =36.7kPa

columns739kN

on the mat and

the obtained S.F.D,

the edge column of

1500kN gives critical

punching stresses than

those given by wide beam

shearing.

1323kN

675kN.m

275kN

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